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flashcards 3

by: Heidi Jones

flashcards 3 BIOL 11100-002

Heidi Jones

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flashcards most relating to exam 3, set # 1
Fundamentals of Biology 2
Athena Anderson
Biology 111
75 ?




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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Heidi Jones on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 11100-002 at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology 2 in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
The Cell Cycle: Interphase G1 - The cell grows to maturity. G0 - Metabolically active, the functional lifetime. S - DNA replication occurs. G2 - The cell prepares for cell division. The Cell Cycle: Mitosis - Anaphase Sister chromatids seperate and move to opposite ends. The Cell Cycle: Mitosis - Cytokinesis The physical division of the cytoplasm. Animals - Forms a cleavage furrow or "pinch". Plants - It begins with the formation of a cell plate, which later forms the cell wall. The Cell Cycle: Mitosis - Metaphase The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. The Cell Cycle: Mitosis - Prophase 1.Nucleusdisappears. 3.The spindle apparatusmade of protein fibersstartsforming.The spindle fibersattach to each sister chromatid at a specialprotein called a kinetochore. !!!In animals,the spindle apparatusalso formsan aster.In plants,it doesnot.!!! The Cell Cycle: Mitosis - Telophase 1. Nucleus reforms. 2. Chromosomes uncoil. 3. Spindle apparatus disappears. Cell Division - Eukaryotic Cells (Humans) • It is arranged in chromosomes. • Chromosomes have regions called heterochromatin and euchromatin. Cell Division - Prokaryotic Cells (Bacteria) • DNA is simple. • A singular circular piece. • Cells divide by fission. Equal expression of two traits. Good example is Blood Type. Co-Dominance "Ao (Can only take A and O) Bo (Can only take B and O) AoBo (Can take any) O (Can take only O)" Complete Dominance In complete dominance,the effect of one allele in a heterozygousgenotype completely masksthe effect of the other. Thisallele that masksthe other issaid to be dominant to the latter,and the allele that ismasked issaid to be recessive to the former. "A - TallAA - Tall a - Short Aa - Tall aa - Short" Cyclin-dependant protein kinases or CDK are proteins that once activated Control of the Cell Cycle: Cyclin promote cell division. Control System Cyclin are proteins that bind to and activates CDK's. •G2 cyclin binds toCDK forming Mitosis Promoting Factor (MPF). •MPF accumulates until a critical mass is reached.At this point, G2 ends and mitosis begins. Control of the Cell Cycle: G2 •In multicellular Eukaryotes, mitosis is dependent on Growth •We know of approximately 50 Growth Factors.Some are veryns in G0. Checkpoint common, others are rare.For some cells, like skin cells, the Growth Factors are very common.These cells divide constantly.Others, like nerve cells, remain in G0.If they are damaged, they donot grow back because the Growth Factor is not there. • Heterochromatin: Remains condensed at all times and is not expressed or Eukaryotic Cells (Humans) - used. Chromosome Regions • Euchromatin: This is condensed only during cell division. The rest of the time, it is uncoiled and is expressed or used. The Genotype Genotype is the allele combination (e.g., AA, Aa or aa). The chromosomes are made of genes, the location of the gene is referred to as The Homologous Pair an allele. Each gene occurs in pairs at the exact same location on both homologous chromosomes. The genes can be different forms. Human Chromosomes Humans have 46 chromosomes. These are arranged into 23 homologous pairs. Incomplete Dominance The heterozygote hasa different phenotype than the homozygousdominant or recessive.There isa mixing of traits. a - White Aa - Pink aa - White" Key Events of Meiosis: Crossover Crossover is the exchange of genetic forms between adjacent homologous chromosomes. Random or Independent Assortment of homologous Key Events of Meiosis: Independent Assortment chromosomes occur in Metaphase I. There is no "left" or "right" chromosome. Key Events of Meiosis: Reductive Reductive Division: Cell goes from Diploid 2n to Haploid 1n. This is the Division end result of Meiosis I. Before each type of division, the cell Meiosis Division Preparation replicates the DNA. Each chromosome replicates forming a sister chromatid. These sister chromatids are joined by a centromere. Meiosis I - Separation of Meiosis: Two Divisions - Meiosis I homologous pairs. This is the end result. Meiosis: Two Divisions - Meiosis II Meiosis II - Separation of sister chromatids. Improper separation of Non-Disjunction chromosomes during meiosis. It results in one chromosome too many or one too few. Klinefelter Syndrome, also known as XXY syndrome, occurs in ♂ only. Non-Disjunction: Klinefelter Genotype: XXY Syndrome Phenotype: • Very tall. • Sterile. • Can develop secondary female sexual characteristics. Non-Disjunction: Trisomy 21 Trisomy 21 or down symdrome occursin both ♂ and ♀. Phenotype:• Characteristicfacialfeatures. • Shorter than average height and lifespan. • Diminished mentalcapacity. Turner's Syndrome occurs is ♀ only. Non-Disjunction: Turner's Genotype : X Phenotype: • She is sterile. Syndrome • She does not develop the secondary sexual characteristics. Remains a "little girl". The Phenotype Phenotype is the manifestation of genotype (e.g., tall, short, dark, curly hair). Punnett Squares Test crosses - Todetermine if an individual is AA or Aa. (Homozygous recessive is the only one you can be certain of.) Guardian Angel gene, also known as P53. Recent Cancer Research: P53 During DNA replication, this gene monitors the DNA. If there is a mistake, the gene repairs it. If the change is too great, it kills the cell. In the cancer cells studied, this cell is inactive. Recent Cancer Research: Tumor The tumor suppressor gene suppressor gene regulates cyclin binding to CDK's. Cells involved are gametes or sex cells. The Two Types of Cell Division - This is for sexual reproduction only. After division, each cell has 23 Meiosis chromosomes, one from each homologous pair, haploid or 1n. The cells involved are somatic or body The Two Types of Cell Division - cells. This is for growth, development and repair. After division, each cell has Mitosis all 46 chromosomes in 23 homologous pairs, diploid or 2n. What is the benefit of crossover Increased Genetic Diversity! and independent assortment?


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