PY 355, Exam 2 Notes
PY 355, Exam 2 Notes PY 355
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Charice Corbin on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PY 355 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Craig Walter Cummings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see General Experimenta Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Chapter 4: Approaches to Psychological Measurement Observational Methods – research involving the direct observation of behavior o Three decisions to make: Will the observation occur in a natural or contrived setting? Will the participants know they are being observed? How will the participant’s behavior be recorded? Naturalist vs. Contrived Settings o Naturalistic observation – observation of ongoing behavior as it occurs naturally with no intrusion or intervention by the researcher o Researches observe people or animals in their natural environment and record their behavior o Participation observation – one type of naturalistic observation; researcher engages in the same activities as the people he or she is observing o Contrived observation – behavior is observed in settings that are arranged specifically for observing and recording behavior o Most contrived observations take place in the laboratory; however, some researches set up situations outside of the laboratory to observe people’s reactions Disguised vs. Nondisguised Observation o Should participant know that they are being observed? o Problem with undisguised observation: Reactivity – participants act differently because they know they are being watched o Problems with disguised observation: May violate right of informed consent Potential violation of privacy Ways to minimize reactivity o Potential concealment – participants know that they are being observed but not the specific aspects of behavior being observed o Knowledge informants – people who know the participants well, observe and rate their behavior o Unobtrusive measures – indirect measures that can be taken without participants knowing they are being studied Behavioral Recording o Narrative records – full description of a participant’s behavior o Checklists – researcher records whether particular behaviors or attributes were observed o Measures of Latency Reaction time – the time that elapses between the presentation of a stimulus and the participant’s response Task completion time – the length of time is takes participants to solve a problem or complete a task Interbehavior latency – the time that elapses between two behaviors duration – how long a particular behavior lasts o Observational rating scales – researcher rates the quality of intensity of a certain behavior Increasing the Reliability of Observational Methods o Researchers must have clear and precise operational definitions for all behaviors that will be observed and recorder o Raters should practice using the coding system by comparing and discussing their practice ratings Physiological and Neuroscience Approaches o Neuroscience – a broad, interdisciplinary field that studies biochemical, anatomical, physiological, genetic, and developmental processes involving the nervous system o Cognitive, affective, and behavioral neuroscientists focus on the relationship between physiological processes and psychological phenomena o Five types of psychophysiological and neuroscientific measures Measures of neural electrical activity Neuroimaging Measures of autonomic nervous system activity Blood and saliva assays Precise measurement of overt reactions Self-Report Approaches o Questionnaire - participants respond by writing answers o Interviews – participants respond orally to an interviewer o The questions and statements in self-report measures are called items o Single item measure – item intended to me measured and analyzed by itself o Multi-item scale – set of items that are used together to assess the same construct Writing good items o Be specific and precise in phrasing items o Write the items as simply as possible, avoiding difficult words, unnecessary jargon o Conditional information should proceed the key idea of the item o Do not use double-barreled items o Choose an appropriate response format o Present the items Experience Sampling Methods o ESM – participants report on what they are thinking and feeling right now o Diary method – an esm method in which participants keep a daily record of information pertinent to the study o Computerized experience sampling – participants carry small units that are programmed to ask them questions throughout the day Interviews o Interview schedule – the series of questions that is used in an interview How to make effective: Biases in Self-Reports o Social desirability response bias – the tendency to answer question in a socially acceptable way o Acquiescence response style – the tendency to agree with statements, regardless of their content o Nay-saying response style – the tendency to disagree with statements, regardless of the content Archival Data – analyze data pulled from existing records such as census data, court records, personal letters, old newspapers o Useful for studying: Social and psychological phenomena of the past Social and behavioral changes over time Topics that involve articles, advertisements, or speeches Anything that must be studied after it occurred
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