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flashcards 5

by: Heidi Jones

flashcards 5 BIOL 11100-002

Heidi Jones

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flashcards mostly for the final exam for biology 111
Fundamentals of Biology 2
Athena Anderson
Biology 111
75 ?




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This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by Heidi Jones on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 11100-002 at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology 2 in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
actin filaments play a role in the movement of the cell and its organelles. is transport of specific solutes across plasma active transport membranes against the concentration gradient through use of cellular energy (ATP). adaptations organism's modification in structure, function, or behavior that better suits the environment. ADP nucleotide with two phosphate groups that can accept another phosphate group and become ATP. alleles anternate form of a gene. (occur at the same locus on homologous chromosomes. anabolism simple substances and synthesized into larger molecules. anaphase sister chromatids separate and become daughter chromosomes that move toward the spindle poles. aneuploidy a change in the chromosome number resulting in nondisjunction during meiosis. angiogenesis formation of new blood vessels. channel protein through which aquaporin water diffuse across a membrane. atomic mass the sum of protons and neutrons. atomic number number of protons. autosomal dominant individual with the alleles (AA) or (Aa) has the disorder. autosome any chromsome other than a sex chromosome. an organism that is capable of synthesizing its autotroph own food from inorganic substances, using light or chemical energy. autsomal recessive only individuals with the alleles (aa) have the disorder. benign mass of cells derived from a single mutated cell that has repeatedly undergone cell division but has remained at the site of origin. binary fission prokaryotic cell produces two daughter cells indentical to original cell. (asexual reproduction) binomial nomenclature scientific name of an organism, the first part of which designates the genus and the second part designates the specific epithet. total number of species, the variability of biodiversity the genes, and the communities in which they live. bivalent two homologous chromosomes that stay in close association during the first two phases of meiosis I. (sometimes the term "tetrad" is used) C3 plants plants adapted better to cold (below 25C), high moisture. plants adapted to high light intensities, C4 plants high temperatures, limited rainfall. (keep stomata closed at night). CAM plants plants better adapted to extreme aridity (dry climates). Occurs in 23 families of flowering plants. Also found among nonflowering plants. carbohydrates class of organic compounds that includes monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. is a heterozygous individual who has no apparent carrier abnormality but can pass on an allele for a recessively inherited genetic disorder. involved in the passage of molecules through the carrier protein membrane; typically transports sodium and potassium ions across a nerve cell membrane; without these proteins, nerve conduction would be impossible. catabolism metabolic process that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones. cell smallest unit that displays life. cell cycle is an orderly set of stages from first division to the time the daughter cells divide. glycoproteins that help the body to recognize when it is cell recognition protein being invaded by pathogens so that the immune reaction can occur; without this recognition, pathogens would be able to freely invade the body. centrioles 9+0 pattern of microtubles; may help organize in mitotic spindle for chromosome movement during animal cell division centrosome central microtubule organizing center of cells. involved in the passage of molecules through the channel proteins membrane; this protein has a "passage" that allows a substance to move across the membrane similarly to how a car travels through a bridge. Characteristics of cancer cells lack differentiation, abnormal nuclei, form tumors, undergo angiogenesis and metastasis. Characteristics of Life organized, acquire materials and energy, respond, reproduce and develop, have adaptations. chlorophyll green pigment that absorbs solar energy. membranous thylakoids bounded by chloroplast double membrane; carries out photosynthesis, producing sugars chromatin contains DNA of genes. cilia are short, usually numerous hairlike projections. electron energy is stored in NADH and citric acid cycle FADH2. ATP is formed Four carbons are released as CO2. co-dominance more than one allele is fully expressed (ABO blood type; multiple allelic traits). coenzymes nonprotein organic molecule that aids the action of the enzyme to which it is loosely bound. cofactors nonprotein adjunct required by an enzyme in order to function. form of enzyme inhibition where the substrate and competitive inhibition