PY 101 Chapter 6A and 6B
PY 101 Chapter 6A and 6B PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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Date Created: 03/03/16
1 Psychological Science Chapter 6: Learning: Classical Conditioning I. Behaviorism Early 20 century Response to Freudian introspection John Watson Locke’s tabula rasa (blank slate) Environment is the sole determinant of learning Locke said science should study only observable actions and behaviors II. Learning Learning: relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience Three types of learning: 1) Nonassociative: exposure to a stimulus 2) Associative: learning two things are related (touching hot fire will burn your hand related with pain 3) Observational: learn by watching III. Habituation and Sensitization Habituation: decrease in response Getting used to it Foot tapping, paper rustling Unimportant stimuli Sensitization: increase in response Getting more sensitive to it Dangerous or frightening stimuli Being worried when driving after a car wreck Neurotransmitters IV. Predictive Associations Pavlov’s Dog Salivated when it saw the food bowl Learned response Twitmyer’s Human Kneejerk reflex in humans Subjects did kneejerk without the hammer V. Classical Conditioning A neutral object come to elicit a response hen associated with a stimulus that already produces that response Classically conditioned that money can be translated into things that we want VI. Terminology Unconditioned response (UR): a response that does not have to be learned 2 Unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that elicits a response without any prior learning Conditioned stimulus (CS): a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place Conditioned response (CR): a response to a conditioned stimulus; a response that has been learned Jaws theme music: the song itself is not frightening but the result of it in the movie is what is frightening Thinking Exercise: When you were a kid, your mother always made you chocolate chip cookies when you were sad, and it cheered you up. As an adult, whenever you smell chocolate chip cookies, you feel happier. 1. What is happening to you? You have been trained to feel happy/comforted Natural response of your mom comforting you when you are sad and she did it by making you cookies 2. What’s the UCS in this situation? The cookies your mom makes You naturally feel better when your mom comforts you 3. What’s the CS? The smell of the cookies being made 4. What’s the UCR Feeling happier when your mom makes the cookies 5. What’s the CR? The cookies still making you feel happier as an adult So when you are older and you feel sad, you make the same cookies and it reminds you of when your mom would cheer you up and comfort you by making cookies when you were younger VII. Acquisition and Extinction “Money can’t buy happiness, but it can buy marshmallows, which are kind of the same thing Acquisition: Gradual formation of associations Contiguity: the right timing Football superstitions Extinction: Prior association goes away Repeat the CS without the US 3 SecondOrder Conditioning: CS produces CR by itself The dog hears the food bag but its just you rustling plastic bags, not really feeding the dog and you have to prove to the dog that it is not “food time” but the dog heard that noise and thought it was time to eat Spontaneous recovery: Extinguished response reemerges VIII. Interesting Things How does your brain know what’s relevant? Stimulus generalization When you train your dog to hear a specific whistle, whenever the dog hears a noise similar to it, the dog gets excited Stimulus discrimination Two whistles: blow one, the dog comes to eat; blow the other and something different happens. Because the whistles have different pitches, the dogs will eventually catch on and realize which means which The difference in Coke and Pepsi. They are very much alike but as humans we can tell the difference Moral: Learned associations can become very complex IX. Evolutionary Influences We pick up some responses more easily than others Conditioned taste aversion o When you drink the same thing over and over and then one day you drink it and someone else had drank from the same drink (not always) and then you get sick, you blame the drink then you know not to drink it again Biological preparedness o Trypophobia: fear of a bunch of tiny holes together o (a) You notice the snake immediately o (b) You have to really look for the flower in the photo mix o Bias with species X. Expectancy Conditioning is how we predict the future Rolling over in the morning and realizing its gray outside, so its going to be cold and rainy. So make accommodations 4 RescoriaWagner model Prediction Error Positive vs. Negative Blocking – don’t learn anything new from second CS o I don’t have to touch every flame to know that a fire is hot and will burn Neurological basis of conditioning XI. Phobias Phobia: an acquired fear out of proportion to the real threat Fear conditioning: conditioning used to teach people or animals to be afraid Fears are learned 1 Psychological Science Chapter 6: Models of Learning I. Operant