PY 101 Chapter 9A and 9B
PY 101 Chapter 9A and 9B PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
Popular in PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This page Bundle was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Evan Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see PY 101 - Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for PY 101 Chapter 9A and 9B
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/03/16
Chapter 9B Human Development Adolescence and Adulthood Feb 16 2016 I Puberty 0 Hormone increase 0 Primary and secondary sex characteristics 0 Environmental effects Unrelated males mom s boyfriend stepfather can cause a speedup in puberty 0 Brain reorganization Frontal cortex Mature limbic system emotion Limbic system matures faster 11 Identity formation 0 Erik Erikson Social Development 0 How we act with other people Eight agerelated Developmental crises to overcome How are you going to solve this problem Little evidence but in uential A Gender Identity 0 Culture Gender roles 0 Biology Prenatal brain chemistry David Reimer 0 Twin boys 0 Bruce pictured 0 The boys went to be circumcised and there was a problem with Bruce and he lost his penis completely The parents were advised to treat Bruce as a female so he underwent surgeries David Bruce never fit in with the other girls When he was 15yeardold his parents finally told him He immediately stopped hormone therapy and lived as a male 0 He killed himself after his brother died in an accident B Ethnic Identity 0 Culture and ethnicity Cultural brokers Language barriers O O O O 0 Bicultural identities Tend to have better outcomes Remember your culture Do not ignore one culture C Peers and Parents 0 Imitation learning from peer groups 0 Parenting styles vs child temperament Dynamic and exible Adolescent con ict develops life skills III Adulthood 0 Changes continue throughout lifetime 0 Aging Cognitive and physical decline Use it or lose it A Marriage 0 Longevity happiness and mental health 0 Unhappily married greater risk for poor health and mortality B Having Children 0 Parenthood central to identity of many adults 0 Couples With children report less marital satisfaction than those Who are childless Failure to discuss responsibilities before the child can lead to misunderstandings and resentment later Negative marriage life baby more likely to increase strain not bring them closer IV Deterioration 0 Dementia Alzheimer s Parkinson s stroke alcohol HIV depression Active mind Dementia has many causes including excessive alcohol intake and HIV 0 Alzheimer s Memory deficits and personality changes For older adults the major causes are Alzheimer s disease and small strokes that affect the brain s blood supply After age 70 the risk of dementia increases With each year of life Approximately 3 percent to 5 percent of people Will develop Alzheimer s disease by age 70 to 75 and 65 percent Will develop the disease after age 85 It takes about four years for people to progress from mild cognitive impairment to a diagnosis of Alzheimer s 0 Otherwise have fewer mental health problems V Meaning VI Socioemotional selectivity theory Perceive time to be limited adjust priorities Family close friends re ection Decline Cognitive Mental processing and reaction time Working memory Better for positive than negative info Older people remember happier stuff more than negative because they know that their time is limited Cognitive training and memory strategies Dopamine rushes decline Physical decline Hearing declines and less of an ability to tune out background noise Intelligence Declines in 60 s and 70 s Stay mentally active Possible gender differences in aging Men and women age differently Fluid intelligence is the ability to process new general information that requires no specific prior knowledge Crystallized intelligence is based on more specific knowledge the kind that must be learned or memorized such as vocabulary specialized information or reasoning strategies I II III IV V Chapter 9A Development Feb 112016 Infancy and Childhood Distinct periods of growth and maturation Prenatal infancy childhood adolescence and adulthood Consistent pattern suggests genetics However environment also affects milestones Prenatal Development 38 and 42 weeks Myelination growing Synaptic pruning learning Teratogens 0 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Paternal Lifestyle 0 Things the father does before you are conceived 0 Such as the father s health Brain Development and Learning Mind develops even without specific training Basic re exes grasping rooting sucking Developmental milestones roll sit crawl stand walk talk Pace in uenced by environment Dynamic Systems Theory A lot of in uence on the way your child learns Infant Learning Perception Imitative actions Sensitive periods for development of specific skills Preferential Looking Memory and Infantile Amnesia As we get older we do not remember memories from when we were really little Attachment Skills that enable successful interaction with others Emotional bonding is a fundamental need Automatic adult responses Raising your voice pitch when talking to babies Babies hear the higher pitch Not abusing a baby because it is coded into us to feel wrong Imprinting young animals become attached to nearby adult Are You My Mother A tiger taking care of baby piglets because the baby piglets think the lion is their mother because the tiger probably feeds them 0 Harlow s Monkeys The study of love Contact comfort in aiding social development The baby monkey