Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 18 page Bundle was uploaded by Anna Claire Fotopoulos on Saturday July 5, 2014. The Bundle belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 128 views.
Reviews for APGovMidterm.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 07/05/14
by Anna Claire Fotopoulos AP Government Midterm Study Guide Chapters covered Wilson 13 714 Benson 23 513 The Constitution amp Federalism Wilson Chapters 23 I The basic enumerated powers of the three branches of government are covered in Articles I II and III of the Constitution A Article I Legislative Branch B Article II Executive Branch C Article III Judicial Branch ll Constitutional amendments particularly A Bill of Rights 110 1 Right to religious and political freedom establishment clause Right to bear arms Prohibits quartering of soldiers during peacetime Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures probable cause Prohibits self incrimination and double jeopardy Right to a fair and speedy public trial byjury Right to trial byjury in some civil cases according to common law 9 39 quotE5quot Prohibits excessive fines and bail and cruel and unusual punishment 9 Protects rights not enumerated in the Constitution 10 Anything not mentioned is left to state governments B 14th Amendment Defines citizenship contains the Privileges or Immunities Clause the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause C 15th Amendment Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on race color or previous condition of servitude D 17th Amendment Establishes the direct election of United States Senators by popular vote E 19th Amendment Prohibits the denial of the right to vote based on sex E 22nd Amendment Limits the number of times that a person can be elected president a person cannot be elected president more than twice and a person who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected cannot be elected more than once 3 26th Amendment Prohibits the denial of the right of US citizens eighteen years of age or older to vote on account of age lll Rules of the electoral college A In the Constitution states are given the freedom to decide how to choose electors B All states get one electoral vote for each of its senators and representatives therefore smaller states get more influence than their population warrants as senators are not based on population C 48 states have winner tallte all rules which means candidates focus on states they can win starting with big states and then focusing on other swing states 0 Maine and Nebraska split their electoral votes Page 1 of 18 D by Anna Claire If someone doesn39t get a majority in the electoral college the House decides who becomes president with one vote per state which happened in 1800 and 1824 IV The original design of Congress A T39quotquotU0U House was elected by popular vote Senate was chosen by state legislatures Voting qualifications for congressional elections were largely set by the states Virginia Plan Representation in Congress would be based solely on population New Jersey Plan Representation in Congress would be equal for all states Great Compromise Created a bi cameral legislature one house by the VA Plan and one house by the NJ Plan V Be familiar with how Scripture and Locllte s and Hobbes views of natural law shaped the Constitution Issue Locke Hobbes Christian Nature of Man Man is free social independent and equal Man is free materialistic independent and self interested Man is fallen and sinful yet redeemed and social Genesis 3 State of Nature Equality liberty not license right to property State of war all vs all mentality life is nasty brutish and short Fallen but redeemed by Christ Genesis 3 Romans 323 623 Human Society amp Government It was created to preserve our rights Big legislative It was created to escape and protect from the state of nature Big executive Authority is a human institution but authority figures are placed by God Romans 13 Natural Rights vs Natural Law Rights come from law and must be honored Law is a moral duty Rights are fundamental Teleological view of man is unattainable Rights derive from God Law is man39s participation in divine law VI The history of the Constitution A The Articles of Confederation had a weak central government as it was only a confederation of independent states Amendments were difficult as they had to be adopted unanimously Remember John Hancock didn39t even show up to serve as President because the role was so meaningless George Washington presided at the Constitutional Convention and his lilltely role as President gave them confidence to give the Chief Executive more power in the Constitution C The central issue in framing the Constitution was how strong to make the national government Page 2of18 by Anna Claire Fotopoulos D The adoption of the Constitution involved compromises including the structure of the House and Senate the Great Compromise and the failure to outlaw slavery in the 35 Compromise necessary to win the support of southern states E There was originally no Bill or Rights It was added afterwards to facilitate ratification Many framers thought it was not necessary as they were creating a government with specific limited powers VII Know about the separation of powers and how it works A Each branch has powers that check the other branches and powers that they must share Examples are the veto the power to confirm executive appointments judicial review the ability to strike down unconstitutional laws Congress power to create courts set the jurisdiction of courts etc Impeachment is a power Congress has to check both the judicial and executive branches B The Congress limited majority rule through the Senate not based purely on population through the electoral college the President is not elected purely by majority vote through