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Date Created: 07/03/14
Class Notes summation up to midterm Art History 6C Modern to Contemporary Lecture 02 Understanding Differences Baroque to Rococo to Neoclassicism There is a transition from stable cyclic world to a constantly shifting unstable and revolutionary world The Beginning of the modern world In France there is a shift from the king is the state to the people are the state The people initiate the French Revolution 1789 inspired by Enlightenment ideas The Enlightenment has emphasis on the Individual rather than the state institution Radical new synthesis of ideas about humanity reason nature and God 1 Belief that destiny can be shaped and changed 2 Individual takes on new meaning with agency to pursue happiness and fulfillment 3 Institutions can be reformed and perfected and the purpose of the state is to help the individual Examples in art Hyacinth Rigaud s Louis XIV 1701 1 Portrays king as all powerful and center of attention 2 His Sun God and Divine Right position is also dominant in the painting so there are signs and symbols of gold lavishness extravagance Example 2 John Singleton Copley s Samuel Adams 177072 1 Shows in uence of Enlightenment such as including books maps and a globe 2 There is emphasizing on the individual and the notion that one s own hard work will lead to success Philosophes were those men engaging with reason individualism and liberty The body does not embody the state like with the king and individuals can have their own ideas that differ from others Baroque Art was focused on more of political themes and exaggerated motion It also wanted to convey emotion Art was a place where politics took place Background on King Lois XIV 1 The king was extremely powerful and had the palace of Versailles constructed to keep eye on his court and administrators 2 Versailles power and control Royal Academy was established by King Louis XIV in 1646 France 1 England followed soon after 2 There is training for artists in casting musculature skin and then clothes control of artists 0 Hierarchy of Genres within Royal Academy 1 History Paintings Most important kind of painting that includes religious mythological historical literary or allegorical subjects Conveying a moral lesson about appropriate behavior virtue 2 Portraits 3 Genre Scenes Scenes of everyday life neither ideal in style nor elevated in subject Admired for their skill ingenuity and even humor 4 Landscapes 5 Animal Paintings 6 Still Life Inanimate objects being painted 0 Many women during this time period painted in these last 3 categories because the Academy would not allow them to paint the others and so many women artists are not gaining popularity 0 The Rococo Style and Period 0 Arises from the rule of Louis XV who was more interested in social life and gambling not much interest in state of affairs 0 EX Antoine Watteau s Voyage To Cythera 1717 1 Representation of a modern pleasure people are irting and being intimate secrecy 2 Imaginary aristocrats go to an island 0 Example 2 J eanHonore Fragonard The Swing 1767 1 Intimate subjects secrecy no control fun between subject matters 2 Nice pastel colors uffy fussy brushwork concerned with more playful and artistic themes and was more omate than the Baroque 0 Neo Classicism 1 Austere moral values didactic crisp lines hard edges and clarity sculpted forms and shallow depths 2 History painting that teaches a lesson through historical story and focused on science rather than religion ethics and govemment 3 Used to teach citizens how to behave 0 Example J acques Louis David The Oath of the Horatii 178485 1 Revolutionary and historical painting these paintings were bought by the state and used for decoration 2 Painting shows an oath being taken by brothers to their father to uphold the state that is being threatened by the Curiatii 3 Important because it emphasized that the stat matters more than family ties and absolute loyalty is to the state 4 It is characterized by stable figures plain background and no movement or pleasure in seeing this painting as in the Rococo style Art History 6C Modern Contemporary Lecture 3 The French Revolution Zohann Zoffany s Royal Academians 1771 74 1 It shows the exclusion of women since men were the only ones to paint the more popular paintings and women only got to do still life paintings and nothing that had nothing to do with the body or history Salons were important because they represents the artist s work and king Louis established them in order to control what is painted so as to keep the state upheld In the Salon of 1785 Jacques Louis David s Oath of the Horatii 1784 85 makes premiere 2 Was simple and caught attention of the viewers for its plain figures and plain background 3 It was painted before the French Rev but championed by Revolutionaries even though the king had bought it because it symbolizes loyalty to the state 4 David thought about how the oath could have been and chose to include it to show its importance it was originally not part of the play so he chose to add that action Compared to Pieree Peyron s Death of Alcestis 1785 1 Both share the same colors like red and white but shift is seen moving away from the traditional