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Biology notes Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animaa about 25 million species Zoology the study of animals COMMON CHARECTERISTICS 1 Muticeuar metazoans different size complexity 2 Heterotrophic search for food no chlorophyll no cell walls no chloroplasts no photosynthesis a Herbivore eats mainly plants b Carnivore eats mainly meat c Omnivore eats anything living or dead Eukaryotic cells interdependent 4 Almost all are at least the tissue level 500 cells a Levels of organization specialization Ces tissues organ organ system organism b Cell junctions connect between cells holding them together 5 Origin arose from protozoans a Especially the flagellated colonial protozoans evolution occurred when some of the cells in the colonial protozoan stared to specialize in 45 special areas tissues b 800 million years ago in the water 6 Sexual reproduction a Main form of reproduction Only form for vertebrates There are a few exceptions asexually reproduce in very simple mutlicellular animals Heterospore egg larger than sperm lsospore gametes same size 7 Two tissues only in animals for movement a Nervous tissues b Muscular tissues 8 Two main groups 17 million species known a Invertebrates i no backbones spinal cord exposed ii named by Lamarck iii 9597 of all species of animals iv majority live in water b Vertebrates i Have backbones Protected spinal cord ii 3 5 of all species of animals iii majority live on land iv 5 different classes need to live in water those who live on land 9 Show symmetry relationship of body parts to each other arrangement of body parts around a central axis longitude or horizontal a Asymmetry without symmetry sponges b Radical symmetry part repeat around a center starfish most corals i No head or tail ii Has a top and bottom c bilateral symmetry most arthropods or vertebrates most successful i Right and left halves similar ii Have a head amp tai top amp bottom iii worms and upward on evolutionary scale v except starfish larva of starfish are bilateral symmetry 9 D9PPquot Biology notes Dorsa top Appendages hang from body P I 39 h Proximalena end attached to body e VIC quotO5 V t b tt Dista end far away from body en ra O Om Head cranial Posteriorrear Anterior front 10 Parts of animal a Cephaization concentration of senor tissues organs in the anterior most area i Not in radially symmetrical animals ii head movement headanterior is always end first to sense environment b Segmentation meta merism divides body repeating segments or units i Example earthworms centipede ii As animals become more advanced the segments fuse into definite head and torso thorax and abdomen iii seen in embryo 11 all animals go thru a blastula and gastrula phase during developing archentemn embryo ab Euairl aitaudrm a germ ayer beginning of specialization differentiation rnnlmdm1 39 b embryoogy study of an organism development of embryos c ceavage small cells large structure no different cell division i morua solid ball of cells ii bastua hollow ball of cells no different iii gastrula 2 or 3 germ layers which give rise to specific structures d nvagination in folding e Germ layer formation i 1 ectoderm epidermis skin nervous system sensory organs outside mucous membranes outer layer 12 Protosome 1St mouth Determinate cleavageearly Spiral cleavage Schizocoely Anus forms second z Most invertebrates nvagination becomes digestive tract 13 Deuterostome 2quotd mouth Biology notes 239 endoderm respiratory system digestive system urinary system accessory organs most inner layer 3 mesoderm mucous interior membranes skeleton system reproductive system circulator system 1 comes between the ectoderm and endoderm 2 not in all animals not all animals have 3 germ layers 3 last germ layer to form FquotrlliL li39I II7393 J5nIs 39 HE39tTiEl lEquotl A p5 EquotnhH39 ETIHESE P f 4 39339rzreiiieirzii p quot F8 LquotquotliI1Irilquot 3 Faieauzzlarm Hlaef uznra pl39iilIIi39ll39a39r l ll i L39lt L3939Jg1I J lliIEii39lEI EIquot Ei 39l 39l i39quotI39IIE39E J l iiji1 a Indeterminate cleavagelater P 39rEJl391 b Entrocoely N c Mouth formed 2quot p 139 39 P l Q d Echinoderms larva and all Chordates vertebrates H3353 1E9 gE 1 D H EIE5 IiE Iuib i 14 Coeom body cavity fuid fied mesoderm lined a 3la5Iziraml r nLEf Spaces to suspend organs Specialized organs Growth and expansions Transport of materials b Acoeomate no coelom 2 or 3 layers c d Coeomate