inhibitor are both able to bind to the enzyme's active site. Only when the substrate is at the active site will product form. compound two or more different elements react or bond together. control variable components that are not changed. coupled reaction reactions that occur simultaneously; one is exergonic reaction that releases energy, and other is an order to occur.tion that requires an input of energy in covalent bond form when two atoms share electrons crossing-over exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during meiosis I. cytokinesis division of cytoplasm. cytoskeleton microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments; maintains cell shape and assists movement of cell parts. (internal framework) dehydration synthesis a water is removed and a bond is made (synthesis). XX male syndrome; men exhibit undersized testes, de la Chapelle syndrome sterility, and rudimentary breast development. (movement of the SRY gene onto the X chromosome may result in this syndrome). deletion occurs when an end of a chromosome breaks off or when two simultaneous breaks lead to the loss of an internal segment. is component of an experiment that dependent variable changes due to the experimental variable. ability of plasma membranes to regulate the passage differential permeability of substances in and out of the cell, allowing some to pass through and preventing the passage of others. diffusion moves molecules from higher to lower concentration (down their concentration gradient). diploid (2n) two of each type of chromosome are present. dominant allele masks or hides expression of a recessive allele; it is represented by an uppercase letter. is the presence of a chromosomal duplication segment more than once in the same chromosome. electron are negatively charged particles. electron transport chain extracts energy from NADH & FADH2. Produces 32 or 34 molecules of ATP. cannot be broken down to simpler element substances with different properties. emergent properties quality that appears as biological complexity increases. endergonic reactions products have more free energy than reactants. endocytosis cells engulf substances into pouch which becomes a vesicle. endoplasmic reticulum is a system of membrane channels continous with outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. entropy measure of disorder or randomness. protein that catalyze specific reaction on enzymatic protein the membrane, including metabolic reactions. are proteins that act as organic catalysts enzymes to speed chemical reactions within cells. Eukarya Four Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia eukaryotes type of cell that has a membrane-bounded nucleus and membranous organelles. eukaryotic cells their nucleus may have originated as an invagination of the plasma membrane. are members of the domain Eukarya, eukaryotic cells including kingdoms Fungi, Animalia, Plantae, and Protista euploidy the correct number of chromosomes in a species. exergonic reactions products have less free energy than reactants. exocytosis vesicles fuse with plasma membrane and secrete contents outside cell. experimental variable is the step that is deliberately manipulated. (nitrogen, fertilizer) is passive transport of specific solutes facilitated transport down their concentration gradient, facilitated by a carrier protein. a coenzyme of oxidation-reduction that becomes FADH2 FAD as oxidation of substrates occurs, and then delivers electrons to the electron transport chain. (accepts two electrons and two hydrogen ions (H+) to become FADH2). fermentation anaerobic breakdown of glucose that results in a gain of two ATP and end products such as alcohol and lactate. fertilization when gametes fuse; chromosomes donated by parents combine. states that energy cannot be created or destroyed; it First law of thermodynamics can be changed from one form to another. (also called the law of conservation of energy). flagella are longer, usually fewer, whip-like projections that move in whip-like fashion. G1 stage stage prior to DNA replication; a cell grows in size, organelles increase in number, and material accumulates for DNA synthesis G2 stage stage where synthesis of proteins occur. gamete haploid (1n) sex cell. Example: egg and sperm gametogenesis development of the male and female sex gametes. gemetophyte the haploid individual; may be larger or smaller than the diploid individual. is a specific location of a particular gene gene locus on homologous chromosomes. glycolipids lipid in plasma membranes that bears a carbohydrate chain attached to a hydrophobic tail. glycolysis occurs in cytoplam; glucose broken down to two molecules of pyruvate. ATP is formed. glycoproteins a protein in plasma membrane that bears a carbohydrate chain. golgi apparatus stack of membranous saccules; processes, packages, and distributes proteins and lipids. grana stack of chlorophyll-containing thylakoids in a chloroplast. haploid (1n) only one type of each chromosome is present. heterotroph (consumers) an organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organic substances for nutrition. heterozygous