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Date Created: 07/02/14
CHAPTER8 Social stratification is a system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy so that some people have more money power and prestige than others DavisMoore thesis the functional analysis claiming that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society Marx proletariat vs bourgeoisie proletariat people who sell their labor for wages bourgeoisie the social group opposed to the proletariat in the class struggle Weber class status power elaboration on Karl Marx s 2 step model above of distinct dimensions of inequality class First dimension economic inequality 39 status Second dimension social prestige power Third dimension Socioeconomic status a composite ranking based various dimensions of social inequality Absolute poverty vs relative poverty Absolute poverty a lack of resource that is life threatening 39 Relative poverty a lack of resource of some people in relation to those who have more explanations of poverty individual vs structural 39 Individual blame individuals The culture of poverty thesis states that poverty is caused by shortcomings in the poor themselves 39 Structural blame society Poverty is caused by societies unequal distribution of wealth and lack of good jobs CHAPTER9 HighIncome MiddleIncome and LowIncome countries explanations of global poverty 39 HighIncome country the nations with the highest overall standards of living MiddleIncome country nations with a standard of living about average of the world as a whole 39 LowIncome country nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor Modernization Theory and Dependency Theory are models of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of Modernization Theory technological and cultural differences between nations 39 Dependency Theory historica exploitation of poor nations by rich ones CHAPTER1t Race vs ethnicity Race a socially constructed category of people who share biological traits that members of a society consider important 39 Ethnicity a shared cultural heritage Minority any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that society sets apart and subordinates Discrimination unequal treatment of various categories of people Theories on the origin of prejudice and racism scapegoating Authoritarian Personality Cultural theory conflict theory 39 Scapegoating theory claims the prejudice results from frustration among people who are disadvantaged Authoritarian Personality theory Adorno claims that prejudice is a personality trait of certain individual especially those with little education and those raised by cold and demanding parents 39 Cultural theory claims that prejudice is rooted in culture we learn to feel greater social distance from some categories of people 39 Conflict theory claims that prejudice is a tool used by powerful people to divide and control the population CHAPTER12 Economy the social institution that organizes society s production distribution and consumption of goods and services Postindustrial seeiety economy A productive system based on service work and computer technology Capitalism vs Socialism are economic systems in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are 39 Capitalism privately owned Socialism coectivey owned Trends in work in the postindustrial US Democracy a political system that gives power to the people as a whole Political action committee Special interest group Terrorism acts of violence or the threat of violence used as a political strategy by an individual or a group Wright39s five factors that promote war CHAPTER 13 Family a social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another including any children Kinship a social bond based on common ancestry or adoption Nuclear vs extended family 39 Nuclear family a family composed of one or two parents and their children also known as conjugal family Extended family a family composed of parents and children as well as kin also known as consanguine family Residence patterns matrilocal patrilocal neolocal Matrilocal arrangement where couples live near the wife s family Patrilocal arrangement where couples live near the husband s family 39 Neolocal an arrangement where couples live apart from both parents Descent patterns matrilineal patrilineal and bilateral 39 Matrilineal traces kinship through females so that the mothers pass properties on their daughters Patrilineal traces kinship through males so that the fathers pass properties on their sons 39 Bilateral a system of tracking kinship through both men and women Endogamy vs exogamy Endogamy marriage between people of the same social category Exogamy marriage between people of different social categories Polygamy polyandry vs polygyny 39 Polyandry a form of marriage that unites a woman and two or more men 39 Polygyny a form of marriage that unites a men with two or more women Factors related to divorce Theories of religion Marx social conflict Weber symbolic interaction and Durkheim structural functional 39 Marx social conflict claims that religion justifies the status quo In this way religion supports inequality and discourages change To a more just and equal society 39 Weber symbolic interaction explains that we socially construct religious beliefs We are especially likely to seek religious meaning when faced with ife s uncertainties and disruptions Durkheim structural functional suggests that religion unites people promotes social coherence and gives meaning and purpose to life through religion we celebrate the power of our society Secularization the historical decline in the importance of the supernatural and secret Civil religion a quasi reigious loyalty linking individuals in a basically secular society Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism CHAPTER 14 Education vs schooling 39 Education the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge including basic facts job skills and cultural norms and values Schooling formal instruction under the direction of specifically trained teachers Perspective on education 39 structura functiona social conflict 39 symbolic interaction credentialism access to higher education in US hea h health in low vs high income countries Holistic medicine an approach to healthcare that emphasizes prevention of illness and takes into account a person s entire physical and social environment social epidemiology the study of how health and disease are distributed throughout society infant mortality Social causes of obesity The will also be questions on the film Capitalism A Love Story Watch here httpdocumentaryheavencomcapitalism a ove story
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