New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PY 101 Chapter 8A and 8B

by: Emily Paige Montgomery

PY 101 Chapter 8A and 8B PY 101 - Intro to Psychology

Emily Paige Montgomery
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

PY 101 notes for Chapter 8A and 8B and poewrpoints
PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
Evan Kennedy
university of alabama, UA, PY, PY 101, Psychology, detailed notes, week of notes, 4.0, bundle
75 ?




Popular in PY 101 - Intro to Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 40 page Bundle was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Evan Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see PY 101 - Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

Similar to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at UA


Reviews for PY 101 Chapter 8A and 8B


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/03/16
Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence  Mental Representations Feb. 23, 2016 I. Thinking  Manipulation of mental representations  Cognitive psychology  Cognition is thinking and the understanding that results from that thinking II. Representation  For the in­class activity, he asked us to write down everything we could think of about  birds when we got to this topic.  Analogical: visual, shared physical characteristics  Symbolic: abstract, no shared physical features ­ Example: Words  Neural activity occurs with both looking and remembering III. Concepts  Mentally organize objects by common themes  Categorizing thinking efficiency  Models of categorization ­ Prototype model o We have a bunch of categories in our head and each category has one “best “ example - When you picture a bird, you imagine one particular bird and maybe it is a bird  you have seen before; you do not typically think about say, a penguin o Allows for flexible representation o Drawback – different people, different prototypes  - Nobody’s prototypes are the same ­ Exemplar model o Average of all category members o Fuzzy representation, grows through experience o Prototypes are what we’ve encountered more - When we think of cats, we do not think of hairless cats; we think about hairy,  fluffy cats that we see on the internet and maybe have as a pet  Tomatoes technically are a fruit but we do not associate a tomato with fruits because it is  not sweet nor is it used the way we use fruit IV. Schemas  How you know appropriate behavior ­ Different modes of behavior from when you attend class and when you attend the  movies ­ We have a mental idea of what a situation is going to be like  View of appropriateness is shaped by culture ­ Picture of an orchestra: all men, no women; all white ­ But slowly but surely it was growing to include minorities   Quick judgments with little effort V. Stereotypes  Schemas to allow easy processing of people based on group membership  Learn as children, can affect behavior later VI. Decision Making and Problem Solving  Normative vs. Descriptive Theories ­ Expected Utility Theory o If you are offered $5 and $10, you will take the $10 because it is more and you can do more with $10 ­ Kahneman and Tversky (Professor did not say anything about these names)  People are not always rational VII. Heuristics  Shortcuts to reduce required thought  Unconscious, frees up cognitive resources  Integrating new information quickly  Can lead to biases VIII. Anchoring and Framing  Presentation alters perception (priming)  A photo of packaged meat with a label “90% Lean,” but they do not put a sticker that says  “10% fat.” ­ Works even when priming is irrelevant ­ Loss Aversion: consider risks more than benefits o We see the 90% lean and think, “Great, I will be healthy!” o But, we see “10% fat” and think “fat?! I don’t want to be fat!” IX. Availability and Representativeness  Availability Heuristic: Judgment based on ease of retrieval  Representativeness Heuristics: Judgments based on prototypes ­ Base rates ­ We don’t judge the base rate correctly ­ When you see a pretty woman who appears smart, one would think she is a professor  rather than say, a mail carrier but realistically, she probably is a mail carrier because there are more mail carriers than professors  More Americans have been married to Kim Kardashian that have died of Ebola X. Affective Forecasting  We are bad at predicting our future feelings ­ “How would you feel if your dog died?” // “I would feel terrible, I would never get over  it; it would ruin my life.” ­ “How would you feel if you won the Powerball?” // “Oh I would be so happy! It would  cure