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Date Created: 07/03/14
AP Biology Ecology Chapter 53 Population Ecology 535 Population Growth Is Limited by the Environment 1 Population Growth populations grow if births exceed deaths until they reach the carrying capacity of their environment a exponential growth model even when the rate of increase remains constant the actual number of individuals accelerates rapidly as the size of the population grows the result of unchecked exponential growth is a population explosion b carrying capacity the maximum population size that a habitat can support which ultimately depends on the resources available in the environment c logistic growth model accelerates exponentially at first but when the resources become limited the death rate increases and growth slows as the size of a population stabilizes at the carrying capacity its rate of growth slows eventually coming to a halt d sigmoidal growth curve the double curve like the letter s that represents the logistic growth model graphically 2 Factors that Regulate Population some of the factors that regulate a popu1ation s growth depend upon the size of the population others do not a density dependent effects as population sixe increases either reproductive rates decline or mortality rates increase or both a phenomenon termed negative feedback b density independent effects the rate of population growth at any instant is limited by something unrelated to the size of the population c population cycles in some populations density dependent effects lead not to an equilibrium population size but to cyclic patterns of increase and decrease Chapter 54 Community Ecology 541 Biological Communities are Composed of Species that Occur Together 1 Concepts of Communities a community the species that occur at any particular locality they can be characterized either by their constituent species or by their properties such as species richness or primary productivity 542 Interactions Among Competing Species Shape Ecological Niches 1 Fundamental and Realized Niches a niche the sum total of all the ways an organism utilizes the resources of its environment it may be described in terms of space utilization food consumption temperature range appropriate conditions for mating requirements for moisture and other factors 543 Predation Has Ecological and Evolutionary Effects 1 Predation and Prey Populations predators can limit the size of populations 2 Plants Defense Against Herbivores plants use chemicals to defend themselves against animals trying to eat them a chemical many plants and algae contain chemicals that are either toxic to most herbivores or disturb their metabolism greatly 3 Animal Defenses Against Predators animals defend themselves with camou age chemicals and stings a chemical some animals use chemicals to defend themselves against predators while others use them to kill their prey b defensive coloration poisonous animals are often brightly colored to warn predators other animals camou age themselves to blend in with their surroundings to hide from predators 4 Mimicry species can copy the appearance of others a Batesian mimicry unprotected species resemble others that are distasteful both species exhibit warning coloration b Mullerian mimicry two or more unrelated but protected species resemble one another thus achieving a kind of group defense 544 Species within a Community Interact in Many Ways 1 Coevolution and Symbiosis a coevolution the simultaneous development of adaptions in two or more populations species or other categories that interact so closely that each is a strong selective force on the other b symbiosis the condition in which two or more dissimilar organisms live together in close associations commensalism mutualism and parasitism 2 Commensalism one species benefits while other neither benefits nor is harmed 3 Mutualism both participating species benefit 4 Parasitism one species benefits but the other is harmed 545 Ecological Succession Many Increase the Species Richness of Communities 1 Succession the slow orderly progression of changes in community composition that takes place through time species replacements often occur in a regular pattem a primary occurs on bare lifeless substrate such as rocks or in open water where organisms gradually move into an area and change its nature occurs in lakes left behind after the retreat of glaciers on volcanic islands that rise above the sea and on land exposed by retreating glaciers b secondary occurs in areas where an existing community had been disturbed but soil still remains if a wooded area is cleared and left alone plants will slowly reclaim the area eventually all traces of the clearing will disappear and the area will again be woods Chapter 55 Dynamics of Ecosystems 1 Explain each of the four chemical cycles within the ecosystem The Water Cycle Water cycles between the atmosphere and the oceans although deforestation has broken the cycle in some ecosystems The Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis captures carbon from the atmosphere and respiration retums it The Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is captured from the atmosphere by the metabolic activities of bacteria Other bacteria degrade organic nitrogen returning it to the atmosphere The Phosphorous Cycle Phosphorous weathers from soils into the water enters plants and animals and is redeposited in the spoil when plants and animals are decomposed 2 Explain What a food Web is and the components of a food Web A food Web is the composition of all the food chains of each species in an ecosystem The components of a food Web are food chains and trophic levels The trophic levels consist of the producers or plants primary consumers or the herbivores secondary consumers or carnivores and parasites and decomposers which break down organic matter accumulated in the bodies of other organisms Energy is passed on from the first tropic level producers to the last decomposers by consumption Food chains show the relationship between the trophic levels using one organism per trophic levels While food Webs use many organisms 3 What is primary productivity Primary productivity is a term used to describe the amount of energy produced by photosynthetic organisms in a community 4 What is secondary productivity Secondary productivity is the rate of biomass production by heterotrophs Chapter 56 The Biosphere 1 What is a biome Biomes are major communities of organisms that have a characteristic appearance and are distributed over a wide land area defined largely by regional variations in climate 2 Name the biomes and state one important fact about each The eight major biomes are the tropical rain forest savanna desert temperate grassland temperate deciduous forest temperate evergreen forest taiga and tundra Rain forests receive 140 to 450 centimeters of rain per year and are the richest ecosystems on earth Savannas are open grasslands with Widely spaced trees and seasonal rainfall Deserts are dry places Where less than 25 centimeters of rain falls in a year Temperate grasslands are highly productive when converted to agricultural use and are often populated by herds of grazing animals Temperate deciduous forests have mild climates and plentiful rains Temperate evergreen forests occur in regions Where Winters are cold and there is a strong seasonal dry period Taigas are filled with forests of coniferous trees Tundras usually have permafrost or permanent ice within a meter of the surface and are very cold
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