PY 101 Chapter 8A and 8B
PY 101 Chapter 8A and 8B PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 40 page Bundle was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Evan Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see PY 101 - Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence Mental Representations Feb. 23, 2016 I. Thinking Manipulation of mental representations Cognitive psychology Cognition is thinking and the understanding that results from that thinking II. Representation For the inclass activity, he asked us to write down everything we could think of about birds when we got to this topic. Analogical: visual, shared physical characteristics Symbolic: abstract, no shared physical features Example: Words Neural activity occurs with both looking and remembering III. Concepts Mentally organize objects by common themes Categorizing thinking efficiency Models of categorization Prototype model o We have a bunch of categories in our head and each category has one “best “ example - When you picture a bird, you imagine one particular bird and maybe it is a bird you have seen before; you do not typically think about say, a penguin o Allows for flexible representation o Drawback – different people, different prototypes - Nobody’s prototypes are the same Exemplar model o Average of all category members o Fuzzy representation, grows through experience o Prototypes are what we’ve encountered more - When we think of cats, we do not think of hairless cats; we think about hairy, fluffy cats that we see on the internet and maybe have as a pet Tomatoes technically are a fruit but we do not associate a tomato with fruits because it is not sweet nor is it used the way we use fruit IV. Schemas How you know appropriate behavior Different modes of behavior from when you attend class and when you attend the movies We have a mental idea of what a situation is going to be like View of appropriateness is shaped by culture Picture of an orchestra: all men, no women; all white But slowly but surely it was growing to include minorities Quick judgments with little effort V. Stereotypes Schemas to allow easy processing of people based on group membership Learn as children, can affect behavior later VI. Decision Making and Problem Solving Normative vs. Descriptive Theories Expected Utility Theory o If you are offered $5 and $10, you will take the $10 because it is more and you can do more with $10 Kahneman and Tversky (Professor did not say anything about these names) People are not always rational VII. Heuristics Shortcuts to reduce required thought Unconscious, frees up cognitive resources Integrating new information quickly Can lead to biases VIII. Anchoring and Framing Presentation alters perception (priming) A photo of packaged meat with a label “90% Lean,” but they do not put a sticker that says “10% fat.” Works even when priming is irrelevant Loss Aversion: consider risks more than benefits o We see the 90% lean and think, “Great, I will be healthy!” o But, we see “10% fat” and think “fat?! I don’t want to be fat!” IX. Availability and Representativeness Availability Heuristic: Judgment based on ease of retrieval Representativeness Heuristics: Judgments based on prototypes Base rates We don’t judge the base rate correctly When you see a pretty woman who appears smart, one would think she is a professor rather than say, a mail carrier but realistically, she probably is a mail carrier because there are more mail carriers than professors More Americans have been married to Kim Kardashian that have died of Ebola X. Affective Forecasting We are bad at predicting our future feelings “How would you feel if your dog died?” // “I would feel terrible, I would never get over it; it would ruin my life.” “How would you feel if you won the Powerball?” // “Oh I would be so happy! It would cure all of my problems.” But in reality, we adjust to the bad situations, and in the case of good situations, we eventually return to a “base rate” again Overestimate emotions, underestimate coping XI. The Paradox of Choice Too many possibilities lead to dissatisfaction or choice paralysis 30% vs. 3% (from a study in the textbook where experimenters would set up a table in a grocery store and set up a wide variety of