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flashcards 1

by: Heidi Jones

flashcards 1 BIOL 11100-002

Heidi Jones

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flashcards most related to exam 1 for biology 111
Fundamentals of Biology 2
Athena Anderson
Biology 111
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This 30 page Bundle was uploaded by Heidi Jones on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 11100-002 at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology 2 in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
2 Laws of Thermodynamics 1) Energy cannot be created or destroyed-also called the law of conservation of energy 2) States that the transfer of energy or the transformation of energy from one source to another increases entropy 3 Domains 1. Bacteria 2. Archaebacteria 3. Eukarya 4 Macromolecules carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids 63% Hydrogen 95% of Living Organisms 25.5% Oxygen 9.5% Carbon 1.4% Nitrogen Less than .01% Trace Elements Acid A molecule that donates hydrogen ions to a solution raising the hydrogen ion concentration and decreasing the pH. Acidic Solution A solution with a pH below 7. Activation Energy The energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur Active Site Site where reaction occurs. Active Site Shape + Structure The shape and charge of the active site forces substrates to enter in a specific orientation. Adhesion The tendency of water molecules to stick to other surfaces that are electrically charged. Basis for capillary action. Allosteric Regulation A smallmolecule can serve asa regulator of an enzyme,even though it isnot part of the enzyme reaction. Allosteric Regulation Ex. To alter the binding of hemoglobin (especially at high altitudes or areas with low O2 pressure) a molecule called BPG (2,3-bisphosoglyceric acid) binds to an allosteric site on hemoglobin to stabilize the T state (essentially lowers the binding affinity of O2) such that more oxygen will be released in tissues. Alpha-Helix Secondary structure of backbone (NOT R-Groups).Backbone of the polypeptide coilsdue to hydrogen bonding with neg.-charged oxygen bondeE.g.,collagen.n atom of the carboxylgroup by a double covalent bond.Strong but flexible. Amino Acid General Structure Generalstructure:Amino group (NH2);carboxylgroup (COOH);centralcarbon;R group (can be one of 20 different molecules) Amino Group A chemicalgroup consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms;can act asa base in solution,accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of 1+. Amphipathic Molecules Amphipathicmoleculeshave bolayer.rophobicregionsand hydrophilicregions.E.g.,Phospholipidsin the phospholipid bi- Anabolism Building up of molecules. Endergonic Reactions: A + B + Energy → C + D Smaller → Bigger via Dehydration Synthesis. Analogous Organs Same function different structure Anion In an ionic bond, the atom that GAINS the electron becomes negatively charged. E.g., Cl-, O-2 Aqueous solution A solution in which water is the solvent Archaea Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls. Atom Smallest unit of each element that retains that element's characteristics. Atom The smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of the element that cannot be broken down naturally Atomic Theory Describesthe structure and behavior of atoms. 4° C. As it cools below 4° C., the molecules are moving so slowly that the 8 positive At what temperature is the density of charges (8 protons) in the oxygen nucleus repel the 1 positive charge in each hydrogen nucleus. water greatest? Repulsion of like charges becomes stronger than the force of the hydrogen bonds drawing the molecules together, and the molecules more slightly farther apart. Avogadro's Number Number of representative particles in a mole, 6.02 X 10^23 Backbone Straight line of single covalent bondsfrom the amino-nitrogen to central-carbon to carboxyl-carbon to the next amino- nitrogen to central-carbon to etc. Bacteria Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls. A molecule that receives hydrogen ions from a Base solution. Therefore bases lower the hydrogen ion concentration, making the pH value increase. Basic Levels of Protein Structure (4) Primary Structure STertiary Structure Quaternary Structure Basic Solution A solution with a pH above 7. Beta-Pleated Sheet Secondary strbonding.Providesstrength to a protein.bone of the polypeptide pleats(bends)due to hydrogen A large, naturally occurring community of flora Biome and fauna in a major habitat. E.g., Raleigh is an