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Northern Renaissance (Germany, Netherlands, England)

by: Meredith Morris

Northern Renaissance (Germany, Netherlands, England) ART 1023

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > History > ART 1023 > Northern Renaissance Germany Netherlands England
Meredith Morris
GPA 3.22

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About this Document

The rest of the notes for Test 2. Northern Renaissance (Germany, Netherlands, and England). Includes Reformation, Albert Dürer - Adam and Eve, Grünwald - Isenheim Altarpiece, Hieronymus Bosch - Las...
History of Art 2
Benjamin Harvey
Art History, Northern Renaissance, Germany, Netherlands, england, reformation
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Meredith Morris on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ART 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Benjamin Harvey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see History of Art 2 in History at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Northern Renaissance (Germany, Netherlands, England) 1. Some differences between Protestant and Catholic attitudes to art (during the Reformation and Counter – Reformation) a. Catholic i. Art objects are still considered to have quasi – magical properties and to offer access to “the divine” ii. The Council of Trent (1545 – 63) reaffirms the traditional place of art objects in devotional life. The inquisition “encourages” the production of “appropriate” works. iii. Devotional images are thought to support scripture, instruct believers, and teach the illiterate iv. Paintings, sculptures, etc. remain in churches, and continue to serve a devotional function v. Religious patronage remains important b. Protestant i. Fear of Idolatry… that worshipping objects might nd mean worshipping “false idols” (2 commandment) ii. Dislike of “intermediaries” (the church, the pope, priests, the “cult of the saints,” the supposedly disproportionate worship of Mary or “Mariolatry”, etc.) iii. Stress on scripture as “the word of God” and the direct path to him. Prints are considered an acceptable art from, where images support or “illustrate” text iv. Waves of iconoclasm sweep Northern Europe. Art objects are destroyed in churches and walls are whitewashed v. Religious commissions dry up for artists. General shift to secular patronage and secular themes. Growth in an “art market” 2. Albert Dürer, Adam and Eve, 1504, engraving (fourth state) a. Growth in printed materials (pint in ink on paper) b. Simplest form of print is woodcut c. Intaglio – type of printmaking d. Different mark making reveals different textures well (ground compared to fur) e. Animal imagery – each of the four animals in the fore ground relates to a humor (behavior and personality types) i. Elk: Melancholic (black bile) ii. Cat: Choleric (yellow bile) iii. Rabbit: Sanguine (blood) iv. Ox: Phlegmatic (phlegm) 3. Grünwald, Isenheim Altarpiece, c. 1510 – 15, oil on panel a. Devotional works b. Devoted to Saint Anthony c. Ergotism – disease d. Closed – Crucifixion, with, on the fixed wings, Saint Sebastian (left) and Saint Anthony Abbot (right). Lamentation scene on the predella e. First Opening – Virgin and Child with Angels, with Annunciation (left panel) and Resurrection (right panel). Lamentation scene on the predella f. Second Opening – Nicolas Hagenau’s 1490 Shrine (Saint Anthony Enthroned between Saints Augustine and Jerome), with Grünwald’s The Meeting of Saint Anthony and Saint Paul (left panel) and Temptation of St. Anthony (right panel). Christ and disciples on the predella. g. Inscription – “He must increase, but I must decrease.” 4. Hieronymus Bosch, Last Judgment Triptych, oil on panel, 1504 - 08 a. Fascinated by human frailty and punishment (Bosch and commissioner) b. Difficult artist to track (didn’t progress much) c. Closed shows two outer wings (monochromatic) – Saint James (left), pilgrims shell/ Saint Barbough (right), local saint – seem to be devout men on a journey d. Open shows the frailties of mankind (almost an origin story of Lucifer) i. Left: Fall of the rebel angels (top), God creating Adam and Eve – eve being pulled out of Adam’s rib, and expulsion from Eden (bottom) ii. Center: Last Judgment (top), Limbo and the seven deadly sins (bottom) 1. Gluttony (being forced to drink from an excrement filled barrel – drank all through life > forced to drink in hell) paired with Greed (being fried/ boiled into metal) – shows Bosch’s humor and wit 2. Vanity – nude female wrapped in an insect iii. Right: Hell and Satan (almost featureless black figure) 1. Souls being read from a book 2. Doorway behind Satan 5. Dürer, Four Apostles, 1526, oil on panel a. Not commissioned by a church or cathedral b. Intended to hang in the city hall (gift from the artist makes the painting acceptable) c. Diptych format – John the Evangelist (front left) and Peter (back left), Saint Mark (back right) and Saint Paul (front right) i. Each holding books (not in Latin but in German – more widely readable) ii. John opening his own book for Peter to look at and asking him to read the beginning (“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” John 1:1) d. Presented the work to the civic authority rather than a church (during a time where attitude towards are was shifting dramatically) e. Arguing against iconoclasm (don’t blame the artist) 6. Lucas Cranach, The Law and Gospel (or Law and Grace), circa 1529, oil on wood panel a. Ideas shared by a lot during this period b. Biblical excerpts at the bottom of the painting c. Left: bad side (landscape withering) d. Right: preferred/ virtuous side (Landscape flourishing and vibrant) i. Devil and skeleton from left side being defeated ii. Resurrection and annunciation e. Last judgment – Christ at the top with his left hand down and his right hand up (right), skeleton poking the souls (left) f. Cranach’s point of view is obvious in this work g. Other versions done in one composition rather than two 7. Hans Holbein the Younger, The French Ambassadors, 1533, oil and tempera on wood panel a. Unusual/ notable square format b. Double layer table between the two subjects shows their wealth (lavish objects and clothing) c. Double portrait i. Jean de Dinteville (aristocrat and patron? 29 years old) ii. Georges de Selve (Bishop of Lavaur, 25 years old) d. Objects relate, thematically, to the subjects e. Painted in beautiful, minute detail f. Floor resembles the floors of Westminster Abbey g. Sometimes called the vanitas theme (Vanity Theme) h. Anamorphic skull shown in a different perspective (death is all around but sometimes we choose not to look at it 8. Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Netherlandish (Dutch) Proverbs, 1559, oil on wood panel a. Good example of an unusual subject matter b. Fits illustrations of the little proverbs into the landscape c. The world is turned upside down (everything is the opposite of what it should be d. To band one’s head against a brick wall (to try to achieve the impossible) e. To have the roof tiled with tarts f. Sharks eat smaller fish g. If the blind leas the blind both fall in a ditch (no need following someone equally as ignorant) h. To look through one’s fingers (to turn a blind eye) i. She puts the blue cloak on her husband (she deceives him) j. They both crap through the same hole (they are inseparable comrades)/ It hangs like a privy over a ditch k. “Een knip oog,” meaning “snip-eye,” or wink Images Albert Dürer, Adam and Eve Hieronymus Bosch, Last Judgment Triptych Grünwald, Isenheim Altarpiece Dürer, Four Apostles Lucas Cranach, The Law and Gospel (or Law and Grace)   Hans Holbein the Younger, The French Ambassadors Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Netherlandish (Dutch) Proverbs


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