life time appointment of judges not chosen by a popular vote for a fixed term VIII Impeachment process A The House impeaches majority vote based on the commission of high crimes and misdemeanors B The Senate convicts two thirds vote required IX Federalism A How the states and federal government share power and share money I Grants in aid Outright gifts of money to the states 2 Categorical grants Aid with strict provisions from the federal government on how it may be spent 3 Block grants Aid which permits the state to experiment and use the money as they see fit B Enumerated powers powers specific to the Federal government enumerated in the Constitution 1 Printing money 2 Regulating interstate between the states and international trade 3 Making treaties and conducting foreign policy 4 Declaring war C Reserved powers powers reserved for the states I Issuing licenses drivers marriage etc 2 Regulating intrastate within the state commerce 3 Running and funding of federal elections D Concurrent powers powers shared between state and federal government 1 Collecting taxes 2 Building roads 3 Operating courts of law 4 Borrowing money Page 3of 18 by Anna Claire Amendment process in the Constitution A Amendment is proposed by either a two thirds vote in both Houses of Congress or the convening of a Constitutional Convention followed a request from two thirds of the states B Amendment is ratified by either three quarters of state legislatures the most common form or three quarters of conventions called in the states to consider ratification Political Participation Wilson Chapters 78 VI VII The story of American politics and constitutional amendments is a story of broadening suffrage the right to vote throughout our history A B 1830s All white males over the age of 21 Andrew Jackson C 1870 All males regardless of race 15th Amendment D 1920 All males and females 19th Amendment E 1972 Anyone over the age of 18 26th Amendment The XV amendment gave the right to vote to African Americans The XVII amendment provided for the direct election of US Senators The XIX amendment gave the right to 1789 Only white male landowners vote to women The XXIII amendment gave the right to vote for President to residents of DC The XXIV amendment made a poll tax unconstitutional The XXVI amendment gave eighteen year oIds the right to vote The South used a number of restrictions after the passage of the XV amendment to continue preventing African Americans from voting including poll taxes literacy tests grandfather clauses and white primaries Parties had a great impact on political organization and voting In the nineteenth century voting ballots were printed by political parties Because voting was controlled by parties turn out was very high and voting fraud was rampant After the adoption of many anti fraud measures including adoption of the Australian ballot voting in presidential elections in the twentieth century declined substantially from the latter part of the nineteenth century The Australian ballot was adopted by most states between 1890 and 1910 It was printed by the government in a standard format and was cast in secret Areas where many citizens live who speak a particular foreign language are required to provide ballots in that language VIIIBasic differences between a conservative and a liberal point of view A Levels of taxation 1 Conservative Lower taxes 2 Liberal Higher taxes B Size of government 1 Conservative Small government 2 Liberal Big government Page 4of 18 by Anna Claire Fotopoulos C Approach to crime 1 Conservative More spending toward defense 2 Liberal Less spending on defense Political Parties Wilson Chapter 9 The basic story of political parties A At the time of the Constitution many framers thought political parties would create unnecessary factions But they quickly became a bulwarllt of American politics 1 Founding Period 17891824 1 Federalists Alexander Hamilton out by 1816 2 AntiFederalists Thomas Jefferson 3 Presidential nominations by party caucuses 2 Antebellum Period 18241860 1 Whigs Federalist replacement 2 Democrats 3 Populists 4 Presidential nominations by conventions 3 Civil War amp Reconstruction 18601877 1 RepublicansNorth 2 Democrats South 3 One party system in each state leads to corruption and patronage 4 William Jennings Bryan 18771932 1 Populists 2 Progressives election and voter reform 3 Presidential nominees by primaries 5 Modern Era 1932present 1 Republicans rich rural religious whites 2 Democrats urban poor blacks and minorities Parties rose in power during the nineteenth century That century saw the rise of many political machines Tammany Hall in New York City is an example these machines were the supreme expression of the value of organization in politics gggggggg Parties provide organization and funding for their candidates Parties traditionally received money from corporations and wealthy individuals through soft money contributions The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 banned soft money contributions to national parties The national party conventions meet every four years to nominate a presidential candidate The conventions are no longer a decisionmallting meeting as nominees are chosen through the primary process Instead they are an opportunity for parties to showcase their alreadychosen nominee and other leaders before a national television audience Page 5of 18 by Anna Claire Elections Wilson Chapter 10 I General elections and primaries A General Elections Elections to decide the winning candidate usually held in November B Primaries Elections to choose a candidate to send to the general election usually held in January March ll Types of primaries A Blanket Voters may vote for one candidate per office of either party B Open Virginia uses this system Voters may vote in only one party39s primary but they may vote in