Construction 101, Week 4-8
Construction 101, Week 4-8 CON 101
Popular in Const/Culture: a Built Environ
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Trevor Hatton on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CON 101 at Arizona State University taught by Knutson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Const/Culture: a Built Environ in Construction and Management at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Con 101 – Week 4 – 2/2/2016 – 2/4/2016 Video July 17, 1981 Hyatt collapses (Kansas City): o Two skywalks suspended from ceiling fell into the lobby of the hotel. o 114 people died. o Original plans showed that the rods were connected to be threaded through both walkways but this wasn’t possible. 4 floor supported the lower skywalk instead of the ceiling. o The joint was drilled through the weakest spot on the beam. South Korea Sampoong Department Collapse: o Greatest death toll of 498 people. o June 29 1995 air conditioner was turned off. o Last survivor found alive 17 days later. o Originally was built to be an office building. Escalators cut holes in each floor when converted. o Large air conditioner was 4x more weight than the roof was able to handle. Moved it from the back to the front of roof by rolling and caused cracking throughout the whole roof. o Heated 5 floor added a lot of weight because it was 3ft thick. Chapter 5: Falsework – All temporary structures that are essential to the process of erecting, repairing, remodeling a permanent structure. Types of Falsework Scaffolding Formwork Centering Shoring Significance of Falsework How things got built. Evolution of design. Scaffolding Raised platforms used to support workers and materials. Can be suspended from the top. o Tall skyscrapers. Supports all construction operations that can’t be reached from ground. Used in new construction. o Used in repair, renovation and restoration. Have been used by most major civilizations. Most expensive. Primitive scaffolding: o Egyptians used rubble as the method to reach areas that were not normally accessible. Medieval Scaffolding: o Terminology: Standards (Vertical Poles) Ledgers (Horizontal Poles) Putlogs Hurdles (Platform Materials) o Emphasized on reducing the cost of material by taking down and moving. Cover scaffolding is known as hoarding. o Protects works from the weather. o Protects pedestrians from being hit by falling resources. Centering: Purpose of centering: o A framed used to support the individual units of an arch. o Most difficult and demanding of the four types. St Louis Arch Video o Tallest memorial and supports westward expansion. o 635 feet tall. o First underground museum in the United States. rd o First 1/3 filled with concrete. o Creeper derricks allowed for cranes to climb the arches. o No one died in the construction of the arch. o No centering was used. o Hardest part of project was to raise funding to build it. o Was built during the 1960’s Quiz 4: GATEWAY Con 101 – Week 5 – 2/9/2016 – 2/11/2016 Formwork A mold used to contain wet material until hardens. Synonymous with shuttering. Is the oldest of the four types of falsework. Endures incredible pressure. Rammed earth construction. Roman Techniques: o Pozzolana o Brick Formwork o Barrel Vaulting 20 Century Formwork: o CastinPlace: Complexity o PreCast o Tiltup Walls Commercial and Industrial Hybrid of castinplace and precast. Shoring Bracing used to prop something up or prevent caveins in trenches and tunnels. Causes the most accidents when it is not used (taking shortcuts). Trench and excavation shoring: o This is where most accidents happen. o Taper sides of trench. o Bench sides of trench o Shoring. 2/16/2016 – First Exam Con 101 – Week 6 – 2/16/2016 Structural Forces Stress – intensity of forces. Strain – deformation of material. Statics – study of body at rest. Tension – pulling apart. Compression – pushing together. Moments – force x distance Strength of Material – ability to resist loads. Elasticity – restoration of original size. Dead Loads and Live Loads o Dead Load – does not change over time (gravity). o Love Load – will change with time (wind). Con 101 “Hall of Fame” Each made contribution to advancing overall construction “Body of Knowledge” Common Building Materials Wood o Performs equally well in compression and tension. Stone o Handles compression very well, but not tension. Concrete o Can be made stronger or weaker. o Slump test measures the amount of water in the concrete. o Produced at a batch plant. Basic ingredients are stone, cement and water. Color and chemicals can be added. o Usually used with rebar. Steel o Takes tension and compression. Dead Load and Live Loads Dead Loads o Due to gravity. o Weight of structure. o PreLoading structure. Live Loads o Wind Most difficult to analyze. Random, irregular and unpredictable. Positive and negative pressures. Vibrations and oscillation. Temperature effects. Exam 1 Password: rebar Construction 101 – Week 7 – 2/23/20162/25/2016 Introduction: Human Comfort o Water, air and electricity. Ventilation Illumination Also focus on structure and contents. Past Examples Cave and fire dilemma o Fire needed by mouth of cave. First chimney Doors and windows o Benoen period, found in Cretan houses. 