Nutrition 1000- 8/24/15-9/11/15
Nutrition 1000- 8/24/15-9/11/15
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Date Created: 09/11/15
NUTR 1000 82415 Introduction Nutrition Tools Standards and Guidelines What I nutrition Nutrition is the science of food and the body utilizes it quotLet food be thy medicinequot The Diet and Health Connection In uential lifestyle habits o Tabaco use alcohol use national choices Chronic diseases 0 Connection with poor diet Genetic and individuality Genetic and nutrition affect diseases to varying degrees Human Genome 0 DNA Factors which affect diet Elements in the six classes Water I Vitamins Minerals Meet the nutrients Calorie the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of on kilogram of water by 1 degree C Explode food pieces in a special water lined chamber and measure the heat given off from the explosion Capital C Calorie kilocalorie 1 gram of carbohydrate for 4 kilocalorie 1 gram of fat 9 kilocalorie 449 NUTR 1000 82615 How exactly can I recognize a nutritious diet Five chararcerisitics o Adequacy 0 Balance 0 Calorie control Intake should not exceed need 0 Moderation Not abstinence 0 Variety Nutrient Density vs empty calorie quotmalnutrionquot Mal can just mean that you are offtoo much or too little 0 Nutrient dense foods contain high levels essential nutrients with relatively low level of kilocalories energy 0 Empty calorie foods contain low levels of essential nutrients with relatively high levels of kilocalories energy CANNED CORN POTPIE FROZEN BROCCLI 449 0 Bagel 35g of carbs 6g of protein 10g of fat X4 X4 X9 1402490 254 estimated calorie CAL FROM CARB 140254 x 100 55 carbs O Half plate should be fruit and veggie Dairy should be low fat Eat half grains whole Vary the veggies No heavy syrup for fruit Be aware of fruit juice high in sugar a lot of simple surgar FreshDriedFrozenCannedJuice Subcategory of veggies 0 Dark green Red n orange Beans and peas Starchy Other 0000 Key nutrients grain group b vitamins 0 Iron oatmeal 0 Fiber whole grains 0 Carbohydrate They want you to eat a lot of omega 3 omega 6 NUTR 1000 82815 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Objectives 0 0 Reinforce concepts relating to my plate Caution against nutrition which contributes to chronic diseases Basic underlying concepts 0 0 0 Balance calories with physical activity to manage weight Consume more of certain foods and nutrients such as fruits veggies whole grains fatfree and low fat dairy products and sea food Consume fewer foods with sodium saturated fats trans fats cholesterol added sugar and re ned grains How does your everyday fast food stack up 0 O 0 0 0 0 Chipotle Females need about 46 grams of fat for the day normally 1500 mg of sodium per day 150 min a week of activity per week Trying to lose weight is 300 min 2035 fat from calories 65 grams of fat for adult males 40 grams of fat considered low fat diet Saturated fattrans fat heart disease Carbohydrates 6 tsp for females for sugar 24 grams 8 tsp for males for sugar 32 grams 4 grams of sugar in one teaspoon Key recommendations 140 mg low sodium 1500 mg recommended sodium 2300 mg in one tsp If you choose to drink alcohol do so in moderation 1 drink and day for females 2 drinks a day for females Preventing liver disease Dietary reference in takes DRI 4 categories 0 Recommended dietary allowances RDA Generous recommendations well founded by research 0 Adequate intakes Al Generous recommendations not as conclusively proven by research 0 Tolerable upper limits UL Upper limit that should be ingested people taking supplements don t ever exceed this 0 Estimated average requirements EAR Minimum need that covers only 50 of population NUTR 1000 9215 Which 3 get digested Broken down Vitaminsminerals don t change Macronutrients Digestive System Lingual lipase Salivary amylase Hungry or full hypothalamus control this What happens in the mouth Chemical digestion of CHO begins here Salivary enzyme Why do people like sugar fat salt Sweet salty and fatty foods are universally and desired by instinct Bitter and sour are often disliked Throwing up Bolus down the esophagus into the stomach and changes again becomes chime The stomach pyloric valve