digestive track lined with mesoderm 15 Classify Animals a quot 9fquot 39 8 Pseudocoeomate false coelomoate not completely surrounded by mesoderm Phyogeny evolutionary history Symmetry type Number of germ layers Type of coelom Type of cleavage cell division Structure anatomy Physiologyfunction ANIMAL ORG N SYSTEMS 1 Digestive System Food broken down 9 CO2 and nutrients and energy a b C lngestion digestion and egestion lntraceuar within specialized cells sponges Extraceuar digestive outrise then absorbed Gastravscuar cavitiy incomplete 1 One opening for entranceexit of water with nutrient and waste 2 Ex Sea anemones and jellyfish Digestive tracts 1 Many invertebrates all vertebrates 2 Tube with two opening mouth anus One way movement 3 Food digestives along the way in specialized areas d digestion either mechanical or chemical Biology notes i Mechanical Teeth Beaks Gizzards Pates ii Chemical Digestive enzymes 1 One large molecule into small molecules 2 Carbohydrates into simple sugars 3 Proteins into amino acid 4 Fats into fatty acid e Accessory organs may be present Salivary glands Liver pancreas Gastric ceca Respiratory SystemSomaticbreathingmechanical Exchange of gasses O2CO2 thru thin moist membrane from area of high to low concentration a Membrane types i cutaneous membrane is skin invertebrates jellyfish worms Vertebrates frogs sea snakes ii Gis feathering structure thin filaments surround by capillaries exposed to water 1 Adapt water 2 nvertebrates aquatic mollusks 3 Vertebrates tadpoles fish iii Lungs adapt to life in the air 1 Preung moist and all lined with capillaries 2 Invertebrates a worms cutameous b snais mantic cavity c spiders book lungs d insects spiracles tracheal tube 3 ungs two way inhales air 02 into trachea bronchi broccoli alveoli surround by capillaries exchanging gases a exhales CO2 reverse path b surface area increase from amphibians thru mammals c Bird lungs adapted to flight 1 way and the air sacs in the body Circulatory system movement of fluid blood taking digested food and O2 to cells removes waste and CO2 from cells a None no circulatory system Material move with water in gastro vascular cavity stomach circulating Ex sponges sea anemones b Openpumped through few vessels into sinuses amp eventually sucked into aortic arch amp pumped again i Pump aortic arches at dorsal ii Few vesses dorsal vein artery iii Sinuses sponges bl Bathes cells where blood slushes through body iv ex all arthropods most mollusks c Cosed blood pumped from heart to vessels circulating the body i Pump aortic arch or Heart 1 Receives bood atrium atria single 2 Pumps bood ventricles ii Vessels 1 artery aorta leads away from the heart 2 Arterioles 3 Capiaries exchange vencules 4 Veins vena cava toward heart iii Advantages to closed system 1 More efficient 2 Pumps more pressure to move blood iv All active invertebrates have aortic arches Biology notes v All vertebrates heart d Single oop fish Vertebrates with gills e double oop one to lung lead back to the heart then one to body then back to the heart i vertebrates with lungs ii 02 rich blood is kept separated from O2 pour blood in come rep all birds all mammals 1 1 pulmonary 2 2 39 systemic f heart Chambers i fish 2 ii repties 3 or 3 2 iii Birds and mammals 4 Excretoryl Urinary system removal of ammonia nitrogenous waste from cells and digestive process and other metabolic wastetoxic a Invert in H20 Thru skin or convert in less toxic substance and stores it most animals i Uric acid thick sticky white substance Less soluble in water insects reptiles birds ii urea highy soluble in water some amphibians fish and mammals b important to maintain water balance in filtering tissues and blood c kidneys release excess water and waste or conserve water and eliminate wasteLand animals Nervous and muscular system unique to animals a Neuron nerve cell i Sensory neurons sense environment quot Axon ll Motor neurons brain to muscles De 39ltquot Synapse iii lntrerneurons no axon glia L b Muscle cells i Vountary skeeta control ii nvountary smooth don t control iii Cardiac heart pump Body c both along with the skeletal system make the body move d Nervous allows movement in response to environment i Sensory sense environmentstimulus ii nterneuron make decision make nothing 1 Many ganglia or gangion singular 2 Millions brain iii motor respond to stimulus e system varies greatly different degrees of cephalization and differentiation