eastern temperate deciduous forest. Biosphere All the parts of the planet that are inhabited by living things; sum of all Earth's ecosystems. Boiling Point of Water 100° Celsius Celsius Boiling Point of Water 212° Fahrenheit. Fahrenheit Buffer Twodifferent version of the same molecule (one version acts as an acid and the other version as a base).E.g., the bicarbonate pathway. Capillary Action The tendency of water to rise up in a thin tube in "defiance" of gravity. E.g., glass capillary tubes; water rising up the trunk of a plant stem. Carbon Can form 4 covalent bonds- low electronegativity. Carbon 9.5% % in Living Organisms Carboxyl Group COOH;acidic. Carbon,double-bond O,OH. Carolus Linnaeus Swedish botanist who invented the taxon classification system in the late 1700s. Catabolism Breaking down of molecules Exergonic Reactions: A + B → C + D + Energy Bigger → Smaller via Hydrolysis Catalyst (3) Compounds that 2. Speed up reactiontion energy of a (spontaneous exergonic) reaction 3. Are not used up or permanently altered. E.g., enzymes. Cation In an ionic bond, the atom that LOSES the electron becomes positively charged. E.g., H+, K+ Ca++ Cell The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms. Cell A _____ is the lowest level of biological organization to have characteristics of life. Cell Theory All living organisms are composed of cells. They may be unicellular or multicellular. The cell is the basic unit of life. Cells arise from pre-existing cells. Cellular Regulation of Enzyme Activity 1. Cells regulate the production of enzymes according to their needs. 2. Cells produce enzymes in inactive form, only activating them when needed. 3. When adequate products for a specific enzymes reaction are already present in the cell, those products can inhibit the enzyme, a process called feedback inhibition. Cellulose Unbranched Beta-D-glucose molecules. Providesstrength to plant cellwallsthat support the plant.Bacteria have the enzyme cellulase which breaksdown cellulose. Cellulose (Linkage) Beta-1,4,glycosidiclinkages. Celsius to Fahrenheit °F = 1.8(°C) + 32 Central Dogma DNA →(transcription)→ mRNA →(translation)→ Protein. Charles Darwin Origin of the Species. Natural Selection Chemical Energy The energy contained within covalent bonds in molecules is also a type of potential energy Chemical Equilibrium The point at which the rate of formation of products equals the rate of formation of reactants Chemical Reaction A process in which one or more substances are changed into other substances. Chitin Nitrogen-containing "side-chain" creates "woven" fabric. Provides the strength to the exoskeleton of arthropods. Cis Bond The two hydrogensare on the SAME side of the carbon chain. Cis-Trans Isomers Moleculesthat differ from one another only in the relative positionsof the hydrogen atomsbonded to the carbon atomsat a carbon-to-carbon DOUBLE covalent bond. Cohesion The tendency of water molecules to stick to one another. This cohesiveness explains surface tension. Comfortable Room Temperature Low 20s Celsius Comfortable Room Temperature Low 70s Fahrenheit All of the populations (of separate species) living in the same geographical Community area but NOT producing. Ex. Wake Tech community consists of student population, cardinal population, crow population, etc. Two similar compounds can compete for the same Competetive Inhibition site in an enzyme, leading to competition inhibition (this is how a number of poisons act, ie methanol and ethanol). Compound A molecule consisting of at least two different types of atoms. E.g., water. Continuity of Life Heredity is possible through the continuity of life (DNA) Covalent Bonds Bondsin which atomsshare electrons. Affects about 1 in every 3,500 Americans. Cystic Fibrosis Homozygous (need 2 bad copies). the lungs. Missing amino acid (1 in 1700) prevents ATP from properly binding to protein to pump Cl- ions out of the cell. gene.hy Anderson found it to be a genetic disorder; Tsui, Collins, & Riordan identified CF Deductive Reasoning General principles are used to predict specific results. E.g., the pecies of an organism can be deduced from its characteristics Dehydration Synthesis Remove water to join monomers and form a polymer; anabolic; E.g., endergonic reactions - photosynthesis. Density The ratio of mass (the amount of matter) to volume (the amount of space occupied). A change in the sequence of nucleotide bases in the DNA will result in a Describe the Relationship Between change in the sequence of the nucleotide bases in the mRNA and this may Mutation and Central Dogma lead