all of my problems.” ­ But in reality, we adjust to the bad situations, and in the case of good situations, we  eventually return to a “base rate” again  Overestimate emotions, underestimate coping XI. The Paradox of Choice  Too many possibilities lead to dissatisfaction or choice paralysis ­ 30% vs. 3% (from a study in the textbook where experimenters would set up a table in a  grocery store and set up a wide variety of jam to sell, then a table with less variety­ the  table with less variety sold 30% of their jam and the table with more variety sold only  3%) ­ Choosing what to major in while in college; someone tells you that you can be anything  at all that you want to major in and you wish you had some sort of guidance ­ If you go to the store and there is one­hundred different kinds of Jelly Beans, it is  incredibly hard to make a decision; but if there are only two types of Jelly Beans, it is  easy to pick the kind of Jelly Beans that you want ­ If someone just handed you a bag of Jelly Beans, you would be pretty happy XII. Problem Solving  Thinking methods affect ability to find solutions  Restructuring  Functional fixedness  Sheerer’s Nine Dot Problem ­ Nine dots drawn in a square­ draw one line that goes through every dot… but use the  least amount of lines possible ­ Professor did it with four lines; you can go off the edge ­ Restructuring the problem  Ducker’s Candle Problem XIII. Strategies and Insight  Algorithms  Working backwards ­ Example in the book about Lilli pads filling up a pond in 60 days – if it takes 60 days for the Lilli pads to completely cover the pond, how long will it take for the Lilli pads to fill  half of the pond? ­ 30 days = half ­ 59 days = half because it is not full until the 59  day  Analogies  Insight ­ Maier’s String Study Chapter 8B: Language and Intelligence Feb. 25, 2016 I. Language Structure  Communication by sounds and symbols with grammatical rules (Syntax)  Body language  Languages are broken into: Phrases, words, morphemes (smallest section of a word that  means something), phonemes (the sounds words make)  As a baby, we lose phonemes because we don’t use them in English  We use about 40 phonemes II. Language and Cognition  Aphasia ­ Expressive (Broca): the “Tan” patient ­ Receptive (Wernicke): cannot understand language but they can still talk ­ Global  Worf’s Linguistic Relativity Theory ­ Controversial ­ How does language have an affect on how we conceive life/thinking? ­ If you grew up speaking a different language, would you think differently? III. Language Development  Detecting phoneme differences  3 to 5 months: babbling (trying to talk)  1 year old: one word – “food,” “mom,” “milk” (do not have syntax)  18­24 months: telegraphic speech (send­help, want­milk)  3­5 years: Overgeneralizations (“I wented,” “the teacher teached today") IV. Inborn Language Capacity  Skinner: conditioning  Chomsky’s Universal Grammar: ­ Surface vs. Deep Structure ­ Deaf babies (babbled with their hands)  Language and culture ­ Creoles ­ Two different languages getting mixed up together (a pigeon)  Animal Communication ­ A monkey can use syntax V. Reading  Phonics vs. Whole Language  Phonics: Sounds and what certain sounds sound like  Dyslexia ­ Impaired sounds and image processing ­ More of a visual thing  Studies are showing that the Internet has an affect on our reading/writing/learning VI. Intelligence Testing  Standardized tests  Achievement vs. Aptitude  Binet and Terman  Mental Age and Intelligence Quotient (IQ)  IQ predicts life outcomes (25%) ­ Background ­ Self control ­ Motivation ­ Work ethic VII. General Intelligence  g: one general factor that underlies intelligence ­ Fluid and Crystallized intelligence ­ Fluid: creativity ­ Crystallized: how much do you know; how much can you remember­ long­term?  Importance of g ­ Low g: heart disease, diabetes, stroke, Alzheimer’s, car wrecks, and drowning ­ Adapting to changes: genetics and environments VIII. Multiple Intelligences  Sternberg: Analytical, creative, and practical ­ No standardized tests: just skills?  Emotional Intelligence ­ Managing, recognizing, understanding, and using emotions ­ Correlated with relationships and other intelligence measures ­ But is it really “intelligence”? IX. Intelligence and Cognition  Galton: Neural processing speed  High IQ correlates with fast reaction times  Brain size correlated slightly with IQ  Savants X. Intelligence and Genetics  Twins raised apart – very similar IQ  Social Multipliers ­ Nutrition, family, SES, education, culture, etc.  