f single nerve net and nerves with ganglia are all in invertebrates i Single neurons scattered thru out body sponges ii Nerve net jellyfish anemones iii Nerves with ganglia with 1 cerebral g Brain nerves amp spinal chords all vertebrates i Brain complex learning ii Spinal chord dorsal ganglia iii cerebrum earning rudimentary memoryamp consciousness 1 if cerebral cortex learning 2 primitive some reptiles 3 better birds 4 best mammals iv cerebeum coordinate movementamp controls balance v medulla oblongata involves activities Biology notes vi optic and old factory auditory areas h pred spinal nerves dorsal nerve chord sensory organs i sensory organs i Thermo regulation 1 Exotherm takes temp from environment a All invertebrates fish amphibians most reptiles b Low metabolism c Minimum food d No insulation 2 Endotherm maintains own internal temperature a high metabolism large amount of food insulation more possible climate to live in Ex few reptiles birds mammals Advantages More efficient g Disadvantages Constant supply of food j Muscuar physical force contraction when stimulated i In pairs muscle can only contract Once it s contracted it remains contracted until its partner contracts and pulls it back to its original place ii 13 layers in skeleton iii attached to bones by tendons 6 skeletal system generates a physical force against air water or land a can push or pull a body protects internal organs b Hydrostatic fluid under pressure body shape and move i jellyfish annelids ii Echinoderms quottube feet suction c Exoskeleton exoskeeton an outside of soft body Nonliving i Made of chitin protein arthropods Calcium carbonate mollusks ii water tight muscles attached very protective iii must be shed or mottled to grow heavy limits growth d endoskeeton inside a soft body living Jointed muscles attached grow with animals i Made of Cartilage or bone ii calcified pates muscles push against echinoderms invertebrates iii cartiage sharks iv bones light weight not as protective don t limit growth 1 bones connected to other bones by ligaments 2 ex fish amphibians birds mammals reptiles 7 lntegumentary skin protection Largest system a Watertightprevent desiccation drying out in land animals b Accessory structures made of keatin protein Scales Feathers Fur Spines Nails Claws Hair 8 Reproductive System asexual and sexual a Asexua Mainly invertebrates and a few chordates i 1 parent little diversity in offspring ii good environmentrapid division many offspring b Parthergenesis Unfertilized egg quotvirgin births social insects c Sexua Most animals i Meiosis haploid Heterospores gametes fertiization dipoid zygote ii 2 parents different sexes variation quot 39 Biology notes d some organisms are hermaphrodite is both female and male reproductive systems i Ex annelids mollusks ii some organisms can change their sex fish iii both of these will with always try cross fertilize first iv not asexual is not 1 choice e internal vs external fertilization egg and sperm fuse meet inside or outside the female s body i lnterna most aquatic and all terrestrial animals 1 Invertebrates some female takes sperm from water some males place sperm in female 2 vertebrates sperm or sperm packets placed in female by male or the female picks up and put in body fish amphibians all reptiles birds and mammals ii Externa External eggs fertilized outside the females body 1 nvertebrates worm coral mollusks 2 Large number of eggs and sperm released into the water 3 Vertebrates many fish and amphibians in either schools or pairs f if internal fertilization then either external or internal develop i external develop most invertebrates most fish and amphibians ii aminote egg evolve so land vertebrates didn39t have to keep going back to the water to mate 1 has own aquatic environment with in a shell 2 external deveopment porous to air but water tight iii repties leathery shell birds hard shell iv 1 order of mammals leather shell v 1 order of mammals in pouch no shell or primitive placenta vi all other mammals placenta 1 temporary organ that allows for gas nutrient waste exchange 2 female and offspring connected by the umbilical cord 3 placenta and female act as a shell g patterns of develop with aminote egg i oviparous shelled egg aid may or many no be nested most reptiles all birds 1 order of mammals 2 species ii ovoviviparous shelled egg retained in the females 1 no attach attachment 2 hatch inside and born alive 3 hatch shortly