whichever party primary they choose C Closed Most common type of primary Voting is restricted to registered members of a political party Voters may vote for only one candidate running for the nomination of their declared party D Run off This type of primary happens when no candidate receives the required share of votes It is between the two candidates with the highest number of votes lll Impact of the 1974 campaign finance reforms A Set the standards by which an individual or group may donate to any political cause B Political Action Committees PACs Spend money and make campaign contributions in hopes of gaining access to legislators C 527 Groups A tax eXempt organization that promotes a political agenda although they cannot expressly advocate for or against a specific candidate D Current donation limits To a To a Party To State District To a Special Limits Candidate Local Party Committee l dlVldUal 2600 32400 10000 5000 123200 in 2 years 48600 to candidates 74600 to PACs and parties Natimal Party 5000 No limit No limit 5000 45400 to Senate Committee candidate per campaign State District 5000 No limit No limit 5000 No limit Local Party Committee PAC 5000 15000 5000 5000 No limit multicandidate PAC 2600 32400 10000 5000 No limit unicandidate Page 6of 18 by Anna Claire Fotopoulos To a To a Party To State District To a Special Limits Candidate Local Party Committee AU Eh0FiZ d 2000 No limit No limit 5000 No limit Campaign lV Party identification A Over time party loyalty has decreased People can use a split ticlltet voting style and vote for one party for one position and another party for another position B Independents are often the swing votes in an election as they normally vote for either the Republican or Democratic candidate and can tip the balance toward the winning candidate Xl Voting A VAP Voting age population Anyone over the age of 18 B VEP Voting eligible population Anyone over the age of 18 minus felons and others C Registered voters Those who have registered to vote upon turning 18 D Lilltely voters Older people women highly educated E Only about 60 of registered voters actually vote in a presidential election F More people vote in a presidential election than in a midterm congressional election only 40 Xll Polling A Representative sample A sample that is big enough and random enough to represent the entire United States B Margin of error How far off the results could be based on having a too small amount of people or not being random enough C Exit poll A poll conducted at polling paces across the country asllting voters how they voted XlllCause of major realignment elections A B C D 1828 Democratic Republicans split into Whigs and Democrats 1860 Civil War amp Slavery First Republican Revolution 1896 Economy amp emergence of the Populists 1932 Democratic Revolution by black voters and the bad economy Great Depression XlVlmpact of elections on redistricting and the process of gerrymandering A When a particular party is in the majority they get to redraw the districts for the next election Naturally they will try to redraw these districts in such a way that will make it easier for their own party to win reelection Gerrymandering is when the party draws districts that lack contiguity ie making a district in California run straight up the coast Interest Groups Wilson Chapter 11 l Role of interest groups in American politics Page 7of 18 by Anna Claire A We are a nation of joiners and Americans influence politics through interest groups II Why people join interest groups A Material incentives Money or things valued in monetary terms B Ideological Interest Groups Political organizations that attract members by appealing to their political convictions or principles C Solidary Incentives The social rewards sense of pleasure status or companionship that lead people to join political organizations D Purposive incentive A benefit that comes from serving a cause or principle III Ideological interest groups attract members by appealing to their political convictions and principles usually a coherent set of controversial principles issues on which there are clear difference among different parts of society Examples would be the National Right to Life Committee and the Sierra Club IV Impact of elites on the political process A Elites often have substantial impact on legislation affecting social issues including abortion civil rights and the environment Broader political trends are more important on issues such as economic policy or crime V Unions became a powerful force as a result of broad economic developments the rise of industry and large worIltforces and the desire of those workers to gain more influence in politics and workforce negotiations VI Union representing government employees are now the most important part of the union movement The Media Wilson Chapter 12 I Because of the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of the press the media are subject to very few legal restrictions II It is hard to find a newspaper guilty of libel To do so you must provide clear and convincing evidence that what was printed was malicious it was printed with malicious intent or with a reckless disregard for the truth III Roles of the media A Gatekeeper the media chooses what goes in and how important any given story is where it is in the paper front page above the center cut etc B ScoreIlteeper the media keep tabs on who s up and who39s down and watches statistics and polls C Watchdog the media exposes scandals and holds the government accountable for its actions IV Landmark Supreme Court cases involving media A Near v Minnesota I 931 I Established that prior restraint rules on the press are unconstitutional 2 Incorporates laws given under the Bill of Rights as civil liberties 3 Select incorporation First Amendment applies to state law B New York Times