two different alleles for a trait. homeostasis maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell. homologues each set of chromosomes. homozygous two identical alleles for a trait. hydrolysis splitting of a bond by the addition of water, with the H+ going to one molecule and the OH- going to the other. higher solute concentration (less water) hypertonic than inside the cell; causes the cell to lose water by osmosis. supposition established by reasoning after hypothesis consideration of available evidence; it can be tested by obtaining more data, often by experimentation. hypotonic lower solute (more water) concentration outside the cell; causes the cell to gain water by osmosis. incomplete dominance offspring show traits intermediate between two parental phenotypes. (ex. gray, pink). when homologues align at the metaphase plate they independent assortment separate in a random manner. The maternal or paternal homologue may be oriented toward either pole. (causes random mixing of blocks of alleles into gametes.) inorganic molecule molecule that does not contain carbon and hydrogen together. intermediate filaments ropelike assemblies of fibrous polypeptides in the cytoskeleton that provide support and strength to cells. interphase consists of G1, S, and G2 stages. This is where most of the cell's life is spent. ionic bond form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another. isomers are molecules with identical molecular formulas but differ in arrangement of their atoms. solution that is equal in solute concentration isotonic to that of the cytoplasm of the cell; causes cell to neither lose nor gain water by osmosis. isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but differ in number of neutrons. Jacob's syndrome usually taller than average, persistent acne, and tend tohave speech and reading problems.Once thought tobe criminally aggressive, but this hypothesis was proven wrong. Klinefelter Syndrome 47, XXY a term used for theories that are Law generally accepted by an overwhelming number of scientists. Levels of Biological Atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, Organization community, ecosystem Levels of Classification Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species class of organic compounds that tends lipids to be soluble in nonpolar solvents; includes fats and oils. lysosome vesicle containing hydrolytic enzymes; digests macromolecules and cell parts. malignant the power to threaten life; cancerous. matter anything that takes up space and has mass. is nuclear divsion reducing the chromosome number meiosis from diploid (2n) to the haploid (1n) number. (involves two nuclear divisions and produces four haploid daughter cells. Mendel's law of independent states each pair of factors assort independently of other pairs; all possible combinations of assortment: factors can occur in the gametes. metabolic pathway series of linked reactions, beginning, with a particular reactant and terminating with an end product. metabolism all of the chemical reaction that occur in a cell during growth and repair. metaphase centrosomes align at the metaphase plate. metastasis occurs when new tumors spread distant from the primary tumor. microtubules small, cylindrical organelle composed of tubulin protein around an mitochondrion membrane-bounded organelle that carries out cellular respiration, producing ATP molecules. process in which a parent nucleus produces two mitosis daughter nuclei, each having the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the parent nucleus. molecule union of two or more atoms of the same element. monomer small molecule that is a subunit of a polymer. ex: glucose is a monomer of starch. monosomy (2n-1) occurs when an individual has only one of a particular type of chromosome. Monosomy X (Turner's 45, XO Syndrome) multifactorial trait trait controlled by polygenes subject to environmental influences. NAD+ a coenzyme of oxidation-reduction. It can oxidize a metabolite by accepting electrons OR reduce a metabolite by giving up electrons. (recyclable). neutrons have no charge. (1 atomic mass unit of weight) form of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor binds to noncompetitive inhibition an enzyme at a location other than the active site; while at this site, the enzyme shape changes, the inhibitor is unable to bind to its substrate, and no product forms. nonpolar covalent bonds sharing of electrons is equal. nucleic acids polymer of nucleotides; both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. nucleus command center of cell. oogenesis production of eggs. organic molecule molecule that always contain carbon and hydrogen together. organism individual living thing. peroxisome vesicle containing specific enzymes; breaks down fatty acids and convert resulting hydrogen peroxide to water phagocytosis large, solid material into vesicle the process by which in the presence of lights, photorespiration a plant consumes oxygen and releases carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. process occurring usually within chloroplasts photosynthesis whereby chlorophyll-containing