to the Neo Classical 2 There are more details and the lighting is uneven with some areas darker than others softness of drapery and emphasis on overall figures and elegance lastly there is an array of interwoven figures In David s painting there is only the same swooning of women as in Peyron s to contrast the weak with the strong rigid figures taking the oath Loyalty and sacrifice to the state is overall more important than emotion 1 Upholds strong civic duty and the emerging style of Neo Classism In Crow s writing he argues that David is all about real sacri ce and the state importance His work is blunt and unlike the traditional giving away the meaning from the onset As the Revolution neared painters and the audiences began to move towards the NeoClassical and away from the matemal and family oriented paintings of the Baroque and Rococo Examples Adolf Wertmuller s Marie Antoinette and her children 1786 2 Painting was done to promote the queen s popularity and emphasis on her good virtue as a mother 3 Done in a Rococo style and was not displayed in the Salon exhibition so turned out as a DISASTER in boosting the queen s popularity 4 The audience already disliked Marie Antoinette and the painting depicted her children as not interested in her and as her being a careless mother as she seems to drag her young son and the little girl is running away from her 0 Example 2 Elisabeth Vigee Lebrun s Marie Antoinette and her children 1787 1 Lebrun was a member of the Royal Academy and the personal painter to the queen but ed the country soon before the Revolution began in order not to be associated with conspiring with the queen and king 2 This painting was meant to serve as damage control for the failure of Wertmullers last work 3 This painting puts more focus on the family unit because the queen is seated and her children are close and even hugging her 4 To raise empathy for her recent miscarriage her young son points to the empty cradle and shows her commitment to her family and her soberness 5 It was accepted but was not a huge success 0 HISTORY OF THE REVOUTION 0 State the King 1 First Estate the Clergy Church 2 Second Estate Noblemen 3 Third Estate EVERYONE ELSE Merchants doctors lawyers farmers etc 0 Fall of the Bastille was in July 14 1789 0 Peasants take over the prison Bastille and kill many of the prisoners and guards 0 News was spread through prints that had songs 0 Third Estate rebels against the other two and try to negotiate with king Louis XVI to write a Constitution that is Democratic and gives more equal rights to all three estates 0 Example David s Oath of the Tennis Court 1791 1 Third Estate swears to continuously meet until a constitution is implemented after the King locked them out of Versailles and refused to cooperate 2 Shows the presence of members of the third estate as well as some members of the other two which also agreed with the revolution and the new constitution 0 The guillotine was implemented as a weapon to kill all those accused of being against the revolution 0 Was seen as Democratic because it was used on EVERYONE there was no different death for aristocrats or even the king 0 Was capital punishment and fast efficient 0 Women also played a role in the Neo Classical representation of state loyalty and civic duty over emotion and personal gains 0 Example Kauffman s Comelia presenting her children as treasures 1785 1 Kauffman was admitted to English Academy 2 Woman shows off her jewelry to Cornelia but Cornelia presents he children as her jewels as she understands she must raise her kids to be good citizens and serve the state 3 The moral of the painting is upmost loyalty to the civic duty and the servitude to fighting for the state and not focus on the physical aspects of the World 4 Painting has the strong figures with the clear background without amboyant clothes and centering on the children as the focus The death of the king was a result of a vote that sentenced him to death by guillotine and he was executed on January 201793 There was much opposition because many saw the king as the state and saw his execution as a violation of the state Art History 6C Modern to Contemporary Lecture 4 French Rev Neoclassicism and Romanticism The French Revolution continued throughout the decades and throughout the period David continued to paint in the Neoclassical style but some changes are seen The signi cance of David s Oath of the Tennis Court 3 Estates taking an oath to not leave until they have Written a Constitution They Wanted to be more democratic and so this is represented through that All three estates are represented clergy noblemen and others 39gt Painting was never completed because as Revolution progressed all were being killed as suspicion of conspiracy increased Example Jacques Louis David s Death of Marat 1793 1 Depicts the Write revolution activist Marat dead after Charlotte Corday stabbed him 2 Portrays Marat as a martyr of the revolution as he tries to help a Widowed Woman Corday but she kills him instead 3 There is not so much detail at in the background except for some of the lighting that emphasizes the body of Marat as reason and rationality 4 As a Neoclassical piece it upholds the state and the sacrifices that are