Conditioning An action’s consequences determine the likelihood it will happen Operate on your environment to produce effects Edward Thorndike’s Puzzle Boxes II. Reinforcement A. B.F. Skinner Formal learning theory Thorndike was too subjective Said behaviors occur when reinforced Skinner box Reinforcer: a stimulus that follows a response and increases the likelihood of response repetition III. Shaping Reinforcing behaviors that are increasing similar to the desired behavior Successive Approximations IV. Conditioning Reinforcement increases a behavior o Primary vs. secondary reinforcers o Reinforcer potency The Premack principle: morevalued behavior reinforces lessvalued behavior If you find the things that are really valuable to “x” person, then you can make them do something easier There are things we really want and there are things that we kind of like V. Negative reinforcement Reinforcement increases behavior likelihood Positive reinforcement: do the right behavior, good things happen (give a rat some cheese for pressing a lever Negative reinforcement: do the right behavior, bad things stop happening (rat presses a lever to turn off a shock) If you have a headache, you take Advil. The headache goes away. Then one day you get a headache again, and you take the Advil and again it goes away. (Negative) How often should reinforcement happen? 2 Continuous reinforcement: behavior is reinforced each time it occurs Partial reinforcement: behavior is reinforced intermittently (you don’t know when the good thing is coming so you do good things often in hopes of knowing you will eventually get it) Effect depends on the schedule VI. Partial Reinforcement Ratio or Interval Ratio schedule: reinforce per occurrence Interval schedule: reinforce per time period Fixed or Variable Fixed schedule: consistent Variable schedule: random Partialreinforcement extinction effect VII. Punishment Punishment reduces behavior likelihood Positive punishment: Do bad things, bad things happen (receiving a ticket for speeding) Negative punishment: Do something bad, good things are taken (losing your license for driving drunk) Positive = giving Negative = taking VIII. Parental punishment Must be reasonable, unpleasant and immediate Potential risks: Can fail to offset reinforcement Physical punishment is less effective Use positive reinforcement if possible Increase desired behaviors, encourage bonding IX. Behavior Modification The use of operantconditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones Therapy is often helpful X. Biology and cognition Skinner believed conditioning explains all behaviors But there are still problems: Biology constrains learning Tolman’s latent learning comes without environment Dopamine Liking vs. Wanting XI. Social Learning 3 We learn some things just by pure exposure 1. Observational learning Behavior that comes from exposure to the behavior in others Monkey see, monkey do Bandura’s Bobo Doll 2. Modeling Imitation of behavior through observational learning Reproduction of observed behavior Often implicit Glamorous depictions of negative behaviors in media 3. Vicarious Reinforcement Vicarious learning: learning consequences by watching others being rewarded or punished Acquisition vs. Performance 4. Violence in Media American media use averages 8 hours per day Less physiological arousal Correlation and causation Portrayal of violence Learning bad problemsolving strategies XII. Biology of Learning LICK Mirror Neurons: neurons that are activated both when acting and when observing someone else act Maybe the basis of imitation learning, empathy, and language Prior learning, or imitation? Psychological Science Chapter 6 Learning: Classical Conditioning Behaviorism • Behaviorism: • Early twen▯eth century • Response to Freudian introspec▯on • John Watson • Locke's tabula rasa (blank slate) Environment is the sole determinant of learning Said science should study only observable ac▯ons and behaviors. Learning • Learning: rela▯vely enduring change in behavior, resul▯ng from experience. • Three Types • Nonassocia▯ve: Exposure to a s▯mulus • Associa▯ve: Learning two things are related • Observa▯onal: Learn by watching Habituation and Sensitization Habitua▯on: decrease in response Ge▯ng used to it Unimportant s▯muli Sensi▯za▯on: increase in response Ge▯ng more sensi▯ve to it Dangerous or frightening s▯muli Neurotransmi▯ers Predic▯ve Associa▯ons • Pavlov’s Dog • Salivated when it saw the food bowl • Learned response • Twitmyer's Human – Knee-jerk reﬂex in humans – Subjects did knee-jerk without the hammer Classical Conditioning A neutral object comes to elicit a response when associated with a s▯mulus that already produces that response Terminology • Uncondi▯oned Response (UR): a response that does not have to be learned. • Uncondi▯oned S▯mulus (US): a s▯mulus that elicits a response without any prior learning. • Condi▯oned S▯mulus (CS): a s▯mulus that elicits a response only a▯er learning has taken place. • Condi▯oned Response (CR): a response to a condi▯oned s▯mulus; a response that has been learned. Pavlov's Dog Thinking Exercise When you were a kid, your mother always