after being laid iii vivperous no shell formed placenta formed few species of snakes all orders of mammals except 2 monstremes amp marsupials PhyIum Choradata 1 4 characteristics a hollow nerve cord dorsal invertebrates ventral becomes brain and spinal cord nervous system b notochord firm flexible rod under dorsal nerve becomes vertebral discs c pred pharyngeal pouches throat area i Becomes gill in fishamp larval amphibians ii throat muscles in adult repties birds mamals d post anal tai few chordates keep all during life time i most vertebrates show evidence in them ii disappears in some stays in others 2 Chordates sub phylums a Lanceets non vertebrates b Tunicates non vertebrate c Vertebrata vertebrates Phylum Chordata Biology notes Domain Eukaraya Kingdom Animalia Anima Latin for soul 1 4 Characteristics a b 01 Notochord Rod like structure under dorsal nerve cord i Most only in embryos and patches of tissues between vertebrae ii Replace by vertebral discs Hollow dorsal nerve cord Gives rise to brainanterior enlarged i spinal cord paired nerves and sensory organ cephalization ii nvertebrates solid ventral nerve cord iii Vertebrates hollow dorsal nerve cord Paired pharyngeal pouches Out pockets of pharynx not pa rt of digestive system i Leads to gills in fish and larval immature amphibians ii Jaws from the 1st gill arch in adult amphibians reptiles mammals and birds iii Inner ear Tonsils Throat muscles Post anal tai At least at some point in development behind anus i tetrapods 4 appendages probably stubby and fleshy fins obe finned fish ii Rise to modern fish and amphibians iii All vertebrates and homologous forelimbs 2 Most Chordates also have a b c d e f Bilateral symmetry Closed circulatory 1 way complete digestive system duesterostome like juvenile echinoderms larval sexual reproduce only 3 subphyla of chordate i lancelets ii tunicates iii Vertebrata 1 95 of all chordates 2 vertebrae of cartilage or bone vertebrae column 3 cranium 4 endoskeleton a cartiage sharks jawless fish b bone all others vertebrates 45000 species arose 550 million years ago a fish 24000 b amphibians 600 c repties 6000 d birds 10000 e mammas 4400 Both have all 4 chordate characteristic and are not vertebrates 5 3 Vertebrates a Efrain i um body plan for all vertebrates i tetrapods ii Endoskeleton 1 axial skeleton a cranium b vertebrates column 2 appendicular skeleton a pectoralgirdle n piinall cullumn peIquoturiiz girdle Biology notes b pelvic girdle c pairs of appendages b thermoregulation c d e i exothermicpoikilothermic 1 relies on environment for body temp 2 low rate of metabolism 3 ex fish amphibians and most reptiles ii endothermic Homoeothermic 1 generates own body temp 2 high rate of metabolism 3 temp maintained is usually constant 4 need insulationaccessory skin structures fur feathers fat 5 ex some reptiles all birds and mammals Fertilization i External fertilization external development 1 Nonamniote eggs leave female 2 Fertilization by sperm in water moist environment 3 Ex fish amphibians ii Internal fertilization 1 better more efficient 2 fertilization occurs in the female s body male places sperm in female 3 amniotic egg kept in femae s body 4 external development for fertilized non amniotic egg Development i oviparous shelled formed and laid possibly in a nest reptiles some birds ii ovoviviparous shell formed and kept in female 1 eggs hatch in female shortly after being laid 2 ex some reptiles and some birds iii Viviparous no shell formed born live developed in the female 1 pacenta formed 2 ex some reptiles some birds monotreams mammals marsupials definite head thorax abdomen and tail i Thorax and abdomen called torso or trunk ii Thorax and abdomen are separated by diaphragm iii Not fish and amphibian Class of Vertebrates FISH ltchyology study of fish Greek 1 Class Agnatha a b c d e f 1st appeared 550 million years ago jawless and non paired fins fish hagfish eel like fish some have body plates cartilaginous skeleton jaws developed probably from evolution of the 1st gill arch 440 million years ago 2 Class Chondrichthyes cartilaginous fish a b c 440 million years ago Have jaws paired fins amp cartilage Live in salt water Biology notes lateral line systems good sense of sight smell influenced by electromagnetic fields endoskeeton made of cartilage stored lipids in liver increase buoyancy gill slits are uncovered placoid scaes spines on the end of a the scale 2 chambered