jam to sell, then a table with less variety the table with less variety sold 30% of their jam and the table with more variety sold only 3%) Choosing what to major in while in college; someone tells you that you can be anything at all that you want to major in and you wish you had some sort of guidance If you go to the store and there is onehundred different kinds of Jelly Beans, it is incredibly hard to make a decision; but if there are only two types of Jelly Beans, it is easy to pick the kind of Jelly Beans that you want If someone just handed you a bag of Jelly Beans, you would be pretty happy XII. Problem Solving Thinking methods affect ability to find solutions Restructuring Functional fixedness Sheerer’s Nine Dot Problem Nine dots drawn in a square draw one line that goes through every dot… but use the least amount of lines possible Professor did it with four lines; you can go off the edge Restructuring the problem Ducker’s Candle Problem XIII. Strategies and Insight Algorithms Working backwards Example in the book about Lilli pads filling up a pond in 60 days – if it takes 60 days for the Lilli pads to completely cover the pond, how long will it take for the Lilli pads to fill half of the pond? 30 days = half 59 days = half because it is not full until the 59 day Analogies Insight Maier’s String Study Chapter 8B: Language and Intelligence Feb. 25, 2016 I. Language Structure Communication by sounds and symbols with grammatical rules (Syntax) Body language Languages are broken into: Phrases, words, morphemes (smallest section of a word that means something), phonemes (the sounds words make) As a baby, we lose phonemes because we don’t use them in English We use about 40 phonemes II. Language and Cognition Aphasia Expressive (Broca): the “Tan” patient Receptive (Wernicke): cannot understand language but they can still talk Global Worf’s Linguistic Relativity Theory Controversial How does language have an affect on how we conceive life/thinking? If you grew up speaking a different language, would you think differently? III. Language Development Detecting phoneme differences 3 to 5 months: babbling (trying to talk) 1 year old: one word – “food,” “mom,” “milk” (do not have syntax) 1824 months: telegraphic speech (sendhelp, wantmilk) 35 years: Overgeneralizations (“I wented,” “the teacher teached today") IV. Inborn Language Capacity Skinner: conditioning Chomsky’s Universal Grammar: Surface vs. Deep Structure Deaf babies (babbled with their hands) Language and culture Creoles Two different languages getting mixed up together (a pigeon) Animal Communication A monkey can use syntax V. Reading Phonics vs. Whole Language Phonics: Sounds and what certain sounds sound like Dyslexia Impaired sounds and image processing More of a visual thing Studies are showing that the Internet has an affect on our reading/writing/learning VI. Intelligence Testing Standardized tests Achievement vs. Aptitude Binet and Terman Mental Age and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) IQ predicts life outcomes (25%) Background Self control Motivation Work ethic VII. General Intelligence g: one general factor that underlies intelligence Fluid and Crystallized intelligence Fluid: creativity Crystallized: how much do you know; how much can you remember longterm? Importance of g Low g: heart disease, diabetes, stroke, Alzheimer’s, car wrecks, and drowning Adapting to changes: genetics and environments VIII. Multiple Intelligences Sternberg: Analytical, creative, and practical No standardized tests: just skills? Emotional Intelligence Managing, recognizing, understanding, and using emotions Correlated with relationships and other intelligence measures But is it really “intelligence”? IX. Intelligence and Cognition Galton: Neural processing speed High IQ correlates with fast reaction times Brain size correlated slightly with IQ Savants X. Intelligence and Genetics Twins raised apart – very similar IQ Social Multipliers Nutrition, family, SES, education, culture, etc. Epigenetics Stimulating environment The Flynn Effect XI. Group Differences Complicated and controversial Sex, race, ethnicity, etc. Cultural bias in testing? Stereotype threat Social experience, personal values, nonevaluative tests Psychological