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verified elite notetaker
Miss Jeanette Keebler
verified elite notetaker
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Date Created: 09/11/15
CHAPTERS 14 NOTES Chapter One 0 The new American Democracy is marked by a permanent campaign 0 Permanent Campaign when the next election campaign begins as soon as the last has ended and the line between eectioneering and governing has disappeared Obama became a viable presidential candidate after he gave the keynote address in 2004 0 October 6 publicly admitted he was considering the option of cial October 7 c Free elections are the hallmark of democracy Majority 50 plus one 0 Government performs four key functions 0 Protects citizens from unlawful activity 0 Regulates social and economic relationships 0 Provides services 0 Defends the country from foreign aggression Aristotle39s scheme government by the few may be called an aristocracy o Aristocracy the leaders are meritorious and chosen by virtue of their birth into noble families 0 Government instead usually takes the form of an oligarchy o Oligarchy the individuals in power are not titled nobility but capture power either through military action or through a political party 0 Government in which all citizens share power is called democracy 0 A direct democracy is when all citizens participate personally in making government decisions 0 Citizens periodically choose representatives who have the authority to decide what governments do Prospective voting a pattern in which citizens look to the future while voting taking into account each candidate s campaign promises Delegate a representative who re ects the opinions of those who elected him or her to of ce Constituents those who are legally entitled to vote for an of ceholder their informed judgment about what policies are best 0 Trustee one who acts on behalf of the interests of the citizens rather than according to the citizens39 past preferences Retrospective Voting voting on the basis of past policies rather than guessing at the results of future policies 0 National elections in which voters choose the officials of the federal government are held every two years 0 State elections the citizens of the fty states choose their state public of cials Recall elections attempts to remove incumbents from of ce before the completion of their terms 0 Primary election a preliminary contest that narrows the number of the parties39 candidate and determines who will be the nominees in the general election 0 General election nal election that selects an of ceholder Nonpartisan elections where candidates do not run with party labels primaries are sometimes used to narrow the eld of candidates to just two candidates who must then run again against each other 0 Initiative proposed law or amendment to a state constitution Referendum a law or state constitutional ammedment that is proposed by a legislature or other elected body but goes into effect only if approved by a speci ed majority of voters Propositions an initiative or a referendum that often provides a basis for poH calac on Seven key developments have contributed to the permanent campaign 0 Separate election days for federal state and local elections Increased number of elections shortened time between elections 0 Spread of primary elections Increased number of elections shortened time between elections 0 Decay of traditional party organizations Candidates must build individualized personal campaign organizations almost from scratch 0 Rise of mass communication Candidates can communicate directly with voters but their mistakes are easily publicized o Profusion of interest groups Elected of cials constantly being watched and their mistakes quickly publicized 0 Proliferation of polls Provide constant feedback about potential election outcomes 0 Role of campaign money Elected of cials must spend more time fundraising 0 Republican Party leans towards the conservative path generally favoring smaller government lower taxes less regulation of business activity and greater support for traditional family values 0 Democratic Party leans toward the liberal path usually favoring a strong federal government more extensive social programs more regulation and legal accommodation for alternative lifestyles Singleissue voters voters who care so deeply about some particular issue that their votes are determined by a candidate s position of this one issue Electoral incentive desire to be elected or reelected to of ce Chapter Two Federalists those who wrote and campaigned for rati cation of the Constitution AntiFederalists those who opposed rati cation of the Constitution Constitution basic governing document of the US Divine Right a doctrine stating that God selects the sovereign for the people Royal colony one governed by the king s representative with the assembly39s advice The May ower the pilgrims who sailed to Virginia in 1620 the ship was blown off course into Massachusetts May ower Compact First document signed by the pilgrims in colonial America in which the people gave their express consent to be governed Proprietary colony colony governed either by a prominent English noble or by a company Colonial assembly lower legislative chamber elected by male property owners in a colony Colonial council upper legislative chamber whose members were appointed by British of cials upon the recommendation of the governor Patronage appointment of individuals to public of ce in exchange for their political support Stamp tax 1765 British parliament required that colonists purchase a small stamp to be af xed to legal and other documents Taxation without representation levying of taxes by a government in which the people are not represented by their own elected of cials Stamp Act Congress a meeting in 1765 of delegates from nine colonies to oppose the act rst organization brought leaders form several colonies together for a common purpose Patriots a political group defending colonial American liberties against British infringements First Continental Congress organized in 1774 rst quasigovernmental in institution that spoke for nearly all the colonies The Continental Congress issue a statement of rights and called for a boycott of British goods Second Continental Congress political authority that directed the struggle for independence beginning in 1775 Declaration of Independence