made to keep its virtues alive The Terror was a period during the revolution that was led mainly by Robespierre Who Was killing people in large numbers The September days were in 1794 and it is estimated that 18000 40000 Were killed in Weeks 0 Many paintings were continued to be done in the Neoclassical style as Bonaparte began to gain popularity in France after the revolution 0 Example AJ Baron Gros General Bonaparte at Arcole 1796 1 Bonaparte becomes a hero and gets to be a part of the Consul created after the Revolution 2 It is a portrait not a historical piece 3 There is more emphasis on the risk of the individual and the depiction of the Napoleon taking control shows his will 4 It follows the conventions of clear brushwork and incorporating diagonal lines to gain attention of the viewer into the action of Napoleon 0 Example 2 David s Napoleon Bonaparte crossing the Great Saint Bemard Pass 1801 1 Portrait done in diagonal action with the wind blowing on Napoleon as he is on his horse 2 The horse lines and motion of the wind all move the viewer s attention upward also signifying the greatness of Napoleon as he invades Italy after crossing 3 Napoleon is crossing this pass which has been crossed by few others and so this serves as a propaganda 0 Romanticism vs Neoclassicism 0 Romanticism is not a style but a movement that sets itself in opposition to tradition 1 It values emotion and the individual aspects of life through different ways 2 It focuses on how the artist feels about the subject rather than portraying a historical moment and idealizing the figures 3 Can be classi ed by messy more uid brushwork and no real distinction of background with the scene but not followed by all artist who are considered to paint Romantic 0 Ex David Napoleon In His Study 1812 1 This is a portrait that focuses on the individual and depicts Napoleon as a statesman includes a melted candle and many documents indicating he stays up late tending to matters of the state 2 Follows the conventions of almost lifelike figures and clear brushstrokes 0 Example of a Romantic movement painting 0 Example Delacroix Niccolo Paganini 1831 1 Motion is emphasized by the brushstrokes that are visible and curvy 2 His posture and sway suggest movement as well and there is more emphasis on the violin and his body instead of his face which fades away with the background 0 Example Gros Napoleon visiting the pest house at J affa 1799 1 Not as Neoclassical because there are lots of things going on with no real moral lesson It is a historical painting however it is in a contemporary setting and the place is still there 2 Napoleon is depicted as a healing Christ as he reaches over and touches a sick soldier and is thought to be a brave hero 3 Shows emotion and reaction of the persons who are in the painting because Napoleon is a general and he is touching the sick Time line thus far 1 Louis XIV Sun God 2 Louis XVI beheaded king 3 French Revolution 1789 4 Empire Napoleon as officer then member of Consul crowns himself emperor beaten at Waterloo in 1815 and is sent into exile 5 The Restoration 1815 1830 Louis XVI S brother restored to power Romanticism Not a style but a movement focused on the individual and the emotion the artist feels towards the subject and evoking emotion within the viewer as well Eample Theodore Gericault s Raft of the Medusa 18181819 History painting that took place 2 yrs before painting Pushed against traditional and does not necessarily support the government and tries to highlight the fact that it appoints positions based on power rather than capability Also shows how nature is powerful and consumes people Conveys cannibalism disaster and a sense of helplessness Art History 6C Modern to Contemporary Lecture 5 Romanticism and Realism Not a style but an attitude there are no consistent style that characterizes it Focuses on the individual and selfexpression 1 Was actually a critique of conventions that did not follow the conventions of the traditional art Academy Follows after rational excess of the French Revolution 2 Shift from empiricism to intuition as source of knowledge Nature the sublime Ex Gericault s Portrait of a Kleptomaniac 3 Doesn t follow the conventions of portrait painting Raft of the Medusa A contemporary event Not about upholding the government and the state but rather opposite because the subject is that of a shipwreck and the struggle to survive among nature Goya Carlos IV Familia 4 Breaks away from the conventions of portraiture 5 6 Figures are not idealized Queen stands out more than the king himself and many of the other figures in the family 0 The Third of May 1 2 3 4 5 Goya believes in some of Bonaparte s new laws and policies The painting depicts the slaughter that the French army brings upon the Spanish citizens and the martyrdom of the victims as the soldiers slaughter In the Romantic period emotion terrifying brutality Sketchy brushwork Soldiers are like machine in cold austere figures impersonal 0 Tumer Slave Ship 1 2 6 Color lighting Horrible event because It is about slaves being thrown overboard for the sake of money The sublime and the obscurity The train in the Romantic period as well because it conveys the emotion and quickness of the