heart 1 atrium and 1 ventricle internal fertilization internal or external development no parental care given ex skates rays and sharks 3 Class Osteichthyes bony fishostei bone a b c d J k 95 of fish most complex 2 types i ray finned majority ii lobe finned probably amphibians ancestors 400 million years ago most early ones had lungs but became extinct i All were lobed finned ii only a few left with rudimentary lungs 7 species ectothermic exothermic welldeveloped respiratory system i operculum bony covering of gills ii gis great surface area for gas exchange 1 feathery moist 2 supported by 4 sets of curved bone 3 8 gill arches 4 water9 mouth9 over gills gas exchange9 out operculum circulatory system counter flows through gills swim bladder just below backbone CO2 amp N adjusted to regulate bouncy Paired fins i 2 dorsal fins 1 anterior and posterior 2 help keep the fish up right and move straight ii 2 pelvic and 2 pectoral fins 1 help the fish navigate 2 stop backup move up and down Unpaired fins i anal ii cauda tails move side to side like a rudder skin i covered with scales made of keratin ii cycloidlooks like round discs overlap grow from skin pockets live in all environments i artic fish contain a natural antifreeze ii fish in dessert streams estivation 1 hot weather dormancy 2 only a few days both carnivorous and herbivorous i mechanical digestion mouth teeth or horny plates ii pharynx throat area iii esophagus to stomach 1 mechanical and chemical digestion 10 m P 0 Biology notes Dorsal 2 digestive enzyme acid Pyloric cacea iv lntestine complete chemical digestion absorption of digested materials 1 lined with vili singular vilus increased surface area v anus excretion of solid waste egestion vi accessory organs 1 liver bile stored in the gallbladder breaks down fats 2 pancreas sends digestive enzyme into intestine Excretion liquid waste ammonia nitrogenous waste i Urine Urea H20 ii Kidney filter Vemxricle Bulbus arteriosus Tmul Single looped closed circulatory system carries nutrients and waste i heart pump arteries capillaries veins heart ii 2 chambers 1 1 atrium plural atria receives blood 2 ventricle pump 3 values to stop backflow but blood is mixed Nervous BrainSpina cord paired spinal nerves i Cranial nerves connects sensory organs to brain ii Sensory organs Neurons nerves iii Fish mostly rely on instinct don t learn much iv Brain Controls 1 fore brain a olfactory obe sme very important b cerebrum integrates sensory and other info 2 mid brain a optic tectum only fish visual audio from tympanic membrane and lateral line system integrated b responds to stimuli movement 3 Hind brain a Cerebeum integrates sensory input and coordinates muscles system b Medulla obongata brain stem primitive brain regulates internal organs involved in activities spinal cords9 spinal nerves connects organs with brain 1 lateral line system rods of sensory structures along sides usually lighter or darker than rest of fish a receptors sense vibrations current and other fish b connects to brain39s optic tectum vi chromotophores contain color or pigment color pattern can be used to camouflage Reproductionspawning i Gonads ovaries and tests ii external fertilization 1 10000 eggs 5 survives to adulthood lucky 2 eggs in mucus nonamnioies 3 mucus holds eggs together and to the bottom 4 mit sperms in liquid iii external development 1 2 have internal fertilization amp development about 2 of species provide parental care i nest building ii migrate to warmer waters iii carry fry in mouth or stomach usually male fry baby fish Conus areriosus 11 Biology notes 1 if in mouth mouth brooder 2 if in stomach gastric brooder iv After hatching stay nearby take fry into mouth till danger passes usually males Class of Vertebrates Amphibians Batracology study of amphibians 1 Characteristics of Amphibians a Change from aquatic larval stage to a terrestrial adult form i metamorphosis change in form and function ii compete young s form and function complete different than adults iii incompete young s form and function resembles miniature adult b Moist thin skin no scales c If feet no claws usually webbed d Gills lungs skin and mouth cavity are all used for respiration e most carnivorous f Shellfree eggs surrounded by multicellular membranes and jelly like material food source i usually external fertilization amp devolvement ii Some parental care 20 25 g Needed tetrapod structure to become land creatures i strong