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Date Created: 07/03/14
Biol 1201 Sec 1 Spring 2014 Learning Objectives 1 Background Material Know the definitions of Science SEndotherm 2 Ectotherm Piezo hilelbaro hile Halophile iThermo hile What are some examples of endotherms and ectotherms Endotherms Penguins Tuna Great White Sharks Swordfish Mammals Ectotherms Antarctic Fish Deep Sea Fish Reptiles Most Fish Why are so many aquatic animals ectotherms So many aquatic animals are ectotherms because Basic Chemistry Elements and Electrons Atomic mass What information does this provide Number of Protons and Neutrons in Nucleus Atomic number What information does this provide Number of Protons and Electrons of Element Electron shells How many electrons are required to fill each shell First Shell 2 Electrons Second Shell 8 Electrons 0 Third Shell 8 Electrons What is valence Know how to calculate this for atoms important in biological systems Why is valence important 0 Valence is the number of electrons required to fill the outermost electron shell Valence is important because it determines the element s electronegativity What is the difference between valence and valence electrons Valence is the number of electrons required to fill the outermost electron shell 0 Valence electrons are the number of electrons located in the outermost electron shell What are ions 0 Ions are atoms that have a charge positive or negative Know how to calculate the mass of a molecule The How do you prepare a solution of a given molarity Chemical Bonds Strong bonds Weak bonds What is electronegativity See the figure in the pdf file in the Moodle folder Biological Molecules How does this determine whether a covalent bond will be polar or nonpolar Pay particular attention to Fig 29 and Figs 212 through 216 Biological Molecules Properties of Water 1 High heat capacitySpecific Heat Amount of heat to raise temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius 1 calorie per gram of water 2 High heat of vaporization Amount of heat to vaporize 1 gram of Water 540 calories per gram at 100 degrees Celsius 3 High heat of fusion Amount of heat removed to freeze 1 gram of water 80 calories per gram Citrus growers spray Water on plants to form ice because heat of fusion will be retained in fruit so fruits don t freeze Super Cooling Under Cooling Cooling of liquid below its freezing point without the formation of ice crystals A metastable state Ice Nucleators Prevents super cooling and rapid freezing Causes freezing at higher temperature Labelia telekia Mountainous regions of Kenya and Uganda Alpine species experiences temperatures of 10 degrees Celsius Fluid Filled Inflorescence High Heat Capacity Seed the formation of ice in this fluid Ice Formation Ice Nucleators Release heat of fusion Maintains fluid and plant temperature of 0 degrees Celsius Induce freezing in the central fluid at the highest possible subzero temperature Prevents super cooling and explosive freezing 4 Most dense at 4 C Because of the hydrogen bonding structure ice is lighter than liquid water ce floats so large bodies of water don t freeze solid 5 High dielectric and how this affects solubility Great solvent 6 Capillary action and surface tension Due to hydrogen bonding Cohesion Water to Water Adhesion Water and Cell Wall Example Vascular Systems in Plants 7 Ionization Dissociation into acid Hydronium Ion and Base Hydroxyl Ion Figures 32 33 36 37 and 38 Know the definitions of pH and pOH Be able to manipulate pH and pOH Log base 10 10Fold difference between numbers pH of 7 is neutral 0 pH below 7 is acidic pH above 7 is basic I0H0g1Hl09Hl pHlog1OH logOH 0 pHpOH14 What is supercooling undercooling Supercooling is the cooling of liquid below its freezing pointwithout the formation of ice crystals What problem does supercooling pose for the cells and tissues of an organism Supercooling can cause explosive freezing that is harmful to living organisms Lobelia telekii which we referred to as the Cousin Itt plant is able to keep its tissues from freezing even when the air temperature drops to 10 C at night How is it able to do this See the figures in the pdf file in the Moodle folder Biological Molecules Labelia telekia Mountainous regions of Kenya and Uganda Alpine species experiences temperatures of 10 degrees Celsius Fluid Filled Inflorescence High Heat Capacity Seed the formation of ice in this fluid Ice Formation Ice Nucleators Release heat of fusion Maintains fluid and plant temperature of 0 degrees Celsius Induce freezing in the central fluid at the highest possible subzero temperature Prevents super cooling and explosive freezing Other organisms such as Antarctic fishes prevent ice formation in their tissues even though they have cell temperatures below the freezing point of body fluids They do this by accumulating antifreeze proteins How do these antifreeze proteins work See the figures in the pdf file on Moodle under Biological Molecules 0 Small proteins that depress the freezing point of solutions Noncolligative freezing point depression Antifreeze Peptides Hydrogen Bond with Ice 0 Requires more energy to add a Water molecule to the curved surface of the ice crystal The temperature must be lowered to add the molecule Decreased freezing point What is a colligative property 0 Depends on the number of particles molecules and not on the nature of the molecules Affects freezing point but not the melting point Decreases freezing point Does not change the melting point Why are antifreeze proteins called hysteresis proteins Hysteresis proteins affect the freezing point but not the melting point so it bents the natural properties of the molecule Functional Groups Study Table 49 you need to know the function of the groups and must be able to identify the functional groups Hydroxyl Group Alcohols Carbonyl Group Aldehydes terminal carbon and ketones Carboxyl Group Acid Groups Amino Group Amines Sulfhydryl Group Thiols Phosphate Group Organic Phosphates Methyl Group CH3 nonpolar Polymerizationlbreakdown reactions Synthesis and breakdown of polymers Dehydration condensation synthesis of a polymer Polymer is formed and a Water molecule is released as a result Hydrolysis breakdown a polymer Polymer is broken down into