choose the cloth mom over the Wire mom because the monkey craves the nurturing The baby monkey Who did not have a mother at all stayed to himself When frightened and did not even run to the cloth mother because the baby monkey did not have that growing up 0 Attachment Style Separation anxiety increase in attachment behaviors When separated from caregiver Ainsworth s Strange Situation Secure Attachments 0 Better outcomes in life 0 Upset When mom leaves then calms down then When the mom returns the baby quickly greeted the mother 0 Chemistry of Attachment Oxytocin maternal tendencies social acceptance and sexual gratification 0 Nursing triggers mother s oxytocin release Social phenomena also have biological in uences VI Piaget s Cognitive Development 0 Piaget s four stages of development Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years Acquire information through senses and motor skills Re exes develop into deliberate actions Toddlers think they are the center of the world Object permanence the understanding that an object continues to exist even When OOOOO it cannot be seen babies do not have object permanence I Example When you play peeka boo With a baby the baby does not understand that you have not actually completely disappeared Preoperational 0 2 to 7 years 0 Symbolic thinking 0 Intuition and appearance not logic I Whennie the Pooh is real to children I When a baby has only seen their dad with a beard and the dad shaves his beard the baby no longer recognizes the dad I Piaget s Conservation Task Different aged children and glasses of juice rows of quarters unequalequal sharing of graham crackers 0 Conservation of quantity I Piaget s Conservation Task I Centration and egocentrism gt We stop thinking of the world the way it appears we begin to think more logically Concrete operational 0 7 to 11 years 0 Logical operations no longer fooled by appearances 0 Reversibility leads to conservation of quantity 0 Still lack abstract and hypothetical cognition Formal operational stage 12 years to adulthood Abstract thought Can form and test hypotheses Hypothetical notions and multiple View points I We begin to think more about the way that other people see things I We realize that other people have their own perspective and experiences and 0 0 0 0 V1ews 0 We can think about experiences and situations that will never happen I Studied systematic task errors children make Different assumptions than adults Assimilation and accommodation VII Challenges to Piaget 0 Differing strategies cultures and languages 0 Development not necessarily uniform I Some adults still fail at critical and analytical thinking 0 Object continuity tests Two things moving on an XY axis are still two separate objects example iron rod and brick iron rod goes behind the brick Motivation MampM Test A fouryearold is shown two rows of MampM candies One row has more candies but is condensed When asked which row she wants to eat the fouryearold picks the row with more candies even though it is shorter VIII Theory of Mind 0 Ability to relate others behavior to their mental state 0 Maturation of brain s frontal lobes IX Morality 0 Kohlberg s theory of moral judgment Preconventional pure self interest 0 HI sit my cookie down and a toddler Who likes cookies sees my cookie heshe Will probably take it and eat it because they like cookies too Conventional rule following 0 Changing the rules to match a specific situation Postconventional complex and abstract 0 Criticisms Emotion vs Cognition Sympathy and Empathy I Sympathy feel bad for someone I Empathy feeling What someone is feeling emotion driven Social Intuition Model I Emotion during decision cognitive after gt We make a lot of decisions based off of our emotions I BadSmell Studies Biology and Morality I Frontal lobe amygdala insula van m V v HI Psycholo ical Science ll 2 Chapter 9 Human Development Adolescence and Adulthood Puberty WEED MOMENT WHEN Hormone increase Primary and secondary sex characteristics 39 Environmental Effects Brain reorganization Fronta cortex myelination Vature limbic system emotion 39I39IIM39 Y ll Ollllllll ll IS OVER Identity Formation Erik Erikson Social Development 8 agerelated chaHenges Developmental crises to overcome Little evidence but in uen al quotLOOK IT S HER FIRST TWITTERquot Gender Identity Culture Gender Roles Biology Prenatal brain chemistry David Reimer Ethnic Identity I am 42gt 6a wou A25 mm AFULL Y NW 0 Culture and 151 IMMIQRANT39FO oLKcuumsz ethnicity Xx Cutura brokers P 5 Bicultural Identities 2 Tm um oa H Peers and Parents Imitation learning from peer groups Parenting style vs child temperament Dynamic and exible Adoescent con ict develops life skills 2quotg 319 l 3 kgrvhn quotat Mil E Adulthood Changescon nue throughout lifetime Aging Cognitive and physical decline quotUse it or lose it Marriage Longev y happiness and mental health UnhappHy married greater risk for poor health and mortality 6 n l 39 quot VV 3 39 r quot 39 3 39 c 39 a l J 0 Q 3 x YE SI v I A 1 WM MABBY V0quot if I I Q Having Children Parenthood central to identity of many adults Couples with children report less marital satisfaction than those who are childless Failure to discuss responsibilities before the child can lead to misunderstandings and resentment later Negative marriage life baby more likely to increase strain not bring them closer m l ntroducing Baby to Pets Deterioration Dementia Alzheimer s Parkinson s stroke alcohol HIV depression Active mind Alzheimer s lVIemory de cits and personality changes Otherwise have fewer mental health