v Sullivan 1 964 Page 8of18 by Anna Claire Fotopoulos 1 Civil Rights Era court case that established actual malice standard for press libel of public figures C Red Lion Broadcasting Co v FCC 1969 1 Right to Free Speech does not extend to monopoly of Free Speech D Miami Herald Publishing Co vTornillo 1974 1 Equal time doctrine does not apply to newspapers The Congress Wilson Chapter 13 Committees have specificjurisdictions A The House Appropriations Committee is about spending B The House Ways and Means Committee is about taxes The basics of House and Senate procedure A B C D The House with 435 members gives less power to its individual members The Senate with only 1OO members gives more power to its individual members and often proceeds by unanimous consent If the Senate majority faces a filibuster it must try to invoke cloture 60 votes required to break the filibuster Scheduling in the House is overseen by the Speaker in the Senate it is the result of negotiations between the majority and minority leaders How a bill becomes a law A lT39UDW Committee action most bills die in committee The floor votes Compromise in a conference committee usually The final identical version is adopted by both Houses and signed by the President Afinal conference report cannot be amended must be approved by the majority of House and Senate conferees and must be approved by both Houses Power of incumbency particularly in the House where over 90 percent of incumbents seellting re election have won re election since 1962 This power of incumbency rests on franllting privileges mail paid by the government staff paid for by the government that can serve constituents powerful committee assignments gerrymandering media exposure and a number of other factors The Presidency amp Bureaucracy Wilson Chapters 1415 Cabinet Departments Department of State Department of the Treasury Department of Defense Department ofJustice Department of the Interior Department of Agriculture Department of Commerce Department of Labor m rImU0W3gt Page 9of 18 by Anna Claire Department of Health Department of Housing Department of Transportation Department of Energy Department of Education Department of Veteran Affairs OZZW5 39 Department of Homeland Security How Congressional oversight is used to check the power of the executive and the federal bureaucracy A The President expresses his opinion on a piece of legislation through a signing statement The President uses executive privilege to protect the privacy of his communications with his most senior aides from subpoena by Congress or the judicial branch lV Key Presidents and their impact on Presidential power A George Washington began the design of the executive branch by creating the first cabinet agencies The Constitution does not mention departments or bureaus B Andrew Jackson expanded the power of the Presidency including using the veto for the first time for policy reasons rather than just because the President thought the law was unconstitutional C Voting was dramatically expanded during the Andrew Jackson administration so that by the end of his administration in 1836 virtually all white males over 21 could vote D Abraham Lincoln made broader use of presidential powers under the justification that the conditions created by civil war required it E The government grew under Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the bureaucracy expanded dramatically as a result of the Great Depression and World War II Other Key Points James Madison wrote about the danger of factions in Federalist 10 Think about how the US government was designed both to give power to the majority and to limit the majority The US House was designed to give the most direct voice to the majority and it was the one part of government that was most closely tied to citizens because it faced election every two years and was elected by direct popular vote The Constitution has several ways that it limits majority rule the Senate the electoral college the life time appointment ofjudges are examples and over time it has moved from a less democratic to a more democratic system through the expansion of the right to vote and the choice of candidates through primaries rather than through party conventions Remember how the rules of the House and Senate will affect the ability to pass legislation The majority party has a number of advantages in the US House of Representatives that enable it to pass legislation In the Senate the minority has specific rights and powers that can make it more difficult for the majority to pass legislation especially the ability to filibuster legislation To overcome a filibuster the Senate must invoke cloture with a Page 10of18 by Anna Claire Fotopoulos super majority of 60 votes At the end of the process the House and Senate can resolve differences by convening a conference committee to produce a compromise or by simply having one house pass the version already adopted by the other house The key is that both houses must ultimately pass the identical version of legislation which is then sent to the President for his signature Wilson Vocabulary XVChapter 1 The Study of American Government A B C Authority The right to use power Power The ability of one person to get another person to act in accordance with the first person39s intentions Legitimacy Political authority conferred by law or by a state or national constitution Democracy The rule of the many Direct or Participatory Democracy A government in which all or most citizens participate directly Representative Democracy A government in which leaders make decisions by winning a competitive struggle for the popular vote Elite Persons who possess a disproportionate share of some valued resource like money or power Class View View that the government is dominated by capitalists Power Elite View View that the