to a change in the sequence of the amino acids in the protein. This new sequence of amino acids in the protein could affect its function either positively or negatively. Development Change in characteristics of cells and / or certain genes/signaling Disaccharides (3) Twomonosaccharides joined together by dehydration synthesis. Sucrose Lactose Maltose Disulfide Bridge A single covalent bondtogether.sulfur atomsin the R-groupsof adjacent amino acidsthat "lock" the two amino acids Very strong relative to hydrogen bonda;responsible for polypeptide'sfunctionalshape. Divergent Evolution We are united by an evolutionary past. All stem from a limited # of single-celled organisms - life began on earth as primitive cells 3.5-4 billion years ago. Diversity Many types of environments with diverse organisms=speciation Domain A special region on the surface of the 3' or 4' Structure that has a special function. E.g., the active site of an enzyme molecule. Domain Archaea Unicellular prokaryotesthat often live in extreme environments,such ashot springs. Domain Bacteria Mostly unicellular prokaryotesthat inhabit many diverse environmentson Earth. Double Covalent Bond Two pairsof shared electrons(between the same two atoms).E.g.,O2 Ecosystem A biological community of organisms and their abiotic environment (temperature, sunlight, pH, etc.). Electron Electrical Charge: -1 Mass (Daltons): 1/1800 Location within atom: outside the nucleus The ability of an atom to attract shared electrons (those involved in covalent bonds). Electronegativity Dependent on: 2. Size of molecule (the more protons, the stronger the attraction).e attraction). 3. # of spaces in valence shells left to be filled. Electrons Electrons have almost no mass at all; exist in discrete energy levels outside of the nucleus. Elements Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances. Periodic Table. 117 elements. Emulsifier a substance (molecule) that is amphipathic and can therefore help to dissolve fatty and oily substances in a water-based product (such as ice cream or a facial lotion). Enantiomers Mirror-image isomers.E.g.,Glucose and galactose. Enantiomers Mirror-image isomers.E.g.,D-glucose and L-glucose. Dextro:right-handed Levo:left-handed Endergonic Reaction Reaction that RequiresEnergy A + B+ Energy → C + D The activation energy isgreater than the energy released upon completion of the reaction. Energy Capacity to cause change Energy It is define as the ability to promote change or do work. Energy Shell A region located a certain distance from the nucleus of an atom that can hold a certain amount of electrons in the electron cloud Energy Use To maintain their internal order, ________ is needed by organisms. Enthalpy H, it is the sum of all usable energy Entropy The degree of disorder of a system. Enzyme Proteins that act as biological catalysts to speed up thousands of different reactions in cells. End in 'ase. E.g., Amylase breaks down amylose to glucose; Lactase breaks down lactose to glucose and galactose. Lipase breaks down fats to fatty acids and glycerol. Enzymes (3) 1. Biological catalysts, usually made of proteins. 2. Highly specific, catalyzing only a few types of chemical reactions. 3. Often regulated by the molecules they act upon. Enzyme Structure The structure of enzymes allows them to catalyze specific reactions. Enzymes have a complex three-dimensional shape. The novel shapes of the substrate-enzyme complex force the reaction Enzyme / Substrate Complex forward. Typically reactions happen in multiple steps, each with a unique enzyme, thereby lowering high activation energy into more manageable steps. Eukarya Domain of all organisms whose cells have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi, and animals The property of a liquid whereby the surface Evaporative Cooling becomes cooler during evaporation, owing to a loss of highly kinetic molecules to the gaseous state. ANY change in the average characteristics of a population over Evolution time. Does not create new things;gives old things new uses (homologous structures).E.g., Milk Carton birdhouse. Hb: transport O2 in blood Examples of Proteins and Their Insulin: hormone involved in blood sugar regulation Keratin: structural support to hair, nails and horns Functions Actin and Myosin: aid in locomotion; skeletal muscle tissue. Collage: structural support to cartilage and other connective tissues. Amylase: an enzyme that begins breakdown of starch. Over North America, where much of horse evolution occurred, large areas changed Example: VD w/ Mod from dense forests to