Psyc 2010 - Sensation notes
Psyc 2010 - Sensation notes Psyc 2010
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Hayley Patterson on Friday March 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Seth A Gitter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
CHAPTER 4 NOTES Sensation – Stimuli Detection Friday, February 12, 2016 Chapter Summary Sensation vs. Perception General Sensation Characteristics Thresholds Subliminal sensation Adaptation Transduction Sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch Sensation vs. Perception Sensation vs. Perception Sensation: detecting stimuli from the environment and translating them to neural impulses Sound waves detected by the ear drum for hearing; chewing food breaking down into chemicals are detected by the taste buds; sensory receptors in skin detect pressure, temperature of stimuli, sending neural impulses through CNS to brain Perception: the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory input Putting all stimuli together in an organized package to be experienced; the brain fills in gaps and makes things up (depth – image on retina is flat and the brain interprets depth); expectations influence perception; memories and past experiences influence perception (top-down processes) Eating a chocolate chip cookie: Detection (sensation: the five senses in a process) Interpretation (perception; combining taste and olfaction to experience the cookie) Sensation Sensation – detection and response to external stimulus energy Light, vibration, odor… Sensory experiences depend on thresholds Minimum information required to detect (and ultimately perceive) sensory experiences SDT Signal Detection Theory (SDT) – process of assessing and individual’s awareness of a stimuli Stimulus Stimulus is is absent present Participant FALSE HIT detects stimulus ALARM Participant does CORRECT not detect MISS REJECTIO stimulus N Thresholds Absolute Threshold: Minimum amount of stimulation needed to perceive the stimulus 50% of the time. (also includes sensing it, since you need to sense to perceive; we can sense a lot more things than we can actually perceive because they fall below the absolute threshold) Supraliminal stimuli – anything above the absolute threshold Subliminal stimuli – anything below the absolute threshold (this doesn’t mean the stimuli is not detected, it is simply not strong enough to be consciously perceived) Subliminal Stimuli: stimuli that are below the absolute threshold Candle flame at 30 miles (you would detect light, but not see the candle) [any further distance and it will not be detected (subliminal); closer the more likely it is to be detected (supraliminal)] 1 drop of perfume in 6 rooms Fly wing from 1 cm TASTE AND HEARING EXAMPLES IN TEXT Subliminal Messages Subliminal Messages – Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may still influence people’s judgments, attitudes, and behaviors Campaign Ad – 2000 presidential election of Bush and Gore [“Rats” decide] Debunking 1 Greenwald and others (1991) Self-esteem boosting tapes or memory tapes Participants were told either o What they had o The other type of tape DV: Did they feel they had improved? Had they actually improved? (based on what tape they were told they had) o Participants report – yes o Objective measures – no A Kernel of Truth Priming: The (sometimes subliminal) activation of associations that affect perception, memory & responses. Huge body of research supports this American flag study influence behaviors when exposed to pictures of different country’s flags Priming can sometimes influence attitudes. Monday, February 15, 2016 Priming affective responses: priming people with faces displaying emotional expressions Subliminal priming – Quicker than 24 milliseconds per image; some trials will be preceded by an upset looking face; another group will be present with a smile; a third group will be shown no emotion Kanji – represent sounds: using words associated with meanings would alter attitudes Linking of Chinese Character On average, the neutral priming individuals are rating the Kanji with neutral response Those shown a frown rated the Kanji more negatively – an unconscious sensation is influencing conscious perception Those shown a smile rated the Kanji with a higher rating Caveats Strahan et al., 2002 Works for weak or ambiguous attitude Participating in a taste testing Or when people are already motivated Works in controlled lab conditions – you can minimize the study Half of participants were called stimulation that they experience ahead of time and told not to Effects are likely not to be long lasting drink anything prior to the Important Message – priming works in a lab, but is not something study – thirsty and motivated to over-concern yourself with to drink more The other half were given no Sensation can happen without perception – perceptional experience can change what you do instructions – will not be as Sometimes a supraliminal prime just won’t be effective thirsty and will not be as Sensation can occur without conscious processing driven to drink the beverages Unconsciously primed with thirst or neutral words Sensation Without Perception Blindsight Amount of beverage Caused by damage to occipital lobe (lose conscious sight of consumed was recorded objects in the visual field) Thirst Prime: those who came in thirsty rated the beverages Individuals can indicate how things move without consciously seeing the object with very high ratings; those *The T-Rex is believed to only have one of the two sight who did not come thirst pathways – can’t see anything but movement because it lacks produced average ratings the optic nerve Neutral Prime: those who Prosopagnosia came in thirsty gave low ratings; those who did not See the face and even report details, but do not recognize it Damage to fusiform face area – lose ability to recognize come thirsty produced individuals’ faces average ratings They can still see and describe facial features but it cannot