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Important Treaties Treaty of Paris 1783 This was the document that officially ended the American Revolution where Great Britain recognized the United States as its own independent nation This was the most influential part of the treaty but it also gave fishing rights to American off British coasts and settled the issues of war prisoners and war debts Jay s Treaty 1794 This treaty settled remaining disputes between America and Britain and won American trade with the British West Indies although this was later deemed vague and stricken from the treaty However the most important part about this agreement was that it avoided a second war with Britain because of brewing tensions about unresolved issues Pickney s Treaty 1795This treaty established a friendly trade between American and Spain defined the Spanish and American colony borders and allowed for American use of the Mississippi river The use of the Mississippi river was especially important as it allowed for westward expansion and increased trade with both Indians and Spaniards Louisiana Purchase 1803In this document Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from France gaining the United States much of its new land This prompted the infamous Lewis and Clark Expedition and is known as the crowning part of Jefferson s presidency Treaty of Ghent 1814This document is primarily known for officially ending the war of 1812 between Britain and France While it didn t technically solve too many problems of truly resolve anything it allowed the US to emerge as a victor and new world power and proved its strength despite its status as a budding nation Treaty of GuadeloupeHidalgo 1848 This treaty ended the Mexican American war and gave the US a large amount of land including what is now known as California Arizona New Mexico Nevada Utah and parts of Wyoming and Denver in return forAmerican payment to Mexico This land proved to be incredibly useful and influential in the era of Manifest Destiny the California Gold Rush and internal improvements Treaty of Paris 1898The Spanish American war came to an end with the signing of this treaty which also ceded the Philippines Puerto Rico and parts of the West Indies to the United States It also guaranteed that Spain would surrender its hold on Cuba allowing it to become an independent nation This ended forever the Spanish empire in America and marked the beginning of American expansion and progressivism HayBuenaVarilla 1903This treaty signed by Panama and America authorized the Panama Canal Zone and the subsequent construction of the Panama Canal Named after its negotiators Phillipe BunauVarilla and John Hay this was one of the most important developments of the United States as the Panama Canal improved trade for years to come Treaty of Versailles 1918This was one of the peace treaties signed after World War I but is the most significant and best known It forced Germany to accept blame for causing the war and pay for a majority of war debts and reparations The most important consequence of this treaty was that it sparked resentment in Germany toward the Allies which then carried over and was part of the reason for World War II Yalta Conference 1945 Although this was not necessarily a treaty it was an influential conference during the Allies of World War II and an important time in US foreign policy This meeting between the big three President Franklin Roosevelt Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin was used to discuss how the wartorn Europe would be fixed and is a subject of controversy Many historians wonder if better conclusions could have been reached with the Soviet Union it may have prevented the Cold War North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949This pact between many European nations and America vowed that the nations would stick together and back each other up if attacked by an external nation This was used during the Cold War and has sustained throughout the twentyfirst century Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963 During the Cold War many nations including America and the Soviet Union were testing and attempting to develop the strongest nuclear bomb However after concerns were raised about how radioactivity was affecting citizens the United States the United Kingdom Canada France and the Soviet Union agreed after much negotiating to ban nuclear weapons testing This was an important event in the history of the Cold War Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I and II 1972 amp 1979 These treaties between the US and the Soviet Union halted the growth of two types of nuclear missiles and limited the number of strategic weapons and nuclearmissile launchers It was another significant development towards the end of the Cold War Vietnam War Agreement 1973The Vietnam War was the cause of much turmoil and controversy in America so when this treaty finally ended US involvement many Americans were overjoyed The official points of this treaty took out all US troops and kept Vietnam divided between North and South troops Camp David Accords 1978The disputes between the Arab nations and Israel had been growing hostile over the 1970 s so when Jimmy Carter was able to negotiate peace with Egypt and Israel at Camp David it was a monumental success The Camp David Accords led directly the 1979 EgyptIsrael Peace Treaty and helped avoid serious conflict in the Middle East at least for that time 39 ImpactJ Era Goals lvot1vat1ons Successes Long term i Bank of the United 1131111651 136311113 Ch k T l f T States Elect1on r1 ghts and FOrte tr1ierE reOat ears Philosophy Every man CeI1 iCg1fei1ra eSS 1fgr31 rlclitifg 9 out Impact on Indian i3ssues JaCkSQnan should have an equal chance gamed to We Sime an BurenS Independent and how they were but not every man will have g T d f t d th handled Democracy an equal outcome back to the execuuve r asury 6 ea 6 6 Westward EX ansion hmneh national bank and the d th Us p h tit is 66 a Expansion Of Us corrupt system of pet tCI1yegegrap1 iCally territory ba111ltS Subtreasury plan