Epigenetics ­ Stimulating environment  The Flynn Effect XI. Group Differences  Complicated and controversial ­ Sex, race, ethnicity, etc. ­ Cultural bias in testing?  Stereotype threat ­ Social experience, personal values, non­evaluative tests Psychological Science Chapter 8 Language and Intelligence Language Structure •  Communica▯on by sounds and symbols with gramma▯cal rules (syntax) –  Phrases, words, morphemes, phonemes Language and Cogni▯on •  Aphasia –  Expressive (Broca), recep▯ve (Wernicke), or global •  Worf’s Linguis▯c Rela▯vity Theory –  Controversial Language Development •  Detec▯ng phoneme differences •  3-5mo: babbling •  1yr: 1-word •  18-24mo: Telegraphic speech •  3-5yr: Overgeneraliza▯ons Inborn Language Capacity •  Skinner: condi▯oning! •  Chomsky’s Universal Grammar –  Surface vs. Deep Structure –  Deaf babies •  Language and culture –  Creoles •  Animal Communica▯on Reading •  Phonics vs Whole Language • Dyslexia –  Impaired sound and image processing Intelligence Tes▯ng •  Standardized tests •  Achievement vs. Ap▯tude •  Binet & Terman •  Mental Age and Intelligence Quo▯ent (IQ) •  IQ predicts life outcomes (25%) Background, self control, mo▯va▯on, & work ethic General Intelligence •  g: one general factor that underlies intelligence –  Fluid and Crystallized intelligence Importance of g •  Low g: heart disease, diabetes, stroke, Alzheimer’s, car wrecks, and drowning •  Adap▯ng to challenges Gene▯cs and environment Mul▯ple Intelligences •  Sternberg: Analy▯cal, crea▯ve, and prac▯cal –  No standardized tests: just skills? Emo▯onal Intelligence •  Managing, recognizing, understanding, and using emo▯ons •  Correlated with rela▯onships and other intelligence measures •  But is it really “intelligence”? Intelligence and Cogni▯on •  Galton: Neural processing speed •  High IQ correlates with fast reac▯on ▯mes •  Brain size correlates slightly with IQ •  Savants Intelligence and Gene▯cs •  Twins raised apart - very similar IQ •  Social Mul▯pliers −  Nutri▯on, family, SES, educa▯on, culture, etc. •  Epigene▯cs −  S▯mula▯ng environment •  The Flynn Effect Group Differences •  Complicated – and controversial −  Sex, race, ethnicity, etc. −  Cultural bias in tes▯ng? •  Stereotype threat −  Social experience, personal values, nonevalua▯ve tests Psychological Science Chapter 8 Thinking and Intelligence: For the Birds • the a▯ributes you can think of that down all characterize the group of animals we call “Birds”. Thinking •  Manipula▯on of mental representa▯ons •  Cogni▯ve psychology •  Cogni▯on is thinking and the understanding that results from thinking Representa▯on •  Analogical: visual, shared physical characteris▯cs •  Symbolic: abstract, no shared physical features •  Neural ac▯vity occurs with both looking and remembering Concepts •  Mentally organize objects by common themes •  Categorizing increases thinking efficiency •  Models of categoriza▯on – Prototype model – Exemplar model Prototype Model •  Each category has one “best” example •  Allows for flexible representa▯on •  Drawback – different people, different prototypes Exemplar Model •  Average of all category members •  Fuzzy representa▯on, grows through experience •  Prototypes are what we’ve encountered more Schemas •  How you know appropriate behavior •  View of appropriateness is shaped by culture • Quick judgments with li▯le effort Stereotypes •  Schemas to allow easy processing of people based on group membership •  Learn as children, can affect behavior later Decision Making & Problem Solving •  Norma▯ve vs. Descrip▯ve Theories –Expected U▯lity Theory –Kahneman and Tversky •  People aren’t always ra▯onal Heuris▯cs •  Shortcuts to reduce required thought •  Unconscious, frees up cogni▯ve resources •  Integra▯ng new info quickly •  Can lead to biases Anchoring & Framing •  Presenta▯on alters percep▯on (priming) –Works even when priming is irrelevant –Loss Aversion: consider risks more than benefits Availability & Representa▯veness • Availability Heuris▯c: Judgements based on ease of retrieval • Representa▯veness Heuris▯c: Judgements based on prototypes – Base Rates Affec▯ve Forecas▯ng •  We’re bad at predic▯ng our future feelings •  Overes▯mate emo▯ons, underes▯mate coping The Paradox of Choice •  Too many possibili▯es lead to dissa▯sfac▯on or choice paralysis –  30% vs 3% Problem Solving •Thinking methods affect ability to find solu▯ons •  Restructuring •  Func▯onal fixedness •  Sheerer’s Nine Dot Problem •  Ducker’s Candle Problem Strategies and Insight •  Working Backwards •  Analogies •  – Maier’s string study


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.