grasslands. The horses' increase in size allowed them to escape predators and travel great distances in search of food. The changes seen in horses' teeth are consistent with a dietary shift from eating more tender leaves to eating grasses and other vegetation that are more abrasive and require more chewing. Exergonic Reaction Reaction that ReleasesEnergy Glucose + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy The reaction willproceed to completion without a net input of energy. Requiresan initialpush to start;initialinput of energy iscalled the activation energy. Fahrenheit to Celsius °C = (°F-32)/1.8 Four Elements The mass of any living object is largely composed of 1.Hydrogen 2. Oxygen 3. Nitrogen 4. Carbon Dioxide Functional Groups Groups of atoms attached to carbon backbone which determine the properties of organic molecules. Functional Groups Groupsof atomsattached to carbon backbone which determine the propertiesof organicmolecules. Function of Nucleic Acids DNA, RNA, ATP Gene Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein. Gene A segment of DNA that is involved in producing a protein. We have 25,000 functional genes and over 3 billion nucleotides. General Structure of Amino Acids Amino group (NH2);carboxylgroup (COOH);centralcarbon;R group (can be one of 20 different molecules) Genome The complete genetic makeup of an organism, carries information to make its proteome GFP Jellyfisfluorescent protein isexpressed only in the proteome of only certain cells.e jellyfish,but the green where genesare expressed in a multicellular organism and where in a cella particular protein islocated. Glycogen "Animal Starch." Highly branched D-glucose. Stored in muscle and liver. Glycogen (Branching) Highly branched via Alpha-1,6 Glycosidiclinkages. Glycogen (Linkage) Alpha-1,4 Glycosidiclinkage. Heat of Fusion The energy released into the surrounding environment when one mole of a substance is converted from liquid to solid. Heat of Vaporization The amount of energy required for one mole of a substance to be converted from liquid to gas (vapor) at the substance's boiling point. High Specific Heat quality by which large amounts of heat are necessary to change the temperature of a body of water. Homologous Organs Organsor body partsthat are similar in structure and origin but have different usesin different animals Horizontal Gene Transfer The transfer of genesbetween cellsof the same generation.E.g.,penicillin resistant bacteria confersit'simmunity to other bacteria. How are unwanted proteins directed to Ubiqitins- a small protein that is proteasomes? covalently attached How do enzymes lower the activation Enzymes are generally large proteins that bind relatively small reactants. When bound to an enzyme, the bonds in energy barrier of chemical reactions? the reactants can be strained, thereby making it easier for them to achieve the transition state. Hydrogen NAtomic#:1. Mass#:1 Hydrogen Bonds Attraction between positive nad negative endsof two polar covalent molecules.Interaction;not an actualbond. Distinguished from a covalent bond by a dotted line. Hydrogen 63% % in Living Organisms Hydrolysis Add water to split a polymer; catabolic. E.g., exergonic reactions - cellular respiration. Hydrophilic Polar; does mix with water Hydrophobic Non-polar; does not mix with water The tendency of nonpolar molecules to aggregate Hydrophobic Exclusion together when placed in water. Exclusion refers to the action of water in forcing these molecules together. Hydroxyl Group -OH;acidic. Hypothesis A proposed idea. A proposed explanation for a naturalphenomenon based on previousobservationsor studies.Requireswork by Hypothesis (Long) Makestestable predictionssvalidity. Falsifiable - can be shown to be incorrect by additionalobservationsor experimentation. Researchersaccept the possibility that perhapsthey have not yet conceived of the correct hypothesis.After many hypothesisisproven.stsmay conclude that their hypothesisisconsistent with known data,but they should never say the Inductive Reasoning Specific observations are used to construct general scientific principles. Ionic Bond Attraction between a positive and negative ion- atoms form ions by gaining or loosing electrons. Ionic Bonds Electrons are TRANSFERRED from one atom to another. Ionic Compound A compound composed of positive and negative ions. An organism's ability to respond to environmental stimuli. E.g., kingdom animalia Irritability has high ___________. Is anabolic endergonic or exergonic? endergonic Isomers Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. Kinetic