organelles trap solar energy to reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrate. pinocytosis liquid or small, solid particles go into vesicle. pleiotropy when a gene affects many traits (ex. sickle cell anemia) polar covalent bonds sharing of electrons is unequal. polygenic inheritance occurs when one trait is governed by two or more sets of alleles; dominant alleles have a quantitive effect on the phenotype. polymer are the large macromolecules composed of three to millions of monomer subunits. preparatory reaction both pyruvates are oxidized; electron energy is stored in NADH. Two carbons are released as CO2. product substance that form as a result of reaction. organism that lacks the membrane- prokaryotes bounded nucleus and membranous organelles typical of eukaryotes. prokaryotic cells divided into two main domains: Bacteria and Archaea. prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and are smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells. chromatin has condensed, nucleolus disappears, nuclear prophase envelope disintegrates, spindle begins to take shape, two centrosomes move away from each other, form microtubules in star-like-arrays--asters. proteins molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides. protons are positively charged particles (have 1 atomic mass unit of weight). reactant substance that participates in a reaction. receptor-mediated specific form of pinocytosis using a coated pit. receptor protein proteins shaped to allow a specific molecule to bind to protein to change shape, and thereby bring about a the cellular response. recessive allele exerts it effect only in the homozygous state; its expression is masked by a dominant allele; it is represented by a lowercase letter. ribosomes site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. Composed of rRNA. rough ER is studded with ribosomes; protein synthesis process by which scientists formulate a scientific method hypothesis, gather data by observation and experimentation, and come to a conclusion. scientific theory concept supported by a broad range of observations, experiments, and data. Second law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be changed from one form into another without a loss of usuable energy. (law of entropy) smooth ER lacks ribosomes; synthesizes lipids solute substance that is dissolved in a solvent, forming a solution. solution fluid (the solvent) that contains a dissolved solid (the solute). solvent liquid portion of a solution that serves to dissolve a solute. spermatogenesis production of sperm. sporophyte the diploid individual; may be larger or smaller than the haploid individual). S stage stage when DNA replication/synthesis occurs. stem cells an unspecialized cell that gives rise to a specific cell, such as blood cell. (retain the ability to divide). stomata pores in epidermis of a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor pass. a double membrane that encloses a fluid-filled space stroma in chloroplasts that contains enzymes involved in the synthesis of carbohydrates during photosynthesis. Surface-area-to-volume-ratio cells need a surface area of plasma membrane large enough to adquately exhange materials; requires that cells be small. synapsis homologous chromosomes pair up during meiosis I. branch of biology concerned with taxonomy identifying, describing, and naming organisms. DNA segments that form the ends of chromosomes and telomeres shorten with each replication, eventually signaling the cell to end all division; cancer cells produce telomerase that keeps telomeres long and cells continue dividing. telophase daughter cells are forming as nuclear envelopes and nucleoli reappear. 1. All organisms are composed of cells, Three Components of the Cell 2. All cells come only from preexisting Theory cells, 3. Smallest unit of life. thylakoid flattened sac within granum whose membrane contains chlorophyll and where the light reactions of photosynthesis occur. tonicity osmolarity of a solution compared to that of a cells. translocation is the movement of a chromosome segment from one chromosome to another, nonhomologous chromosome. trisomy (2n+1) occurs when an individual has three of a particular type of chromosome. trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) three copies of chromosome 21. XXX, or XXXX; sometimes called Trisomy X (Poly-X syndrome) superfemale; have no distinctive phenotype asides the tendency to be tall turgor pressure pressure of the cell contents agains the cell wall. vacuole membrane-bounded sac, larger than a vesicle, functions in storage of metabolites and helps maintain turgor pressure. vitamin essential requirement in the diet, needed in small amounts, (are often part of coenzymes). Ways in which meiosis results crossing-over, independent in genetic variation of offspring: assortment, and fertilization Where does the Calvin cycle in the stroma. take place? Where do light reactions take in the thylakoid membrane. place? zygote diploid cell formed by the union of two gametes; the product of fertilization.


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