industrialized world The quick brushstrokes of the of the background and the train make it fast and convey the sense of the speed which comes from the train No clarity order or harmony 0 There are similarities between David s Madame Reclainier and Ingres s Odalisque 0 Both are of the reclining nude but David s has the spare background characteristic of his Neo Classical style 0 Ingres is more detailed but in the Romantic period and his painting goes against the conventions of tradition as he does not give the appearance of an idealized body 0 His depiction of the non traditional subject also adds to the Romantic style as opposed to the Neo Classical Art History 6 C Modern to Contemporary Lecture 6 Romanticism cont and Realism 0 Political moment in which there is a shift 0 The Empire Napoleon is ruler of France 1 First Consul and the Emperor 18001815 2 Neo Classicism and Romanticism The Restoration 18501830 1 Restoration of the Monarchy 2 Louis XVIII and then Charles X 3 Autocratic ruler 4 Romanticism not a consistent style that emphasizes on the individual and emotionally charged July Monarchy FRE Revolution of 1830 July 1848 1 King Louis is appointed king and overthrown Examples of the styles 2 Ingres Odalisque is similar to David s sharp lines and brushwork but not anatomically correct had in uence from David Contemporary art history paintings depicts victims of the state and war Example Delacroix s Raft of the Medusa 3 Depicts the struggles of those aboard the shipwreck and points finger at the Government for having appointed captains that were not qualified Romanticism is the golden age of caricature and the beginnings of Realism Ex Liberty leading the People Delacroix 1830 4 Last king of the Restoration Charles X imposes restriction upon the press and tries to return money and land back to aristocrats which they lost during the French Revolution 5 Tries to restore the power to the church and stricter censorship 6 Painting commemorates the alliance of workers and Bourgeoisie against Charles X and his National Guard 7 July 1830 uprising against Restoration and Charles X is overthrown known as the July Monarchy 8 Emotionally charged and in the Romantic period July monarchy Louis Phillip aka the citizen king 1 Constitutional monarchy under the Charter 2 Triumph of Bourgeoisie workers are forgotten 3 King Louis Phillip January 1831 attempted to stay in middle ground in equal distance from excess of popular power and abuse of royal power The pear becomes a representation of King Phillip that he later tries to imprison artists for comparing him to it but it is a pear so he can t impose a punishment among citizens for speaking about a pear King starts imposing censorship Honore Daumier 1 Made many lithographs 2 Ex gargantuan 1832 3 A giant who loved overeating and was made to resembles the king 4 The caricature depicts the giant shitting on the charter no consideration for the citizenry 5 King takes money from the poor and the petty bourgeoisie s money Charles Phillip 1 Voila Sirs We have the honor of presenting 2 An Aguste Bouquet re plastering june 1830 Prints incredible important powerful political weapon Many people would buy them Daumier Rue Transnonian l834after press forced underground 1 Event occurred in Lyon 2 Infamous act is portrayed death of many innocent people 3 Print actually wasn t censored 4 Riot as a result of anti union laws police shooting someone fired and caused the soldiers to shoot down all those in the rue transnonian The Revolution of 1848 1 Urban workers socialist regime 2 June Days and National Workshops Realism The Real vs Realistic 1 Kinds of Realism 2 Veracity close to the truth 3 Lifelike 4 Naturalistic 5 Verisimilitude 6 representation Barricades 1846 48 1 Potato blight famine 1 million die in Ireland 1 million migrate population decreases by 25 Recession mass unemployment Literacy in Germany and Austria rose Newspapers produced everywhere as a result and communication increases U P Universal workshops 10 hr workdays 8 Unstable uncertainty about who is going to rule Constituents working class Bourgeoisie petit bourgeoisie and peasants Courbet Millet Daumier Courbet was in the petit bourgeoisie EX Gustav Courbet After Dinner at Omas 1848 49 1 Genre scene people having dinner 2 Figure has back turned toward the audience against tradition 3 4 Got prize from Salon no longer has to get approval from jury to be in a position to translate the customs the ideas and the appearance 0 3 Maj or controversial Works by Gustav Courbet l 2 3 0 The self appointed spokesman for realism EX The Stone Breakers 1849 This laborious job is set as example of the hard lives that many peasants had and meant to give the advice that if one does this While young you will do that and follow the same footsteps The presentation of the Stone Breakers scared the more Wealthy because they were shaken into reality and the truth of What life is for the poor and the possibility of rebelion The peasants of Flagey returning from the fair 1850 S0 Burial at Ornas 1849 All these paintings are done in the Realistic style because they portray the hardships that the peasants live through and focus on the struggles they live
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