problems Meaning Socioemotional selectivity theory Perceive time to be limited adjust priorities Family close friends re ection Cognitive Decline Mental processing amp reaction time Working memory Better for positive than negative info Cognitive training and memory strategies Dopamine activity u39 l l i m 5 MIlES Intelligence Declines in 60 s and 70 s Stay mentally active Possible gender differences in aging THE BEST PART OF GE39I39I39IAG OLDER IS GONNH BE INTENTlONALLY MISUSING SLBNG AROUND TEENAGERS 105139 To WATCH THE stxm OH MAN THAT sows 5 so PuNED W Psychological Science Chapter 9 Human Development Infancy and Childhood Infancy and Childhood Distinct periods of growth and maturation Prenatal infancy childhood adolescence amp adulthood Consistent pattern suggests genetics However environment also affects milestones 3 y 39 39r 39 w f39yp39 oquot r39 n 039 LEE K39 3 n v 39 o J r 39 39 39 7 w 3 q39 I H cf 39 3 l39 f39 I w tz I39m1 ll 39 71quot V 39I Q flitw tiw ESFIFTltJ 393939 lll39 ll u quot A R quot w j ogjg 3 Am 15 Prenatal Development 38 and 42 weeks lVIyeIination growing Synaptic pruning learning Teratogens Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Paternal Lifestyle Brain Development and Learning Mind develops even without speci c training Basic re exes grasping rooting sucking Developmental milestones roll sit crawl stand walk talk Pace in uenced by environment Dynamic Systems Theory 39 l I a if 511 ix 39 F10 4i 5 sh I 39 c I l o C r L Infant Learning Perception mitative actions Sensitive periods for development of speci c skills Preferential Looking Memory and Infantile Amnesia cum mm DO YOJ Exam wan Dom ramps mm mm How on WISH SCQRE A SWDY roe IT HY NOT 1 YOU POSSSBU FOQGE 3 HM HUH MEWS 3915 TERRIBLE 1 03w w r 4 WE 17 AMNESA N39 K blle Q0 M11 SN 4 a J my 3 h 7 039 P 1quot I FORSQL l I l a l II F 39 F r a 39 I a39 x 39 l g 39 I q n I I Attachment Skills that enable successful interaction with others Emotional bonding is a fundamental need Automatic adult responses 3 Year Old Children Normal Extreme Neglect Contact comfort i n aiding social development Harlow s Monkeys The Study of Love young animals become attached to nearby adult lmprinti g Attachment Child plays while attachment gure is present Attachment Style Separation Anxiety increase in attachment behaviors when separated from A secure child is distressed when the distressed when the ca re give r Ai n swo rth 5 Strange Situation A secure child is quickly An avoidant child avoids Secu re Sa i i iit quotr wms S e f tf sil t i s Atta c h m e nts Better outcomes later in life n39 y z A E 39 quot x t 4 39 An avoidant child is not attachment gure leaves attachment gure leaves An anxiousambivalent child is inconsolably upset when the attachment gure leaves An anxiousambivalent child will both seek and reject caring contact n 1 39 t 1 r t r 39 pt l 439 Chemistry of Attachment Oxytocin maternal tendencies social acceptance and sexual grati cation Nursing triggers mother s oxytocin release Social phenomena also have biological in uences Piaget s Cognitive Development Piaget s four stages of Instructions Sensorimotor Bond39ng W39th Baby J i O n Preoperational Concrete operational Formal operational Studied systematic task errors children make Different assumptions than aduhs Assimilation and accommodation Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2 Years Acquire info through senses and motor skills Re exes develop into deliberate actions Object permanence the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen WANNA SEE somemme q l S2 A WATCH YOU PUT BREAD lN THlS SLOT AND PUSH DOWN THE LEVER THEN m A new mums kTmsr 9095 up NON WHERE DOES THE Preoperational Stage 2 to 7 Years Symbolic thinking Intuition and appearance not logic Conservation of quantity Centra on amp egocentrism Piaget39s Conservation Task Concrete Operational Stage 7 to 11 Years Logical operations no longer fooled by appearances Reversibility leads to conservation of quantity Still lack abstract and hypothetical cognition HELLO 91 I In TRAPPED IT S DPRK AND I CAN39T SEE WM EXCEPT THESE TUO 0mm S oTCHES OF Lisa1 H ze SPlDTCHESOF UGHT M EYEBALLS I THINK mars um mar PRE39 SOW39REAWN Es YENHi ALL ARE WE WWO 058M BOOM WKARCUND H0 mdm l 963 Bur ExERWHNG39s Iusr SIGNHS w msrfnsow Lamas How CAMIBE SUQETlEYCOW TD PM W MD mmwr LE amt 5amp0 A seammo Formal Operational Stage 12 Years to Adulthood Abstract thought Can form and test hypotheses Hypothetical notions and multiple viewpoints i l i I 0 l 39l Challenges to Piaget I A fouryearold is shown two rows of MampM candies One row has more candies but is condensed Differing strategies cultures and languages Development not necessarily uniform Some adults still fail at critical and analytical thinking Object continuity tests lVIotivation IVIampIVI Test 9 9 9 9 8 When asked which row she wants to eat the fouryearold picks the row with more candies even though it is shorter Theory of Mind Ability to relate others behavior to their mental state Maturation of brain s frontal lobes mom WAT WELL SCREW rm THINKING you RE MNKNG 0U AND YOUR ABOVTPIE v TCRRlBLE THINGS I a ABOUT ME JUDGEMENTS Morality Kohlberg s theory of moral judgment Preconventional pure self interest Conventional rule following Postconventional complex and abstract Criticisms Emotion vs Cognition 0 RELATIVE MORAL lTV Morality Sympathy and Empathy Social Intuition Model I Emotion during decision cognition after BadSmel Studies Biology and Morality Fronta lobe amygdala insula
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'