document signed in 1776 asserting the political independence of the United States from Great Britain Tories those colonists who opposed independence from Great Britain 0 1783 the British recognized American independence in the Treaty of Paris In place of divine right stood three principles 0 Government arises from the consent of the governed 0 Power should be divided among separate institutions 0 Citizen rights must be protected Separation of powers a system of government in which different institutions exercise the different components of governmental power 0 Locke thought each institution should be constituted Legislative power the making of law Executive Power the enforcement of law 0 After 60 years Charles de Secondat Baron de Montesquieu added a third Judicial power the application of law to particular situations Whigs political opposition in 18th century England that developed a theory of citizen rights and representation Whig theory of rights written in the form of a novel titled Common Sense written by Thomas Paine Articles of Confederation the rst 17811789 basic governing document of the United States and forerunner to the Constitution The Articles of Confederation were rati ed in 1781 Shay s Rebellion an armed uprising in western Massachusetts in 1786 led by Revolutionary War captain Daniel Shays o A group of impoverished farmers were unable to pay their taxes 0 They rallied together to intimidate state court into forgiving their debt Annapolis Convention meeting in 1786 to discuss constitutional reform 0 Alexander Hamilton James Madison and ten other delegates met to discuss constitutional reforms in 1786 o Delegates made three important decisions at the beginning of the convenUon Hold discussions behind closed doors Write an entirely new constitution instead of simply following Congress39s instructions to suggest amendments to the Articles of Confederation Use the Virginia Plan as the basis for initial discussion oz Virginia Plan constitutional proposal supported by convention delegates from large states Two weeks into the convention people from New Jersey and Delaware offered an alternative prepared by William Paterson o NewJersey Plan smallstate proposal for constitutional reform Connecticut Compromise 0 Also known as the quotGreat Compromisequot o Constitutional Convention proposal that created a House proportionate to population and a Senate in which all states were represented equaHy Necessary and Proper Clause 0 Says Congress has the power to quotmake all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Executionquot its other powers Advice and consent support for a presidential action by a designated number of senators Electoral College those chosen to cast a direct vote for president by a process determined by each state Judicial review court authority to declare laws null and void on the grounds that they violate the Constitution Supremacy Clause part of the Constitution that says the Constitution is the quotsupreme Law of the Land to which all judges are bound Three fths Compromise Constitutional provisions that counted each slave as only three fths of a person when calculating representation in the house of Representatives 0 Bill of Rights the rst ten amendments to the Constitution which guarantee civil liberties and protect states39 rights 0 Bill of Rights 0 Freedom of speech press and assembly 0 Free exercise of religion 0 Right to bear arms 0 Protection against soldiers being quartered in private homes 0 Home security against unreasonable searches and seizures 0 Cannot be deprived of life liberty or property without due process of law 0 Cannot be forced to testify against oneself 0 Trial byjury o No cruel or unusual punishment 0 Assurance that people retain other rights not explicitly stated 0 Powers not delegated to national government are retained by states or people 0 The Federalist Papers essays that were written in support of the Constitution39s rati cation and have become a classic argument for the American constitutional system 0 Checks and Balances Constitutional division of powers into separate institutions giving each institution the power to block the actions of the others Chapter Three Sovereignty fundamental governmental authority Federalism division of sovereignty between at least two different levels of government 0 For a democratic government to be called a federal system each fundamental level of government must have 0 Its own set of elected officials 0 Its own capacity to raise revenues by means of taxation 0 Independent authority to pass laws regulating the lives of its citizens Dillon39s Rule legal doctrine that local governments are mere creatures of the state Unitary government system under which all authority is held by a single national government Confederation a form of government in which subunits retain all of their sovereignty delegating only a few speci c tasks to the central government Supremacy clause constitutional provision that says the laws of the national government quotshall be the supreme Law of the Landquot which comes close to saying that only a national government is truly sovereign Powers Granted to the National Government 0 Conduct foreign affairs 0 Raise armies and declare war Regulate imports and exports Regulate interstate commerce Regulate immigration and naturalization Establish and operate federal court system Levy taxes Borrow money Coin money Provide for the general welfare Make laws quotnecessary and properquot to accomplish the above tasks Powers Granted to the State Governments Maintain state militias National Guard Regulate commerce within the state Establish and operate state court systems Levy taxes Borrow money 0 Exercise powers not granted to the national government Judicial Review supreme court holds this power the authority to declare laws null and void on the grounds that they violate the Constitution Dual Sovereignty a theory of federalism saying that both the national and state governments have nal authority over their own policy domains Tyranny of the majority suppression of rights imposed by those voted into power by a majority Nulli cation a doctrine that says that states have the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional McCulloch VS Maryland decision of 1819 in which the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional the state39s power to tax a federal government entity New