Science Chapter 8 Language and Intelligence Language Structure • Communica▯on by sounds and symbols with gramma▯cal rules (syntax) – Phrases, words, morphemes, phonemes Language and Cogni▯on • Aphasia – Expressive (Broca), recep▯ve (Wernicke), or global • Worf’s Linguis▯c Rela▯vity Theory – Controversial Language Development • Detec▯ng phoneme diﬀerences • 3-5mo: babbling • 1yr: 1-word • 18-24mo: Telegraphic speech • 3-5yr: Overgeneraliza▯ons Inborn Language Capacity • Skinner: condi▯oning! • Chomsky’s Universal Grammar – Surface vs. Deep Structure – Deaf babies • Language and culture – Creoles • Animal Communica▯on Reading • Phonics vs Whole Language • Dyslexia – Impaired sound and image processing Intelligence Tes▯ng • Standardized tests • Achievement vs. Ap▯tude • Binet & Terman • Mental Age and Intelligence Quo▯ent (IQ) • IQ predicts life outcomes (25%) Background, self control, mo▯va▯on, & work ethic General Intelligence • g: one general factor that underlies intelligence – Fluid and Crystallized intelligence Importance of g • Low g: heart disease, diabetes, stroke, Alzheimer’s, car wrecks, and drowning • Adap▯ng to challenges Gene▯cs and environment Mul▯ple Intelligences • Sternberg: Analy▯cal, crea▯ve, and prac▯cal – No standardized tests: just skills? Emo▯onal Intelligence • Managing, recognizing, understanding, and using emo▯ons • Correlated with rela▯onships and other intelligence measures • But is it really “intelligence”? Intelligence and Cogni▯on • Galton: Neural processing speed • High IQ correlates with fast reac▯on ▯mes • Brain size correlates slightly with IQ • Savants Intelligence and Gene▯cs • Twins raised apart - very similar IQ • Social Mul▯pliers − Nutri▯on, family, SES, educa▯on, culture, etc. • Epigene▯cs − S▯mula▯ng environment • The Flynn Eﬀect Group Diﬀerences • Complicated – and controversial − Sex, race, ethnicity, etc. − Cultural bias in tes▯ng? • Stereotype threat − Social experience, personal values, nonevalua▯ve tests Psychological Science Chapter 8 Thinking and Intelligence: For the Birds • the a▯ributes you can think of that down all characterize the group of animals we call “Birds”. Thinking • Manipula▯on of mental representa▯ons • Cogni▯ve psychology • Cogni▯on is thinking and the understanding that results from thinking Representa▯on • Analogical: visual, shared physical characteris▯cs • Symbolic: abstract, no shared physical features • Neural ac▯vity occurs with both looking and remembering Concepts • Mentally organize objects by common themes • Categorizing increases thinking eﬃciency • Models of categoriza▯on – Prototype model – Exemplar model Prototype Model • Each category has one “best” example • Allows for ﬂexible representa▯on • Drawback – diﬀerent people, diﬀerent prototypes Exemplar Model • Average of all category members • Fuzzy representa▯on, grows through experience • Prototypes are what we’ve encountered more Schemas • How you know appropriate behavior • View of appropriateness is shaped by culture • Quick judgments with li▯le eﬀort Stereotypes • Schemas to allow easy processing of people based on group membership • Learn as children, can aﬀect behavior later Decision Making & Problem Solving • Norma▯ve vs. Descrip▯ve Theories –Expected U▯lity Theory –Kahneman and Tversky • People aren’t always ra▯onal Heuris▯cs • Shortcuts to reduce required thought • Unconscious, frees up cogni▯ve resources • Integra▯ng new info quickly • Can lead to biases Anchoring & Framing • Presenta▯on alters percep▯on (priming) –Works even when priming is irrelevant –Loss Aversion: consider risks more than beneﬁts Availability & Representa▯veness • Availability Heuris▯c: Judgements based on ease of retrieval • Representa▯veness Heuris▯c: Judgements based on prototypes – Base Rates Aﬀec▯ve Forecas▯ng • We’re bad at predic▯ng our future feelings • Overes▯mate emo▯ons, underes▯mate coping The Paradox of Choice • Too many possibili▯es lead to dissa▯sfac▯on or choice paralysis – 30% vs 3% Problem Solving •Thinking methods aﬀect ability to ﬁnd solu▯ons • Restructuring • Func▯onal ﬁxedness • Sheerer’s Nine Dot Problem • Ducker’s Candle Problem Strategies and Insight • Working Backwards • Analogies • – Maier’s string study
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