New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

flashcards 2

by: Heidi Jones

flashcards 2 BIOL 11100-002

Heidi Jones

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

flashcards most related to exam 2 for biology 111
Fundamentals of Biology 2
Athena Anderson
Biology 111
75 ?




Popular in Fundamentals of Biology 2

Popular in Biology

This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by Heidi Jones on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 11100-002 at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology 2 in Biology at Purdue University.


Reviews for flashcards 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/03/16
the amount of energy that activation energy reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start a protein that binds to activator DNA and stimulates gene transcription the specific region of an active site enzyme that binds the substrate and that forms the pocket in which catalysis occurs a catabolic pathway for organic molecules, using oxygen as the aerobic repiration final electron acceptor in an electron transport chain and ultimately producing ATP glycoysis followed by the reducation of pyruvate to alcohol fermentation ethyl alcohol, regenerating NAD+ and releasing carbon dioxide the binding of a regulatory allosteric regulation molecule to a protein at one site that affects the funciton of the protein at a different site a metabolic pathway in which inorganic molecules other than anabolic oxygen accept electrons at the "downhill" end of electron transport chains the requirement that a anchorage dependence cell must be attatche dto a substratum in ordre to initiate cell division a radial array of short asters microtubules that extends from each centrosome toward the plasma membrane in an animal cell undergoing mitosis an adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that ATP releases free energy when its phophate bonds are hydrolyzed a complex of several membrane protiens that functions in ATP synthase chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chians, using the energy of a hydrogen ion (proton) concentration gradient ot make ATP an organism that obtains organic food molecules without autotroph eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms a metabolic sequence that beta oxidation breaks fatty acids down to 2- carbon fragments that enter the citric cycle as acetyl CoA a method of asexual binary fission reproductoin by "division in half" in C4 plants, a type of photosynthetic cell arranged bundle sheath cells into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf plant that uses the calvin cycle for C3 plants the intial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming 3-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate a plant in which the calvin cycle is C4 plants preceded by reactions that incorporate CO2 into a 4-carbohn compound, the end product of which CO2 for the Calvin cycle the second of two major stages in calvin cycle photosynthesis (follwing light reactions), involving fixation of atmospheric CP2 and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate a plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, and CAM plants adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions a metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking catabolic down complex molecules into simpler molecules a cyclically operating set of molecules in the eukaryotic cell cell control system that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle a membrane-bounded, flattended sac located at the cell plate midline of a dividing plant cell, inside which the new cell wall forms during cytokenesis the catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which cellular respiration break down organic molecules and use an electron transport chain for the production of ATP in duplicated chromosome, the region on each sister chromatid centromeres where they are most closely attached ot each other by protiens that bind to specific DNA sequences a structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that centrosomes functions as a microtubule- organizing cetner and is important during cell division a control point in the cell checkpoints cycle where stop and go- ahead signals can regulate the cycle energy avialible in molecules for release in chemical energy a chemical reaction; a form of potential energy an energy-coupling mechanism and that uses energy stored in the form chemiosmosis of hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as synthesis of ATP a photosynthetic pigment that chlorophyll a participates directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy an organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that chloroplasts aborbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2 and H2O the complex of DNA and chromatin proteins that make up eukaryotic chromosomes a cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in chromosomes the nucleus of eukaryotic cells a chemical cycle involving 8 steps that completes the metabolic citic acid cycle break-down of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing acetyl CoA to CO2 the first sign of cleavage in an cleavage animal cell; a shallow groove around the cell in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate a substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by competitive inhibitor entering the active site in place of the substrate, whose structure it mimics a kind of allosteric regulation whereby a shape change in one subunit of a cooperativity portein caused by susbtrate binding is transmitted to all other subunits, facilitating binding of additional substrate molecules to those subunits a route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis cyclic electron flow that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP but not NADPH or O2 a protien kinase that is cyclin-dependent active only when kinases attatched ot a particular cyclin a cellular protien that occurs in a cyclically fluctuating cyclins concentration and that plays an important role in regulating the cell cycle the dicision of the cytoplasm to form two separate cytokinesis daughter cells immediately after mitosis, meiosis I or meiosis II the phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that cuases density-dependent them to stop dividing when they inhibition come into contact with one another a sequence of electron carrier electron transport molecules that shuttle electrons down a series of redox reactions chain that release energy used to make ATP a non-spontaneous endergonic chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings the capacity to cause energy change, especially to do work (to move matter against an opposing force) in cellular metabolism, the energy coupling use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction entropy a measure of disorder, or randomness a macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that enzymes increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction a spontaneous chemical exergonic reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy a method of metabolic conrol in feedback inhibition which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway a catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose fermentation without an ETC and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ehty alchol or lactic acid the principle of conservation of energy: energy can be first law of transferred and transformed, thermodynamics but it cannot be created or destroyed the portion of biological system's energy that can free energy perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system the first gap, or growth phase, G1 phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the protion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins the second gap, or growht G2 phase phase, of the cell cycle, consisitng of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs a haploid reproductive gametes cellm such as an egg or sperm genome the genetic material of an organism or virus a series of reactions glycolysis that ultimately splits glucose into pyruvate caused by entry of substrate, the induced fit change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate the period in the cell interphase cycle when the cell is not dividing the energy associated kinetic energy with the relative motion of objects a structure of proteins kinetochores attatched to the centromere that links each siter chromatid to the mitotic spindle glycoysis followed by the lactic acid fermentation reducation of pyruvate to ethyl alcohol, regenerating NAD+ with no release of CO2 a complex of protiens associated with pigment molecules that light harvesting captures light energy and transfers complexes to reaction-center pigments in a photosystem these reactions convert solar light reactions energy to the chemical of ATP and NADPH, releasing oxygen in the process a route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis linear electron flow that involves both photosystem I andII and that produces ATP, NADPH and O2 a cancerous tumor containing malignant tumors cells that have significant genetic and cellular changes and are capable of invading and surviving in new sites a series of chemical reactiosn metabolic pathways that iether builds up a complex (anabolic) or breaks down a complex molecule to simpler molecules (catabolic) the toatlity of an organism's metabolism chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways, which manage the material and enrgy resources of the organism an imaginary structure located at a plane midway between the two poles of the cell in metaphase on metaphase plate which the centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes are located the spread of cancer metastasis cells to locations distant from their original site a process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally mitosis divided into 5 stages: porphase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase the phase of the cell mitotic phase cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis an assemblage of microtubules and associated mitotic spindle proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis nicotinamide adenine dinuleotide, a coenzyme that cycles easily NAD+ between oxidized NAD+ and reduced NADPH states, thus acting as an electron carrier nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, an electron acceptor NADP+ that, as NADPH, temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions a substance that reduces the activity of noncompetitive an enzyme by binding to a location remote from active site, changin the inhibitor enzyme's shape so that the acgive site no longer effectively catalyzes the conversion of substrate to product the complete or partial oxidation loss of elctrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction the production fo ATP oxidativ using energy derived phosphorylation from the redox reactions of an ETC a molecule with a phosphat group covalently bound to it phosphorylated making it more reactive (less intermediate stable) than the unphosphorylated molecule a quantam, or discrete photon quantity, of light energy that behaves as if it were a particle a metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and ATP, photorespiration releases carbon dioxide, and decreases photosynthetic output the conversion of light photosynthesis energy to chemical energy that is stored in sugars or other organic compounds a light-captureing unit located in the thylakoid membrane of the chlorplast photosystem int the membrane of some prokaryotes, consisting of a reaction-center complex surrounded by numerous light- harvesting complexes a light-capturing unit in a chloroplast's thylakoid photosystem I membrane or in the membrane of some prokaryotes one of the two light-capturing units in a chloroplasts photosystem II thylakoid membrane or in the membrane of some prokaryotes the energy that matter potential energy posses as a result of its location or spacial arrangement (structure) in the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast or in the membrane of some primary electron prokaryotes, a specialzed molecule that shares the reaction-center complex with acceptor a pair of chlorophyll a molecuels and that accepts an electron form them the potential stored in the form of a proton electrochemical gradient, proton-motive force generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions (H+) across abiological membranes during chemiosmosis a complex of proteins reaction center associated with a speecial pair complex of chlorophyll a molecules and primary electron acceptor a chemical reaction involving the complete or partial redox reactions transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another the complete or partial addition of electrons to a reduction substance involved in redox reactions the principle stating that second law of every energy transfer or thermodynamics transformation increases the entropy of the universe two copies of a duplicated chromosome attatched ot sister chromatids each toehr by proteins at the centromere and, sometimes, along the arms any cell in a multicellular organism except a somatic cells sperm or egg or their precursors the synthesis phase of S phase the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated a process that occurs without spontaneous processes an overall input of energy; a process that is energeticaly favorable the dense fluid within the chloroplast surrounding the stroma thylakoid membrane and containing ribosomes and DNA substrate the reactant on which an enzyme works a flattened, thylakoids membranous sac inside a chloroplast the portion of electromagnetic specturem that can be detected visible light as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength form about 380 nm to about 750 nm the distance between crests wavelengths of waves such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.