2000 BC o Piece of mica was placed into windows. First swamp coolers o Fan moves through a cool material which makes water evaporate and cools the air. o First ones in Arizona, sheets would hang in window soaked in water and would let window blow through. o Also known as an “evap cooler.” Fireplaces Hot air rises. Burning causes smoke. Hearths o Located in the conter of the room. o Skara Brae had them. Chimney/Flue concept Gas Burning vs Wood Burning Franklin Stove o Made from cast iron. o Banned in Scottsdale for trying to stop pollution. Ventilation and Illumination Case Studies Pyramids o To support the construction of the pyramid o Carbon monoxide sinks and led to unfinished chambers. The Parthenon o The Athena statue 35 Feet Ivory and Gold Appeared Seamless o Kept room humid with steam and water. The Roman Era Pantheon o 28 Foot Oculus Allowed for light to enter and also helped with the ventilation of the structure and control temperature. Floor drain was placed below opening so that water could drain. o Everyone is equal because it is a circle. Coliseum/Colosseum o Large structure o Columns were lined up to let air and light through. VIDEO: Romans left no blueprints or technical plans. o Studied ruins of the baths. Romans were more functional people, then just aesthetics. Romans used solar heating to their advantage. The pool is heated by a hypocaust. o Hot gasses heat the floor and then exit through chimneys. The pantheon was the largest open air space in the world for a time. The main ingredient is limestone and heat it makes a very light material called quicklight. o All carbon dioxide is burned off. o When water is added it steams. The bath is heated to 40 centigrade. The first room you would go to in the bath would be warm, then hot and then cold room. Most pipes were made from lead. o Mineral deposits covered the lead pipes and therefor protected from lead poisoning. Password: warmhotcold Construction 101 – Week 8 – 3/1/20163/3/2016 The Hagia Sophia Byzantine Empire o Dome on a square base. Church of “Holy Wisdom” 102foot dome with 40 windows o Created the “dematerialization” effect. Middle Ages Situation o Smoky o Smelly o Poorly Ventilated Cashen Fisherman House o Originally no chimney so smoke would go through thatch roof and created fertilizer. o Oil lamps were used for light. Teepees (Tipi) o Smoke flap to allow ventilation. Could adjust temperature by how open or closed flap was. o Cold air would first mix in room before allowed to get to fire. The Kiva o Mesa Verde National Park o Occupied by Anasazi and Hopis o Vertical air shaft concept What We Do Today HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning). The oil and energy crisis impact. Sick building syndrome. o “Building that effects people in a negative way” o Many different ways that this occurs: Mold Legionaries Disease Sealed up house and not allowing enough fresh air. Carbon dioxide builds up. o Creates nonserious injuries. Illumination advances. “Smart Buildings” o Computer controls the environment. o Solar energy potential. o ABC arch building in Germany. Sick Building Syndrome Video: Symptoms are mild and wide spread. o Usually last a few hours when left. o People face different sensitivities. Very common complaints of tired, runny nose, watery eyes, and headache, but get better when leave. Hawthorn effect o Started from a lightbulb company, brighter the office the more productivity of workers. o Humans say what the interviewer wants to hear. 94% of people said they had at least 1 of the symptoms. Most often strikes buildings with air conditioning. Humidifier Fever o Flu like illness o Usually seen in industrial buildings. Lighting can be a cause. o Pulsating light can cause distraction even though it can’t be seen by the human eye. o Low conventional light is slightly slower. o High frequency lighting lowered the amount of headaches. Recycling air to save money instead of getting fresh air. Bringing in fresh air to get oxygen. Quiz Password: SBSvideo$ CHAPTER 8 Origins of Organized Work Force Egyptian Era (5000 years ago): o Two theories Slaves Farmers Greek Era (2500 years ago): o Mostly consisted of slavery Both for laborers and craftsmen o Less demand for laborer; more demand for skilled craftsman. Roman Era (2000 years ago): o More into functional building. o Work force consisted of: Mostly war prisoners as slaves Free men (Corvee System), also known as collegia and they were promoted from a slave. Soldiers o State steps in to control the Collegia with “rules”. Byzantine Era (1500 years ago): o Beginngs of freedom and association Not just craftsmen but laborers as well. Recognition for goals. Given some responsibilities. Middle Ages (5001000 years ago) o During this period: More respect More involvement More accomplished o Impact of the Monks Selftaught building skills Emphasis on teamwork Strong work ethics o Tadcaster Example Depended on skill level Depends on gender o Owner’s rules fostered organization. o Guild concept introduced Enhanced quality workmanship. Workers took pride in their work. o Origins of the “master” ranking Comparable to college level “Clerk of the works” analogous to our “project manager”. o The “ultimate” in owners rules o Two Mason groups: Hewers; cut the stones. Setters; set the stone (paid more) Renaissance to Victorian (100300 years ago) o Craftsman’s role declined. o Importance of recognition. o The joiner and the carpenter o Other trades and their culture. “The typical plumber” Culture of the Construction Worker Applebum’s ethnographic research. o Focused on union workers. o Four projects covered: Library Sewage treatment plants (2) Road and bridge product o Covered characteristics with functionality and responsibility. The “ThousandYard” Pour o Learned teamwork and cooperation saved the project. o Faced rain and broken pump. Comparison of construction worker to a factory worker. Craft Roles and Responsibilities Most important person is the craftsperson. They are the specialists of the construction industry. Each has an obligation to us. Arizona Builders Alliance Two work forces in the U.S o Union Sector (AGC) o NonUnion Sector (ABC) ABA o Combined the two into one group Lobbying, leadership, supervisory training, from AGC. Craft training from ABC.
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