unlimited Industrial Revolution gave Most successful 3101 party Populism laid the silver coinage increase in large corporations more movement after the Civil War foundations for the 16111 amount of money circulated power The rich got richer set the premise fO1 the Bland and 17th amendments 39CTOVemmen11O Claim but 1116 P001 01113 301 P001611 Allison Act and the Sherman Their idea of a tax that is Pop Sm rallmads phones and eSpeC1aHy farmers and those Silver Purchase Act higher on the rich than on telegrams 1n the west The farmers Br ht some attention and th f th 8 hour workday attempted to change this 39 Oug h 6 P001118 one 0 6 mam restriction of immigration with a party that would fav or power away from 1 e fOunda11OnS for the modem and land ownership by agricultural rather than eXP311d111g N01111e111 111d11S1FE llde1110C1311C P3113 immigrants industrial development Hull House and city supported Social Justice and equality HO1Ii c hvmg social reform and welfare gCI12rd1ng W0fk TS 16101111 131901 conditions for lower class Eggsulated utilities which have affeeted 111110115 and 1mm1 rants g Hepburn Act states regulating Amencan for decades jM01e g0Ve111111e111 Industr1al Revolution maximum railroad charge after Progress1v1sm e1V 11 1 C m1 S caused long work days CS111e1111a111f1 111111 11 S1 AC1 ltG EXpansionist Mindset welfare and big businesses ehnd labor and 10W pay 1 63 W011 3V 6311 111013 US emerge as a World h H d successful if it had been 111SP11ed111e 3113111311 1 at 51993 6 1113113 enforced more American War power expansionism Bi g businesses monopolizing industries Roosevelt39s expansionist conquest power and government intervention in smaller less refined governments Child Labor Laws Minimum Wage 8 hour workday Important Court Cases Rex V Zenger l735 Although this is not of cially a Supreme Court Case I think it is important enough to include because it marked the beginning of the freedom of the press When John Peter Zenger published un attering material about his English appointed governor he was put on trial However the court ruled that he had a right to say this as freedom of the press Chisholm V Georgia l793 Alexander Chisholm attempted to sue the state of Georgia for not repaying his client with arms that he had supplied Georgia during the revolution However Georgia refused to even attend the hearing saying that they were a sovereign state and could not be sued The court ruled in favor of Chisholm saying that it would overhear disputes between private citizens and states This decision was the rst of signi cant impact to the new Supreme Court and it was immediately followed by the eleventh amendment Marbury V Madison l803 When James Madison as Secretary of the State refused to grant seats in the government even though the Senate had already approved them the Supreme court ruled against Madison implying that Congress and the Supreme court would keep each other balanced and being the rst mandate in the new system of checks and balances Fletcher V Peck l8lO Two men bought land granted to them by Georgia in the Yazoo Land Act but after some of the land was revealed to have been purchased by bribes not to mention it included Indian Land the men were told to give the land back However the federal court overturned this saying the contract was binding This was the rst case in which the Supreme Court declared a state law unconstitutional and established the idea that Indians did not have a right to land McCulloch V Maryland l8l9 This case approved the creation of a national bank but more importantly it implied a looser view of the Constitution Just because the Constitution did not call for a national bank did not mean it was prohibited Gibbons V Ogden l824 Aaron Ogden sued Thomas Gibbons for operating a steamboat in New York waters Ogden had primary rights to navigate through NY waters with his state license while Gibbons had a federal license Originally NY ruled in favor of Ogden but then the Supreme Court reversed it saying that the federal license trumps that of the state This was important in that it regulated how the federal government controlled commerce Dred Scott V Sandford l857 Dred Scott a black slave led suit for his freedom after his master brought him into free territory However the Supreme Court ruled that Scott was still his master39s property and Roger B Taney ruled that since Scott was a slave he was not a legal citizen and did not even have the right to sue in court This was in uential in that it established that slaves were not citizens Santa Clara County V Southern Paci c Railroad l886 While the case itself and the facts it held were important the most in uential part of this case was when Chief Justice Roger B Taney remarked that the court had no interest in hearing if the fourteenth amendment laws included corporations everyone was in favor of that Obviously this was how the court ruled and it set the precedent that corporations had the same rights as individual citizens Plessy V Ferguson l896 The court ruled that separate but equal housing on railroad cars did not violate the Constitution This set the stands for the racist Jim Crow laws and the century of segregation that was to follow Standard Oil Co V United States 191 l Rockefeller s Standard Oil Company dominated the oil market setting prices and using other techniques that made it extremely dif cult to compete The US sued Standard Oil Company for violating the Sherman Anti Trust Act which made it illegal for any business to monopolize an industry The company issued an appeal which was rejected This case set the precedent that no company could monopolize one industry Schecter Poultry V United States l935 The Supreme Court declared one of FDR s New Deal laws The National Industry Recovery Act involving the labor hours of those in the poultry packing industry unconstitutional becoming the rst of many cases in which the court challenged the New Deal These challenges also led Roosevelt to create his court packing plan Brown V Board l954 This case ruled that segregation in public schools was illegal and sparked the desegregation and