imbs limb girdles H lungs iii sternum protect and support iv vertebrae interlocked 2 class Amphibia means double life amph both sides bios life 3 370 million years ago from lobe finned fish fleshy fins and primitive lungs 4 some with lateral line system and teeth especially tadpoles 5 about 300 million years ago 2 lines a ancestors of modern amphibians b ancestors of reptiles 6 4000 5000 species majority frogs and toad most of some type of complete metamorphosis 7 286 245 million years ago age of amphibians 8 3 orders left a caeciians 160 species b saamanders 400 species c frogs and toads 3900 species 9 most must return to water to lay eggs 10 all ectothermic 11 complete metamorphasis a arva tadpoles live in water fish like gills herbivores b aduts live on land or are aquatic lungs skin carnivores 12 keystone species highly sensitive to environment show environment problems 13 Order Apoda caecilians without feet resemble worms or small snakes a blind small eyes eyes behind bony knobs b aquatic or moist soil tropical c teeth carnivorous d internal fertilization and external devolvement e fish like scales in certain places on their body very colorful 14 Order Urodela salamanders long bodies long tails most have 4 legs a range from completely aquatic to completely terrestrial b moist environment 12 1 Biology notes nocturnal opposite diurnal some only have cutaneous respiration lack lungs some have gills as adults most external fertilization and external devolvement i eggs in water have a larval stage ii eggs in land don t have a larval stage example salamanders newtssaamander that lives in water efts 15 Order Anura tailless frogs and toads a b c d e f 3 h i J k all environments except Artic ectothermic some aquatic some land some combination frogs smooth moist skin toads rough bumpy skin usually dryer body adapted to jumping urostye fused vertebrae no tails as adults have tails as larval tadpoles most external fertilization and external development example Rana pipines Northern leopard frog i integument skin protection ii respiration cuantaneous mucus gands moisten skin gand produce a foul tasting or poisonous substance especially tropical frogs not all frogs many are nocturna to conserve moisture skeletal vertebrae interock very rigid i all land animals ii bears body weight iii pectoral and pelvic girdles transfer body weight to appendages 16 Closed Circulatory system Sinus Venosus Right atrium Deoxygenated blood to lungs a b c d e f 3 Deoxygenated blood from the body Oxygenated blood from lungs Left atrium J V Valve to ventricle Very little mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood Contraction to conus arteriosus Valve prevents mixing Oxygenated blood to body In tadpoes 2 chambers In adults 3 chambers more efficient 2 atria receive blood 1 ventrice pump i arteries away from the heart ii veins toward the heart double loop on all lunged organism all vertebrae except fish double loop circulatory system allows faster blood flow pulmonary circulatory heart lungs heart picks up oxygen and gives up carbon dioxide systemic circulatory heart body heart gives up oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide 13 Biology notes 17 Respiratory system a b Larva gills and skin Aduts skin cutaneous lungs pumonary 2way no diaphragm lining of oral cavity buccal pulsing 18 Digestion a b c d e f 3 h J Mouth mechanica digestion Tongue attached in front and flipped out sticky and very long Teeth to hold Volmarine 2 on top palate Maxillary row on each upper lip Eustachion tube connects ear to month cavity Equalizes pressure Esophogus Cardiac sphincterstops food from back flowing pharynx swallows stomach mechanical acid rubbingand chemical digestion digestive enzymes pyloric sphincter stops back flowing from intestine to stomach small intestine finish chemical digestion absorbs nutrients i duodenum 1st portion finish chemical digestion ii ileum 2nd portion middle lined with villi 1 most absorption happens here 2 sent into circulatory system to go to cells iii Rest of small intestine to large intestine large intestine reabsorption of most water i coaca muscular cavity which collect liquid and solid waste and eggs and sperm 1 found in amphibians reptiles and bird 2 receptacle for 3 systems digestion solid waste excretory liquid waste reproduction gametes ii vent releases wastes Mesentry thin amp though sheet of membrane which holds abdominal organs in place 19 