government is dominated by a few top leaders most of whom are outside the government Bureaucratic View View that the government is dominated by appointed officials Pluralist View View that competition among all affected interests shapes public policy XVlChapter 2 The Constitution A B C Unalienable A human right based on nature or God Articles of Confederation A weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War Constitutional Convention A meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution Shay s Rebellion A 1787 rebellion in which ex revolutionary war soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes Republic A government in which elected representatives make the decisions Judicial Review The power of the courts to declare a law unconstitutional Federalism Government authority shared by national and local governments Checks and Balances Authority shared by three branches of government Separation of Powers Constitutional authority is shared by three branches of government Faction A group with distinct political interests Federalists Those who favor a stronger national government Anti Federalists Those who favor a weaker national government Page 11 of l8 5 70 by Anna Claire Coalition An alliance of factions Bill Of Rights First 10 Amendments to the Constitution Habeas Corpus An order to produce an arrested person before a judge Bill of Attainder A law that declares a person without a trial to be guilty of a crime Ex post facto Law A law that makes an act criminal although the act was legal when it was committed Amendment A new provision in the Constitution that has been ratified by the states Line Item Veto An executive39s ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature XVllChapter 3 Federalism A B M Federalism Necessary and Proper Clause The section of the Constitution allowing Congress to pass all laws necessary and proper to its duties and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to is enumerated by the Constitution Nullification The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that in the state39s opinion violates the Constitution Dual Federalism Doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere the states are supreme in theirs and the two spheres should be kept separate Police Power State power to enact laws promoting health safety and morals Initiative Process that permits voters to put legislative measures directly on the ballot Referendum Procedure permitting voter to reject a measure passed by the legislature Recall Procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office Grants in aid Money given by the national government to the states Categorical grants Aid with strict provisions from the federal government on how it may be spent Conditions of Aid Terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds Mandates Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants Waiver A decision by an administrative agency granting some other party permission to violate a law or rule that would otherwise apply to it XVlllChapter 7 Public Opinion A B C Public Opinion How people feel or think about certain things Poll A survey of public opinion Random sample A method of selecting from a population in which each person has an equal probability of being selected Sampling Error The difference between the results of random samples taken at the same time Exit Polls Polls based on interviews conducted on election day with randomly selected voters Page l2of l8 J XlXChap A H by Anna Claire Fotopoulos Political Socialization Process by which background traits influence one s political views Elite Persons who possess a disproportionate share of some valued resource like money or power Gender Gap Difference in political views between men and women Political ldeology A more or less consistent set of beliefs about what policies government ought to pursue Norm A standard of right or proper conduct ter 8 Political Participation Voting Age Population Citizens who are eligible to vote after meeting the minimum age requirement Registered Voters People who are registered to vote Literacy Test A requirement that citizens show that they can read before registering to vote Poll Tax The requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote Grandfather Clause The clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867 White Primary The practice of keeping blacllts from voting in the southern states primaries through arbitrary use of registration requirements and intimidation Australian Ballot A Government printed ballot of uniform dimensions to be cast in secret that many states adopted around 1890 to reduce voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public Activists People who tend to participate in all forms of politics XXChapter 9 Political Parties A B C Political Party A group that seeks to elect candidates to office MugwumpsProgressives Republican party faction of the l890s l9lOs composed of reformers who opposed patronage Critical or Realignment Period Periods when a major lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties Split Ticlltet Voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election Straight Ticlltet Voting for candidates of the same party Office Bloc Ballot A ballot listing all candidates of a given office under the name of that office also called a Massachusetts Ballot Party Column Ballot A ballot listing all candidates of a given party together under the name of that party also called an Indiana Ballot National Convention A meeting of party delegates held every four years National Committee Delegates who run party affairs between national conventions Congressional Campaign Committee A party committee in Congress that provides funds to members and would be members National Chairman Day to day party manager elected by the national committee Page 13ofi8 