Civil Rights movement of the next few decades Engel V Vitale l962 The New York public schools had children say a non denominational prayer before school every day Although no child was forced to say it a small group of parents sued the school system saying that it was a violation of the separation of church and state to in uence children with this religious activity The Court backed up the parents saying the NY public school system was supporting religion This was the rst major attempt to take religion out of America Griswold V Connecticut l965 Estelle Griswold a professor at Yale operated a clinic in Connecticut where they counseled married couples on the use of birth control She was arrested for violating a law declaring this an illegal topic to discuss The Supreme Court overturned the convictions and said that the con dentiality was implied by the Constitution and the government could not mandate what they discussed This case provided some of the reason for the Roe V Wade decision and was part of the major birth control revolution of the sixties Miranda V Arizona l966 Ernesto Arturo Miranda was arrested for rape but at his trial his lawyer argued that he had never been informed of his right to remain silent or his right to counsel Because of this his conviction was overturned and set in place the miranda rights all the constitutional rights an of cer must inform a person when they are arrested This changed the law enforcement system inde nitely Lemon V Kurtzman l97l In Pennsylvania and Rhode Island the states would grant money to private schools af liated with speci c religions for their classes that dealt with strictly secular subjects The court mandated that this violated the separation of church and state and set in place the Lemon Laws that helped decide if an action violated this precedent The Lemon laws stated that government funds could only help a religious af liated organization if 1 the primary purpose of the assistance is secular 2 the assistance neither promotes nor inhibits religion and 3 there is no excessive entanglement between church and state Frontiero V Richardson l973 Sharron Frontiero an Air Force of cer argued that men in the air force were given salary supplement and housing no matter their conditions but women were only awarded this if they could prove they took care of more than half the household expenses Frotiero claimed she was being treated differently based on her sex and the court agreed Although there wasn t a rm precedent set by this case for other gender based cases it was the rst step the federal govemment took for the feminist movement Roe V Wade l973 In this in uential and controversial case the Supreme Court regulated that a women had the right to terminate her pregnancy previously outlawed at least in the rst trimester The states could individually decide whether this was still lawful in the second and third trimesters This sparked many conservative movements from the l980 s and on and debates about religious issues San Antonio Independent School District v Rodriguez l973 A group of parents sued the San Antonio school district because they claimed the schools in their area provided lower quality education and amenities than those for children in higher income areas The Court disagreed however stating that there was no guarantee to education in the Constitution and the government should not have to regulate that United States V Nixon l974 Nixon sought executive immunity and privacy when asked to release the Watergate tapes but the court ruled this gave one branch of the government too much power and Nixon was ordered to hand over the tapes This curtailed the executive power that Nixon and presidents before him had attempted to take advantage of Gregg V Georgia l976 Four years before this decision the Supreme Court said that the way the state was carrying out its executions violated the eighth amendment as cruel and unusual punishment However in this case the court ruled that if the state handled the execution in the correct manner it didn t violate the Constitution This was just another issue and debate that set a precedent for the Conservative Coalition Regents of the University of CA V Bakke l978 Allen Bakke was rejected from the University of California twice even though minority kids were getting in with lower grades This was due to the af rmative action quotas the school set to keep race levels equal The court mandated that while af rmative action was legal denying kids rights to school only because of race quotas was unconstitutional This was important because it deals with an issue that still plagues universities today Cruzan V Missouri Department of Public Health l990 Nancy Cruzan had been in a vegetative state for several years and her family decided to take her off life support However the state refused and the court ruled that because she had never expressed a desire to have her life terminated she would have to stay on life support This took away the rights of family to properly take care of their relatives and said the government knew better than family members Reno V ACLU l997 As the internet boomed and became a common source of information publicity buzzed to cyberporn and Congress passed the Communications Decency Act which made it illegal to transmit indecent images or data to anyone under 18 years of age However the ACLU sued arguing that this violated free speech Although the original intentions of the act were noble the vague language used persuaded the court to agree with ACLU and mandated that people must provide persuasive evidence for a website to be protected from minors This set the precedent of the amount of security and govemment intervention this new internet would have District of Columbia V Heller 2008 the raging gun debate was given somewhat of an answer when the Supreme court ruled that the second amendment guaranteed citizens to keep guns in their homes and struck down the District of Columbia ban on handguns This was an important decision in the controversial issue of gun control
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