excretory system paired kidneys along dorsal surface a b c filter nitrogenous waste from blood urine nitrogen and water thru urinary ducts to cloaca In dry conditions urine from cloaca flows to urinary bladder for storage and maybe reabsorption of water NH2 change to urea needs much less water to dilute to urine 20 Nervous system a b Brain same size as a similarity sized fish i Olfactory lobes large and anterior ii Cerebrum lobed learning ingrates behavior 75 80 instinctive iii optic obes sight iv cerebeum muscular coordination v Medulla oblongata heart and respiration rate digestion etc spinal cord i cranial and spiral nerves ii sensory organs 1 lateral line tadpole and aquatic amphibians 2 eyes with nictitating membrane 3 no external ear tympanic membrane transfer sound to inner ear a sound receptors coumea small bone connect the 2 b found in reptiles birds and mammals 21 Reproduction Water need External fertilization amp development Complete metamorphosis a b 200 non amniote eggs laid in a jelly like mass i food for eggs ii attaches mass to some surface Ampexus male attached to female i male smaller 1 forelimbs and thumbs swell 14 Biology notes 2 2 testes sperm kidneys cloaca ii Female 2 lobed Ova ries eggs body cavity coeom oviducts cloaca 1 fertilized eggs tadpoe metamorphosis adult 2 metamorphosis type of regeneration amp reabsorbtion 3 thyroxin pituitary hormone c Parental care 20 25 i Usually male will stay till they hatch ii Female will mouth brood or stomach brood might also sit on eggs to prevent desiccation 22 Period of dormancy torpor for adverse conditions reduced metabolism a Estivation summer heat 13 days b Hibernation winter cod several months c Also reptiles and mammals Amniote Egg 1 For reproduction for terrestrial animals i Amniote Egg don39t need to return to water 1 Retiles birds and mammals 2 Internal fertiization internal or external of development a shell porous for air b water proof prevents desiccation c provides protection d repties leathery e birds calcified 3 4 protective membranesamp porous shell most surrounding developing embryo a Amnionamniotic fluid filled sac Cushions b Yolk sac nutrient rich food supply i Placental mammals releases to yolk sac with umbilical cord placenta ii Placenta and mammal is embryo s shell c Chorion regulates transport of 02 CO2 to and from the shell respiratory Eh il39ZI39I Em w d Aantois stores amnion ailan g i 3e 5 Waste i39lIquotIf1iliilatir fluiizll 1 1 0 A Fuses with chorion to aha E39quotl39J T39i exchange 02 and CO2 extra A Willi 53quot cellular respiration e Chaoaza thick membrane anchors the embryo supports albumen f Abumen proteins amp H20 to create aquatic environment egg white g Air space 4 Internal aquatic environment Evidence that reptiles birds and mammals all came from a common ancestor 2 Patterns of Reproduction a Oviparous Lay eggs hatch outside the females body Most reptiles birds and 1 order of mammals b 0viviparous carries egg internay no attachment hatch soon after being laid born live most snakes and birds c Viviparousno shell formed placenta attaches female to embryo for nourishment yolk sac i attached until viability ii use ofa placenta umbilical cord iii few snakes and lizards all but 2 orders of mammals monotremes and marsupials 15 Biology notes d incubation time from egg laid to hatching ex reptiles and birds e gestation time from fertilization to birth ex all orders of mammals except monostremes incubation and marsupials partial gestation Class of Vertebrates ReptiIia Reptiles Herpetoogy study of reptiles 1 2 3 4 5 350 million years ago a not common until 300 million years ago when environment became drier b 245 million years ago mammals first attempt but become extinct c 215 million years ago rise of dinosaurs 300 genera Mesozoic Era Age of Reptiles i 2 groups 1 dinosaurs to birds 2 common ancestor of turtles crocodiles lizard and eventually mammals ii Asteroid Theory 1980 physicist Luis Alvez 1 Mini ice age 65 million years ago 2 Mass extinction 9598 of all species plant animals microorganism disappeared 3 5 mass extinction in the history of life every 65 million years Reproduction is not dependent on returning to water aminote egg reptiles aves mammals 4 living orders 6000 species 12 extinct orders of dinosaurs land vertebrae body plan tetrapod a between fish and amphibian b skull back bones tail c 2 limbs girdles 4 imbs except snake limbless i turtles have shell fused with