02 T by Anna Claire Super delegates Party leaders and elected officials who become delegates to the national convention without having to run in primaries or caucuses Political Machine A party organization that recruits members by dispensing patronage Ideological Party A party that values principled stands on issues above all else Solidary lncentives The social rewards sense of pleasure status or companionshipthat lead people tojoin political organizations Sponsored Party A local or state political party largely supported by another organization in the community Two Party System An electoral system with two dominate parties that compete in national elections Plurality System An electoral system in which the winner is the person who gets the most votes even if he or she does not receive a majority used in almost all American elections Personal Following The political support provided to a candidate on the basis of personal popularity and networks Caucus A meeting of party members to select delegates bacllting one or another primary candidate XXlChapter 10 Elections amp Campaigns A B lncumbent The person already holding an elected office Coattails The alleged tendency of candidates to win more votes in an election because of the presence at the top of the ticket of a better lltnown candidate such as the president Political Action Committee PAC A committee set up by a corporation labor union or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary dona ons Malapportionment Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts so that they are unequal in population Gerrymandering Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts in bizarre or unusual shapes to favor one party Sophomore Surge An increase in the votes congressional candidates usually get when they first run for reelection Position lssue An issue about which the public is divided and rival candidates or political parties and rival candidates or political parties adopt different policy positions Valence lssue An issue about which the public is united and rival candidates or political parties adopt similar position in hopes that each will be thought to best represent those widely shared beliefs General Election An election held to choose which candidate will hold office Primary Election An election held to choose candidates for office Closed Primary A primary election in which voting is limited to already registered party members Page l4of l8 by Anna Claire Fotopoulos Open primary A primary election in which voters may choose in which party to vote as they enter the polling place Blanket Primary A primary election in which each voter may vote for candidates from both parties Run off Primary A second primary election held when no candidate wins a majority of the votes in the first primary Independent Expenditures Spending by PACs corporations or labor unions to help a party or candidate but done independently of them Soft Money Funds obtained by political parties that are spent on party activities such as GOTV drives but not on behalf of a specific candidate 527 Organization Organizations under section 527 of the internal revenue code that raise and spend money to advance political causes Prospective Voting Voting for a candidate because you favor his or her ideas for handling issues Retrospective Voting Voting for a candidate because you like his or her past actions in office XXII Chapter I 1 Interest Groups A Interest Group An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence public policy Incentive Something of value one cannot get withoutjoining an interest group Solidary Incentives The social rewards sense of pleasure status or companionship that lead people to join political organizations Material incentives Money or things valued in monetary terms Purposive Incentive A benefit that comes from serving a cause or principle Ideological Interest Group Political organizations that attract members by appealing to their political convictions or principles Public Interest Lobby A political organization whose goals will principally benefit nonmembers Social Movement A widely shared demand for change in some aspect of the social or political order Political Cue A signal telling a legislator what values are at stake in a vote and how that issue fits into his or her own political views on party agenda Rulings Assessments of a representative39s voting record on issues important to an interest group XXIIIChapter 12 The Media A B C Sound Bite A radio or video clip of someone speaIlting Equal Time Rule An FCC rule that if a broadcaster sells time to a candidate it must sell equal time to other candidates Horse race Journalism News coverage that focuses on who39s ahead rather than on theissues Routine Stories Media stories about events regularly covered by reporters Feature Stories Media stories about events that though public are not regularly covered by reporters Page 15ofi8 K by Anna Claire lnsider Stories Media stories about events that are not usually made public Trial Balloon lnformation leaked to the media to test public reaction to a possible policy Loaded Language Words that imply a value judgment used to persuade a reader without having to make a judgment Selective Attention Paying attention only to those news stories with which one already agrees Adversarial Press The tendency of the national media to be suspicious of officials and eager to reveal unflattering stories about them Background A public official s statement to a reporter on the condition that the official cannot be named XXlVChapter 13 Congress A B C Bicameral Legislature A lawmallting body made up of two chambers of parts Filibuster An attempt to defeat a bill in the Senate by talking indefinitely thus preventing the Senate from taking action on the bill Marginal Districts Political districts in which candidates