Energy It is energy associated with movement, such as the movement of a baseball bat from one location to another. Kingdom Animalia Multicellular organismsthat usually have a nervoussystem and are capable of locomotion.They must eat other organismsor the productsof other organisms. Kingdom Fungi Unicellular and multicellular organismsthat have a cellwallbut cannot carry out photosynthesis.Fungiusually survive on decaying organicmaterial. Kingdom Plantae Multicellular organismsthat carry out photosynthesis. Kingdom Protista Unicellular and sevolutionary relationships.that are now subdivided into seven broad groupsbased on their Lactose Disaccharide: Glucose Galactose Lipids Hydrophobic fats, waxes, phospholipids, steroids Macromolecule Monomer's bonded together Macromolecules (4) Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids Maltose Disaccharide: Glucose Fructose Mass A measure (in grams) of the amount of matter an object contains. Mass A measure in grams of the amount of matter in an object Matter Anything that has mass and occupies space. Metabolic Pathway Sequencesof reactionsare linked together for a finalend-product.E.g.,glycolysis,gluconeogenesis,cellular respiration. Metabolism The sum of all chemical reactions in a cell. Metabolism Sum total of all chemical reactions that occur within an organism. Methyl Group CH3;nonpolar. A chemicalgroupcarbon or to a different atom. to three hydrogen atoms.The methylgroup may be attached to a Minerals Less than 1% % in Living Organisms Molecular Formula Chemical symbols of elements found in a molecule. Subscript indicates how many atoms are present. Molecule 2 or more atoms bonded together (actual monomers are many more than 2) Molecule 2 or more atoms bonded together. Moles 6.022X10^23 Monomer Building blocks of polymers; links in chain Monomer Two or more molecules bonded together. Monomer of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides - e.g., glucose Monomer of Lipids Fatty Acids Monomer of Nucleic Acids Nucleotides Monomer of Proteins Amino Acids Simple sugars. Monosaccharides (5) Glucose Fructosee Ribose Deoxyribose Motif Commonly encountered pattern of secondary structures that is characteristic of particular proteins (especially those involved in regulating the expression of genes). Mutation Any change in the sequence of the nucleotide bases in the DNA of an individual. Random changes in the genetic material of organisms. Mutations that alter the traits of an organism such that their chances of Natural Selection surviving and reproducing are increased. When a mutation causes a beneficial change, frequency of the mutation may increase in a population from one generation to the next. Neutron Electrical Charge: 0 Mass (Daltons): 1 Location within atom: in the nucleus Nitrogen 1.4% % in Living Organisms Non-Polar CANNOT form hydrogen bonds; subject to hydrophobic exclusion. Octet Rule States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons. Orbital The region of space surrounding the nucleus where there is a high probability of finding a particular electron. Can hold only 2 electrons. Organ Tissues cooperating together for a common purpose. Organelle Subpart of a cell that performs a particular function - e.g., mitochondrion. Organism (Species) Each individual is a group of organ systems cooperating together for a common purpose. Organization of Life Growth & development is possible through the organization of life Organ System Organs cooperating together for a common purpose. Origin of Life 3.8 Billion Years Ago Oxygen 25.5% % in Living Organisms Peptide Bonds The bonds between the amino acids are single covalent bonds. pH of Acid Rain 5.0 Phosphate Group PO4[3-];very polar;energy. Phosphorousbonded to 4 O (3 negative,1 double bonded),bonded to carbon skeleton by an oxygen. Polar CAN form hydrogen bonds Polar Covalent Bond Bond in which atoms share electrons UNEQUALLY resulting in positive and negative ends. Electrons Are Not Always Evenly Shared Between Atoms Polarity Covalent bonds form when two atoms of significantly different electronegativities share electrons in covalent bonds. Polymer Many monomers bonded together. Polymer Chain of connected polymers Polypeptide Many amino acids bonded together in a long chain. The # of _________ is the only distinction between tertiary and quaternary structure of a protein. More than two monosaccharides joined together by dehydration synthesis. Polysaccharides (4) Starch Cellulose Chitin Population A group of organisms of the same species populating and REPRODUCING in a given area. Potential