at its lower and controls the exit of the chyme Chyme is squirted In the stomach Major events Hydrochloric acid activates protein enzymes Protein digestion begins Intrinsic factor produced Tiny alcohol molecules absorbed here and reach the brain within one minute Bolus leaves the stomach as chyme HCL activates pepsin 0000 O Proteins come in tangled HCL untangles protein for pepsin protein chains pepsin breaks it down into amino acids 0 Intrinsic factor substance produced in stomach that is required to 812 absorption 0 812 is only in animal foods Alcohol on an empty stomach is absorbed quickly Gastric mucosa produces mucus protects lining from damage In the small intestine Sugars from banana cross lining of small intestine Bile from liver arrives to blend with from PB and seeds Duodenum rst portion Jejunum Second portion lleum Third portion The GI tract a one way street Sphincters are valves which are positioned throughout the GI tract that prevent gastric contents from owing backwards 0 Cardiac spincheter o Pyloric sphincter o lleocecal valve 0 Anal sphincter Accessory Organs Liver Pancreas Gallbladder secrets bile Functions Pancreas exocrine Secretes digestive enzymes for macronutrients Secretes bicarbonate to help neutralize strong gastric acid NUTR 1000 9415 Functions of the accessory organs Pancreas exocrine Secretes digestive enzymes for macronutrients Pancreases endocrine o Secretes INSULIN in response to high blood sugar 0 Secretes GLUCAGON in response to low blood sugar Hormones of metabolism 0 Counter Regulatory hormones Liver o Detoxi es drugs and alcohol Produces bile which emulsi es fat Synthesizes glycogen Synthesizes lipoproteins ie HDL LDL Packages and stores nutrients Bile emulsi es fat 0000 o Digestive Enzymes 101 Enzymes end in ASE Amylases breakdown carbohydrate Protease breakdown protein First name of enzyme describes where it is produced Villi and Microvilli increase the absorbing surface of the small intestine Chylomicron lipoprotein fat in the middle with protein coat around it Hormonal Control in Digestion 1 Gastrin 2 Secretin 3 Cholecystokinin 4 Gastric inhibitory protein 5 Glucagon 6 lnsulin Gastrin begins the process by stimulated HCL stomach begins to digest protein Secretin instructs pancreas to produce digestive enzymes Cholecystokinin CCK orders the gallbladder to contract what happens Gastric inhibitory peptide GIP slows peristalsis down shuts off GASTRIN negative feedback 110 NUTR 1000 Large lntestine Act as a holding or septic tank No Signiant digestion here Only absorption here is of WATER and electrolytes sodium K The mechanical Aspect of Digestion Colons Main Roles o Reabsorb water 0 Absorb materials Rectum stores feces until excretion o Feces Fiber Undigested material Sloughed intestinal cells Bacteria Feces 0 Fiber and water helps feces to form Transport 0 All nutrients once absorbed are ultimately picked up into the bloodstream and taken to the liver via the portal vein 0 Once inspection and repackaging storage has occurred nutrients are shipped off to the body Cells Metabolism o Processes which occur within cells 0 Anabolic Building up feasting 0 Cataboic Tearing down fasting Providing Energy and Glucose o Carbohydrate 4 call per gram 0 Fat 9 cal per gram 0 Protein 4 cal per gram Metabolism of Carbohydrate o Anabolic end products of Carbohydrate Glycogen Adipose fat 0 Catabolc End products of Carbohydrate Glucose which goes to C02 H20 energy ATP 0 NUTR 1000 91115 Test Prep For DRI table the Subtract 7 call a day for women above the age 19 Subtract 10 call a day for men above the age 19 An example of quotempty kilocaloriesquot would be Sour cream Recommended 5 grams of ber According to the dietary guidelines one alcoholic beverage is de ned as How should meals be timed FACT OR FICTION Avoiding eating late at night because foods are unable to be digested well and are stored as fat Eating late at night is desirable because it facilities sleep One should eat red meat separately from other foods because it it s dif cult for the body to digest It doesn t matter if you time your meals and snacks on a regular or irregular basis ALL FICTION
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