elected to the House of Representatives win in close elections typically by less than 55 of the vote Safe DistrictS Districts in which incumbents win by margins of 55 or more Conservative Coalition An alliance between Republicans and conservative Democrats Party Polarization A vote in which a majority of Democrats legislators oppose a majority of Republican legislators Caucus An association of Congress members created to advance a political ideology or political ethnic or economic interest Standing Committees Permanently established legislative committees that consider and are responsible for legislation within a certain subject area Select Committees Congressional committees appointed for a limited time and purpose Joint Committees Committees on which both senators and representatives serve Conference Committees Ajoint committee appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House versions of the same bill Public Bill A legislative bill that deals with matters of general concern Private Bill A legislative bill that deals only with specific private personal or local m atte rs Simple Resolution An expression of opinion either in the House or the Senate to settle procedural matters in either body Concurrent Resolution An expression of opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both the House and the Senate but not the President Joint Resolution A formal expression of congressional opinion that must be approved by both houses of Congress and by the president constitutional amendments need not be signed by the president Divided Government One party controls the White House and the other party controls both houses of Congress Page 16of18 by Anna Claire Fotopoulos R Unified Government The same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress S Earmarks Hidden congressional provisions that direct the federal government to fund specific projects or that exempt specific persons or groups from paying specific federal taxes or fees T Multiple Referral A congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several important committees simultaneously U Sequential Referral A congestion process whereby a Speaker may send a bill to a second committee after the first is finished acting V Discharge Petition A device by which any member of the House after a committee has had a bill for 30 days may petition to have it brought to the floor W Closed Rule An order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate and forbids a bill from being amended on the floor X Open Rule An order from the House Rules Committee that permits a bill to be amended on the floor Y Restrictive Rule An order from the House Rules Committee that permits certain kinds of amendments but not others to be made to a bill on the floor Z Quorum The minimum number of members who must be present for business to be conducted in Congress AA Quorum Call A roll cal in either house of Congress to see whether the minimum number of representatives required to conduct business is present BB Cloture Rule A rule used by the Senate to end or limit debate CC Double Tracking A procedure to keep the Senate going during a filibuster in which the disputed bill is shelved temporarily so that the Senate can get on with other business DDVoice Vote A congressional voting procedure in which members shout yea in approval or nayquot in disapproval permitting members to vote quickly or anonymously on bills EE Division Vote A congressional voting procedure in which members stand and are counted FF Teller Vote A congressional voting procedure in which members pass between two tellers the yeas first and the nays second GG Roll call Vote A congressional voting procedure in which members answer yea or nay to their names HH Pork barrel Legislation Legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return ll Franking Privilege The ability of members of Congress to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by substituting their facsimile signature for postage XXVChapter 14 The Presidency A Divided Government One party controls the White House and the other party controls both houses of Congress B Unified Government The same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress Page l7of l8 by Anna Claire Gridlock The inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government Electoral College The people chosen to cast each state39s votes in a presidential election Each state can cast one electoral vote for each senator and representative it has DC Has three electoral votes even though it has no senators Pyramid Structure A president39s subordinates report to him through a clear chain of command headed by the chief of staff Circular Structure Several of the president39s assistants report directly to him Ad Hoc Structure Several subordinates cabinet officers and committees report directly to the president on different matters Cabinet The heads of 15 executive branch departments of the federal government Veto Message A message from the president to Congress stating that he will not sign a bill it has passed Must be produced within 10 days of the bill39s passage Pocket Veto A bill fails to become law because the president did not sign it within 10 days before Congress adjourns Line Item Veto An executive39s ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature Signing Statement A presidential document that reveals what the president thinks of a new law and how it ought to be enforced Legislative Veto The authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place The Supreme Court has held that Congress does not have this power Impeachment Charges against a president approved by a majority of the House of Representatives Lame Ducllt A person still in office after he or she has lost a bid for reelection Page 18of18
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'