Energy It is the energy that a substance possesses due to its structure or location. Primary (1') Structure The sequence of amino acids. Prokarya Domain of all anucleated organisms with cell walls, including archaea and bacteria. Proline Causesa bend in the "backbone" of the polypeptide. Proteome The complete complement of proteins that a cell or organism can make Proton Electrical Charge: +1 Mass (Daltons): 1 Location within atom: in the nucleus Quaternary (4') Structure The folding pattern.3-D Shape ismaintained by a variety of different typesof chemicalbondsbetween and among R- The functionalstructure if the protein ismade up of more than one polypeptide. R-Groups (4) 20 Different R-Groups Categorized into 4 Main Types: 1. Polar 2. Non-polar 3. Sulfur-containing 4. Proline Ribose and Deoxyribose Monosaccharides that make up a part of every nucleotide (building blocks of nucleic acids). Science The observation, identification, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena. Secondary (2') Structure Localfolding maintained by short-distance interactionsthe result of hydrogen bonding. 2 Common Secondary Structures 1.Alpha-helix 2.Beta-pleated sheet Sickle Cell Difference between one R goup of a protein in red blood cells. Sickle Cell Difference between one R goup of a protein in red blood cells Single Covalent Bond One pair of shared electrons.E.g.,H2 Sodium Atom AMass#:131 Solar System 4.5 Billion Years Ago Specific Heat The amount of energy that is needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1° C. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of Specific Heat 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius. Specific heat of water is 1 cal/((g)Celsius). Starch Moderately branched polymer of D-glucoses[10K - 500K in each molecule] joined together by a single covalent "bridge." Plant energy storage;fairly insoluble. Starch (Linkage) Alpha-1,4 Glycosidiclinkage. Stereoisomers Same molecular formula,identicalbonding relationshipsbut a different spatialpositioning of the atoms. 12.Enantiomersmers Structural Isomers Moleculeswith the same number of the same kind of atoms,but those atomsare bonded to each other in different patterns(different bonding relationships).E.g.,glucose,fructose,galactose Structural Isomers C3H7OH Isopropyl Alcohol and Propyl Alcohol Difference:The location of the hydroxylgroup;terminalin propylalcoholand centralin isopropylalcohol. Structure of an Atom Heterogeneous - different structure in different parts of the atom. Subatomic Particles Protons, neutrons and electrons. Substrate / Active Site When the substrates enter the active site both the active site and the substrate change shape. Substrates Reactant upon which the enzyme acts. Sucrose Disaccharide: Glucose Glucose Sulfhydryl Group SH A functionalgroup consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. Sulfur-Containing Can form DISULFIDE BRIDGES. Surface Tension The result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together. Taxonomy Grouping of species based on common ancestry Temperature A measure of kinetic energy (the energy of motion). Maintained by a variety of different types of chemical bonds. Tertiary + Quaternary Structure Bonds 2. ionic (adjacent ionized R groups [also polar]), 3. hydrophobic exclusion (of nonpolar R groups) 4. single covalent bonds (disulfide bridges between sulfur atoms in adjacent R groups [cysteine and methionine] only) 5. Van der Waals forces. Tertiary (3') Structure The folding pattern.3-D Shape ismaintained by a variety of different typesof chemicalbondsbetween and among R- groupsand surrounding water. The tertiary structure isthe functionalstructure if the protein ismade up of only one polypeptide. Theory A broad explanation backed by extensive evidence. Theory Broad explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is substantiated by a large body of evidence. Allows us to make many predictions. Also can never be proved true A broad explanation of some aspect of the natural world substantiated by a large Theory (Long) body of evidence. Biological theories incorporate observations, hypothesis testing, and the laws of other disciplines such as chemistry and physics. Cannot be proven true. genes.theory that DNA is the genetic material and that it is organized into units called Tissue Cells cooperating together for a common purpose. Trace Elements Less than .01% % in Living Organisms Trans Bond The two hydrogensare on opposite sidesof the carbon chain.E.g.,transfats;retinal. Transcription The process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA. Translation