made you chocolate chip cookies when you were sad, and it cheered you up. As an adult, whenever you smell chocolate chip cookies, you feel happier. • What's happening to you? • What's the UCS in this situa▯on? • What's the CS? • The UCR? • The CR? Acquisi▯on & Ex▯nc▯on ● Acquisi▯on: Gradual forma▯on of associa▯ons ○ Con▯guity: the right ▯ming ● Ex▯nc▯on: Prior associa▯on goes away ○ Repeat the CS without the US ● Second-Order Condi▯oning: CS produces CR by itself ● Spontaneous recovery: Ex▯nguished response reemerges Interes▯ng Things • How does your brain know what's relevant? • S▯mulus generaliza▯on • S▯mulus discrimina▯on • The moral? – Learned associa▯ons can become very complex. Evolutionary Influences ● We pick up some responses more easily than others ● Condi▯oned taste aversion ● Biological preparedness • Trypophobia • Bias within species Expectancy ● Condi▯oning is how we predict the future. ● Rescoria-Wagner model ○ Predic▯on Error - Posi▯ve vs. Nega▯ve ○ Blocking - don’t learn anything new from second CS ● Neurological basis of condi▯oning ○ Dopamine spike with CS instead of US Phobias • Phobia: an acquired fear out of propor▯on to the real threat • Fear conditioning - Condi▯oning used to teach people or animals to be afraid. Trea▯ng Phobias Countercondi▯oning: exposing a pa▯ent to small doses of the feared s▯mulus while they engage in an enjoyable task Systema▯c desensi▯za▯on: a formal treatment based on countercondi▯oning Addic▯on •Environmental cues can induce condi▯oned cravings •Cues ac▯vate prefrontal cortex and limbic system – Psychological addic▯on •Siegel – Exposure to cues •Tolerance and the situa▯on – Physiological compensa▯on – Novel environments Psychological Science Chapter 6, Part B Models of Learning Operant Condi▯oning • Operant condi▯oning: An ac▯on’s consequences determine the likelihood it will happen again • Operate on your environment to produce eﬀects. • Edward Thorndike’s Puzzle Boxes − Law of Eﬀect - sa▯sfac▯on vs. annoyance Reinforcement • B.F. Skinner − Formal learning theory − Thorndike was too subjec▯ve − Said behaviors occur when reinforced − Reinforcer: a s▯mulus that follows a response and increases the likelihood of response repe▯▯on − Skinner Box Shaping • Shaping: reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior Successive Approxima▯ons Condi▯oning ● Reinforcement increases a behavior ○ Primary vs. Secondary reinforcers ○ Reinforcer potency ■ The Premack principle: more-valued behavior reinforces less-valued behavior Nega▯ve Reinforcement • Reinforcement increases behavior likelihood. – Posi▯ve reinforcement: Do the right behavior, good things happen (e.g. give a rat some cheese for pressing a lever). – Nega▯ve reinforcement: Do the right behavior, bad things stop happening (e.g. rat presses a lever to turn oﬀ a shock). Reinforcement Schedules • How o▯en should reinforcement happen? − Con▯nuous reinforcement: Behavior is reinforced each ▯me it occurs − Par▯al reinforcement: Behavior is reinforced intermi▯ently Eﬀect depends on the Par▯al Reinforcement • Ra▯o or Interval – Ra▯o schedule: Reinforce per occurrence – Interval schedule: Reinforce per ▯me period • Fixed or Variable – Fixed schedule: Consistent – Variable schedule: Random Par▯al-reinforcement ex▯nc▯on eﬀect Punishment • Punishment reduces behavior likelihood. – Posi▯ve punishment: Do bad things, bad things happen (e.g. receiving a ▯cket for speeding). – Nega▯ve punishment: Do something bad, good things are taken (e.g. losing your license for driving drunk). – Again, posi▯ve = giving & nega▯ve = taking. Parental Punishment • Must be reasonable, unpleasant, and immediate • Poten▯al risks – Can fail to oﬀset reinforcement – Physical punishment is less eﬀec▯ve – Use posi▯ve reinforcement if possible – Increase desired behaviors, encourage bonding Behavior Modiﬁca▯on • Behavior modiﬁca▯on: The use of operant- condi▯oning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones Biology and Cogni▯on • Skinner believed condi▯oning explains all behavior • But there are s▯ll problems: − Biology constrains learning − Tolman’s latent learning comes without reinforcement − Dopamine ● Liking vs. Wan▯ng Social Learning • We learn some things just by pure exposure. Observa▯on and Imita▯on • Observa▯onal learning: Behavior that comes from exposure to the behavior in others – Monkey see, monkey do •Bandura’s Bobo Doll •Modeling: Imita▯on of behavior through observa▯onal learning. Modeling • Reproduc▯on of observed behavior • O▯en implicit • Glamorous depic▯ons of nega▯ve behaviors in media Vicarious Reinforcement • Vicarious learning: learning consequences by watching others being rewarded or punished • Acquisi▯on vs. Performance –Learning doesn’t necessarily lead to behavior Violence in Media • American media use averages 8 hours per day. – Less physiological arousal – Correla▯on & causa▯on – Portrayal of violence – Learning bad problem-solving strategies Biology of Learning LICK •when ac▯ng and when observing someone else act h – May be the basis of imita▯on learning, empathy, and language – Prior learning, or imita▯on?
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