monomers and a water molecule is created as a result Figure 52 Eg How many covalent bonds are there in a protein 50 amino acids long How many water molecules were produced in the synthesis of this polymer 0 49 covalent bonds 0 49 water molecules are created Carbohydrates General Form CH20n Sugars Functions energy and structural roles in plants and animals Energy Role 0 Metabolic Fuel Gucose Sucrose Storage Form Plants store starch Animas store glycogen Structura Roles Cellulose Plants Chitin Animals Monomers and Polymers examples eg glucose glycogen starch chitin and cellulose monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide Monosaccharides are monomers of carbohydrates Bonds through dehydrationcondensation synthesis 0 Disaccharides are polymers of carbohydrates Spit through hydrolysis reactions How much energy is available relative to an equal mass of lipid Twice as much energy is available from fat lipids opposed to sugars carbohydrates 0 Lipids fats aren t as rapidly mobilized as carbohydrates Lipids How are lipids defined 0 Water insoluble organic biomolecules make up of non poar groups Insoluble in water Structural component of the cell membrane Storage and transport forms of fuel Protective surface coating 0 Cell component in cell recognition Make hormones particularly steroids Composed of glycerol and fatty acids Fatty Acids are long carbon skeletons What are saturated and unsaturated fats Saturated Fats Saturated Fats are saturated with Hydrogen atoms NO double or triple bonds with adjacent carbons Unsaturated Fats Double bonds cause a kink in the structure of the lipid due to Acyl Chains How do they differ in their melting points Unsaturated Fats have a lowering melting point and are solid at room temperature Saturated Fats have a higher melting point than Unsaturated Fats and are liquid at room temperature Be able to identify saturated and unsaturated fats See Figures 510 through 514 What is a triglyceride storage fat How is it formed Triglyceride Storage Fat is a fat molecule composed of a Glycerol and Fatty Acid What is a phospholipid Polymer of Lipids with Phosphate groups Compose the cell membrane of cells What are the properties of the tails and the phosphate head group eg are they hydrophobic or hydrophilic Hydrophilic Water Loving Heads that when comprise the cell membrane face the outside and inside of the cell 0 Hydrophobic Water Hating Tails that when comprise the cell membrane are within the membrane and touch no water Proteins Amino acids are monomers What do all 20 common amino acids have in common Central Carbon 0 Amino Group NH2 Carboxyl Group COOH Hydrogen What are R groups Functional Group that determines the structure of the protein These groups have different properties ie some are charged some are polar and some are nonpolar How does this affect how they interact with water 0 Hydrophobic R Groups are buried in the interior of the protein Hydrophilic R Groups are found in the exterior of the proteins How is the covalent linkage between amino acids formed 0 Peptide bonds link the amino and carboxyl groups together through dehydration synthesis 0 The Peptide Bond process DOES NOT involve the R Group of the amino acids What is the name given to this covalent bond Peptide Bond What are the levels of structure that all proteins share in common Primary Structure Secondary Structure Tertiary Structure Quaternary Structure How are the levels of structure stabilized ie what kinds of bonds PrimaryPeptide Bonds SecondaryHydrogen Bonds Tertiary R Groups are involved Weak 1 Hydrogen Bonds 2 Ionic Interactions 3 Hydrophobic and van der Waa s interactions Strong 1 Disulfide Bridge Covalent Bond Quaternary Multiple polypeptide chains fit together to form a larger protein Can be identical subunits or different What groups are involved eg the peptide backbone or R group in stabilizing the levels of structure PrimaryPeptide Backbone SecondaryPeptide Backbone TertiaryR Group QuaternaryPeptide Backbone See Figures 516 517 520 and 521 From lecture Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies TSE Prion diseases caused by infectious proteins Slowly developing diseases The prions are virtually indestructible Mad cow disease BSE Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Affects cows Spread by infected sheep parts in cow feed CJD Creutzfied Jacob Disease Affects humans Typical onset at age sixty or later Genetic Basis Spreads through medical procedures Tissues nstruments Early onset variant of CJD From eating meat from infected cows 0 Chronic Wasting Disease Affects Mule Deer and Elk Kuru Laughing Disease Humans effected in Papua New Guinea Scrapie Affects Sheep Causes Brains to form holes and resemble a sponge Prion proteins normal and disease forms how do they differ 0 Normal Cellular Form Alpha Helix May protect neurons from toxic copper ions Disease Form Beta Pleated Sheets Fig 1911 Cells Cell Structure and Organelles What limits cell size Surface Area to Volume Ration Movement of materials into and out the cell Controlling and coordinating metabolic processes within the cell Know the functions of the organelles See Concepts 62 through 66 at the end of Chapter 6 What is the endomembrane system A dynamic pathway comprised of Endoplasmic Reticulum 1 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Lipid Synthesis Detoxification of water insoluble compounds Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium store in muscle 2 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes on the cytoplasmic side Prominent in cells synthesizing products destined for transport to other cells Golgi Apparatus 1 Components are transported from ER to Golgi 2 Compounds modified and packaged fransport 3 Traffic control center of the cell Lysosome 1 Eukaryotes only 2 Vesicle containing digestive enzymes hydrolytic enzymes 3 In plants called lytic oragnelles 4 Isolate these enzymes from cell components How does it function Pay particular attention to Figure 612 613 and 615 and to the figure showing the consequences of defects in the endomembrane system which is posted on Moodle Know which types of organelles are found in Prokaryotes vs Eukaroytes Plants and Animals
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