The process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm. Triple Covalent Bond Three pairsof shared electrons(between the same two atoms).E.g.,N2 Unity Common traits rooted in biological evolution. Progression of changes in a lineage; new species Vertical Descent with Modification evolve from pre-existing species by the accumulation of mutations that are selected for by natural selection. Vertical Descent with Mutation Vertical Descent refers to reproduction: parents → offspring → parents → offspring Mutation: any change in the sequence of DNA nucleotides. New species evolve from pre-existing species by the Vertical Evolution accumulation of mutations, which are random changes in the genetic material of organisms. Volume A measure of the amount of space an object occupies. Water Dissociates Basis of pH 1 out of every 10 million (1 X 10^-7)water moleculesin a typicalsample of water willbreak apart to form two ions,a positive 1 hydrogen ion (proton)and a negative 1 hydroxide ion (also called a hydroxylion). Water's Heat of Vaporization More than 5x the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a mole of water all the way from 0° celsius up to 100° celsius. Weight The force of gravity on a given mass. What are coenzymes? Vitamins. Organic molecules that temporarily bind to an enzyme and participate in the chemical reaction but are left unchanged after the reaction is completed. What are cofactors? Minerals. Usually inorganic ions, such as Fe3 or Zn2, that temporarily bind to the surface of an enzyme and promote a chemical reaction. What are competitive inhibitors? Molecules that bind to the active site of an enzyme and inhibit the ability of the substrate to bind. To be degraded, proteins are recognized by What are proteases? proteases— enzymes that cleave the bonds between adjacent amino acids. What are the 2 Mechanisms of 1. Vertical descent with modification Evolutionary Change? 2. Horizontal gene transfer What are the 4 Eukarya Kingdoms? 1. Protists 2. Fungi 3. Plantae 4. Animalia Organization of Life What are the 4 Properties of Life? Continuity of Life Unity Diversity A series of steps followed to solve problems What are the 5 Steps of the Scientific 1. Collect data 2. Form a hypothesis Method? 3. Test the hypothesis 4. Analyze data 5. State conclusions 1. Cells & organization What are the 7 characteristics of life? 2. Energy use & metabolism 3. Irritability 4. Homeostasis 6. Reproductionelopment 7. Biological evolution What are the three ways metabolic Through genes, cellular, and pathways are regulated? biochemical What do cells use to drive endergonic ATP reactions? What does it mean that water has a Heat causes hydrogen bonds in water to "high heat capacity"? break and reform repeatedly- this uses up a lot of the energy from heat What does it mean that water is "the Polar molecules dissolve easily in water universal solvent"? because of the positive and negative ends of the polar covalent bonds What is a catalyst? It is an agent that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being permanently changed or consumed. What is affinity? degree of attraction—between the enzyme and substrate. What is a half-life? It is the time it takes for 50% of the molecules to be broken down and recycled. The synthesis of larger molecules via dehydration synthesis. What is anabolic systhesis What is an active site? It is the location in an enzyme where the chemical reaction takes place. What is an induced fit? Conformational changes cause the substrates to bind more tightly to the enzyme. What is a rate-limiting step? which is the slowest step in a pathway. If the rate- limiting step is inhibited or enhanced, such changes will have the greatest impact on the formation of the product of the metabolic pathway. What is a substrate? The substratesfor an enzyme are the reactant moleculesthat bind to an enzyme at the active site and participate in the chemicalreaction. What is ATP? Adenosine Triphosphate, is a molecule that is common energy source for all cells What is ATP broken into? ADP What is catabolic synthesis? The breakdown of substances via hydrolysis. In which the product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an enzyme that acts early in the What is feedback inhibition? pathway, thus preventing the overaccumulation of the product What is oxidation The removal of one or more electrons make it positive and available What is phosphorylation? When a phosphate is directly transferred from ATP to g


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