Deal programs created by the Franklin Roosevelt administration that expanded the power of the federal government for the purpose of stimulating economic recovery and establishing a national safety net for those in need Commerce clause Constitutional provision that gives Congress power to regulate commerce quotamong the statesquot The Supreme Court in 1895 said United States VS E C Knight Co Congress couldn39t break up a monopoly that had a nationwide impact on the price of sugar because the company that enjoyed the monopoly re ned its sugar solely within the state of Pennsylvania NIMBY problem problem in which everyone wants the problem solved but quotNot in My Back Yardquot o A federal law passed in 1985 told states either to dispose of the waste themselves or to face legal consequences for any damage the waste might cause 0 All doubts vanished in 1997 the Supreme Court invalidated a portion of a national gun control law Brady Law State sovereign immunity legal doctrine based on the 11th amendment that says states cannot be sued under federal law by private problems Marblecake Federalism Cooperative Federalism the theory that all levels of government can work together to solve a common problem 000000000 00000 Spending clause constitutional provision that gives Congress the power to collect taxes to provide for the general welfare FEMA federal emergency management agency According to Morton Grodzins political scientist all government should work together because 0 Cooperative federalism is democratic o Compromises are reached among officials elected by different constituencies 0 Professional administrators have similar training and values no matter what level of government they work for Intergovernmental grant grant from the national government to a state or local government Pork Barrel projects special legislative bene ts targeted toward the constituents of particular members of Congress Categorical grants federal grants to a statelocal government that impose programmatic restrictions on the use of funds War on poverty series of categorical grant programs enacted in the 19605 designed to enhance the economic opportunity of lowincome citizens 0 Head Start more than four decades this project was launched the most visible and successful earlyintervention programs for disadvantaged preschoolers Implementation the way in which grant programs are administered at the local level Publicpolicy scholars gave three reasons for doubting that many intergovernmental grants were as effective as Godzins had said 0 National and local officials serving different constituencies often block and check one another making it impossible to get much done 0 When many participants are involved delays and confusion are almost inevitable 0 Federal policymakers often raise unrealistic expectations by using exaggerated rhetoric guaranteeing disappointment Block grants intergovernmental grants with a broad set of objectives a minimum of federal restrictions and maximum discretion for local officials General Revenue Sharing the most comprehensive of block grants which gives money to state and local governments to be used for any purpose whatsoever Unfunded mandates Federal regulations that impose burdens on state and local governments without appropriating enough money to cover costs Devolution return of governmental responsibilities to state and local governments Governor a state39s chief executive whose responsibilities roughly parallel those of the president Laboratories of democracy doctrine that state and local governments contribute to democracy by providing places where experiments are tried and new theories about government tested The Republicans dominated the North whereas the South was dominated by Democrats Reapportionment redrawing of electoral district lines to re ect population changes Chapter Four Citizenship status held by someone entitled to all the rights and privileges of a full edged member of a political community Political culture collection of beliefs and values about the justi cation and operation of a country s government Multiculturalism the idea that ethnic and cultural groups should maintain their identity within the larger society and respect one another39s differences Relative to other countries and to the times America has always been diverse The Immigration Act of 1965 abandoned the nationalquotas system favoring northern Europeans this opened the door to the largest surge of immigrants Foreign observers have claimed that Americans share basic values these beliefs are described as liberal Classical liberalism a philosophy that emerged in Europe as medieval thought disintegrated in the religious wars of the 17th century According to Gordon Wood Civic Republicanism placed more emphasis on the obligation of citizens to act virtuously in pursuit of the common good Americans differ from people everywhere because they are keen on individualism 0 They strike balance between individual responsibility and governmental responsibility After the Civil War economic development weakened the association between liberty and equality The Industrial Revolution produced great concentrations of private wealth on the one hand and masses of lowwage workers on the other Americans regard economic inequality as not only inevitable but also fair they thought that those who produced more deserved to receive more Equality of opportunity the notion that individuals should have an equal chance to advance economically through their talent and hard work Equality of condition the notion that all individuals have a right to a more or less equal part of the material good that society produces As far as most Americans are concerned equality of opportunity should be enough and the rest should be up to the individual this belief also shows up in government policies Americans focus on problem solving and on material success they39re supposed to show a trust in logic in science in technology and in the evidence before their eyes also called positivism There is a great supply of religions in the United States there39s an assortment of religions denominations branches and sects Political socialization the set of psychological and sociological processes by which families schools religious organizations communities and other societal units inculcate beliefs and values in their members
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