be The prime alone is not enough retained and used to identify people of an indication – you need an already existing motivation (thirst) 2 Thresholds Difference Threshold: The minimum difference a person can perceive between and two stimuli 50% of the time Weber-Fechner’s Law: the amount of change that has to happen for someone to detect a difference grows exponentially depending on the magnitude of initial stimulation received Basic Principles Sensory Adaptation Diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus o E.G. getting used to cool water Allows us to focus on informative changes Eyes constantly move to prevent this – saccades (rapid eye movement) Sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch Sensory Transduction Process by which sense organs convert stimuli into neural messages/impulses Light Chemicals (smells and food) Sound Warmth, pressure (haptic feedback) Physical orientation Transduction: Eye Diagram Wednesday, February 17, 2016 Pupil Lens Iris Cornea Blind spot Retina Fovea (point of central focus) Optic Nerve to brain’s visual cortex – no sensory receptors where the optic nerve contacts the retina 1. Light entering eye triggers photochemical reaction in rods and cons at back of retina. Rods and cones – sense the light Bipolar cells are the “middle-men” Ganglion cells – transmit information to optic nerve 2. Chemical reaction in turn activates bipolar cells. Rods and Cones Rods Cones (Cones-Color- See black and Center) white See color and detail Around periphery Around center of the eye (fovea) Work in dim light and all other light Responsive only to Vision Sensation is determined by light’s: Wavelength (inverse of frequency) [distance from one peak to another peak] Frequency = how many times in a time period the wavelength occurs o Hue (color) – photoreceptors [long – red; medium – green; short – blue] Amplitude – how high the peaks go/how low the valleys fall; how far the wave deviates from its central point o Brightness – high amplitude = brighter (cones); low amplitude = dimmer (rods) Wavelengths Subtractive color mixing vs. additive color mixing Painting – subtractive color mixing: pigments [subtracting light from white light – combination (magenta, cerulean, yellow) produces black] Stage lighting/our eyes – additive color mixing [adding wavelengths together – combination (red, green, blue) produces white light] Hearing (audition): p. 245 – diagram (on slides) Sensation is determined by sound’s: Wavelength and Frequency 3 o Pitch (short wavelength/high frequency – high pitch; high wavelength/low frequency – low pitch) Amplitude o Loudness (small amplitude – quite; large amplitude – loud) When speaking, vibrations occur through the air into your ear and also through mandible (jaw bone) which influence the sounds that you hear Vestibular sense (the “sixth” sense) Balance Semicircular canals (partially filled with fluid and sensory receptors; when head is upright the receptors detect that you are upright; when off-centered the fluid repositions and contacts different receptors signaling off-balance) There are also sensory receptors in your neck and spine and all throughout the body to help determine body balance Located in the inner ear Monitors head position & movement Taste Chemical sense Taste buds contact molecules of food (papillae house the taste buds) Regenerate every 1-2 weeks Sensitivity decreases with age Basic sensations Salty (salt), sour, sweet (sugar), bitter (poison), and umami (savory - MSG) Salty and sour – broken down very easily in the saliva; travel through ion channels Sweet, bitter, and umami – complex; difficult to break down – more similar in function to the receptors that receive neural transmitters OJ (sweet and bitter), tooth baste (block phospholipids and make the OJ taste bitter), and phospholipids (block the receptors of bitter) Attention Friday, February 19, 2016 Attention is a necessary first ingredient for perception Inattentional Blindness (video with moonwalking bear) Change Blindness (giving someone directions – then participants walk between you and the questioner with a door, questioner changes and the one supplying directions does not notice) [ this is the basis of illusions ] Sensation vs. Perception Bottom-up processing Sensory receptors trigger the brain Top-down processing (our perceptual experience – there are gaps and holes) Higher mental processes filter down to influence perception/interpretation of sensory stimuli Perceptual Sets A predisposition to see things a certain way (Ponzo illusion (depth in a visual field) – look on slides) Organized Perception Gestalt Psychology The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Studied the principles by which we organize stimuli (top-down) Perceptual Grouping We group things that are closer and similar Proximity – how close something is to something else Bad kerning – the art of spacing letters; can strongly depend on proximity Similarity – perceptual process used to understand groups: the more similar objects are, the more likely one is to group them together – basis of stereotypes and prejudice 4 Perceptual Closure We like to perceive things as complete forms Good Continuation – two keys overlapping in an “X”; things that cross behind other things still exist; thumb disconnection; AU logo [the assumption is that the U continues on behind the A] Perceptual Connectedness – closely related to proximity These are all We tend to think that touching forms create a whole object individual shapes, This is especially true when stimuli create continuous patterns but they are perceived as one continuous squiggly Figure and Ground Segmentation Foreground and Background – depth perception Tendency to extract figures from background Focusing on vase o Faces are background Color Constancy blue/black vs. gold/white dress – depends on initial experience “A” and “B” squares Perceiving Distance Depth Perception, NOT Depth Sensation 5
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