vertebrae ii top she carapace bottom she plastron iii allows growth noted joined Characteristics a dry scalesskin lungs terrestrial eggs aminote egg b smooth or rough bony extensions covered with skin Lizard Turltlle Truatnra Cmizmzl i IE5 HailIl39dS Snakes lI39 il vH UlF earllyr 39E JquotliilE5 nnmzlern reptiles blird lrnammals early repvtjiles i somewhat water proof so if scaled mainly snakes must shed to fully grow ii keratin makes up scales iii proof so if scaled mainly snakes must shed to fully grow c live in all environments except frigid i most ectothermic ii some snakes are primitive endotherms d welldeveloped lungs with a diaphragm e Closed double looped circulatory system 3 3 2 4 chambers i 2 atria 1 ventrice partially separated by septum ii in crocodies septum completely separates making 2 and 2 when active blood doesn39t mix in the ventricle 1 because of heart value 2 septum amp ventricle wall moves Deoxygenated blood from body 1 Sinus venous Right atrium valve oxygenated blood from lungs Left atrium valve ventricle Contraction conus arterious valve deoxygenated blood to lungs Oxygenated blood to body 16 f 3 h J k Biology notes iv when inactive blood doesn39t go to lungs in order to conserves energy 1 if aquatic don t breath under water 2 if trying to warm up redirect deoxygenated blood back thru body creates energy v reptilian heart with more options than avian or mammalian heart Excretory system conserves water urea and water internal fertilization and internal or external development i interna mainly snakes ii leathery shell with amniote egg inside iii parental care 80 of crocodiles 70 of snakes and 5 of all others most are exothermic that change location to regulate their temp i beginning of endothermic ii some snakes and lizards herbivores or carnivores not many omnivores i limbs with claws snakes have vesicle appendages and girdles ii most have tongues that cane sense heat 2 way Respiratory system i Aveoi lungs have small round hollow structures 1 greatly increase surface area 2 moist lobed 3 surround by capillaries ii in snakes only right lung functions 1 can be half as long as the body 2 left lung is small or absent iii mechanical breathing 1 expanding rib cage expands thorax 2 expand lungs 9 diaphragm also pulls down 3 reduces pressure lets air in nervous system i brain same size as amphibian s brain but cerebrum and optic lobes are larger ii most with tympanum 1 snakes use ground vibrations picked up with theirjaw bone 2 jawbone9 coumella9 inner ear iii Jacobs organ in the roof of the mouth 1 Especially lizards and snakes 2 tongue brings in chemicals from air odors iv Heat sensing pit under pit vipers eyes 1 carnivores 2 Ex rattlesnakes copperheads water moccasins constrictors Reproduction oviparity ovoviviparity and viviparity primitive placenta in some snakes i mini reproductive evolution ii male parental care evidence in crocodiles and some snakes iii nesting amp long term 2 12 months integument i watertight prevents desiccation ii thick dry scales made out of keratin iii protects against infection and injures Closed circulatory system digestive system similar to amphibians autonomy detaches a limb when attacked regenerated lost limb lizards and other animals 17 Biology notes 6 4 Orders a Rhychocephaliatuataras quot beak head b d i ii iii iv v vi lack internal eras deaf primitive scales only one species left only found in New Zealand Sphenodon puntatas Carnivorous parietal eye head alerts to too much sun eggs on land Squamata lizards snakes iguana gecko i ii iii iv v most carnivorous terrestrial scay must shed to grow some venomous eggs on land snakes 1 move by extending and contracting overlapping scales 2 rectilinear or side winding 3 some have 4 chamber heart 4 some have primitive placentas 5 primitive endotherms 6 some provide parental care Crocodiia crocodiles alligators and caimans i ii iii iv v vi Carnivorous long broad snout stocky build fresh and salt water 1 tropical areas 2 aquatic or semi aquatic 4 chamber heart Eggs on land vii female guards nest that she build and will carry each baby to the water in her mouth viii most closely related to the dinosaurs and most closely related to birds Chelonia i ii iii iv v vi turtes semi aquatic tortoises terrestrial terrapin salt water turtles no parental care toothless have horny plates and some have beaks mainly herbivores a few carnivores 4 chamber heart vii adapted for water 1 discstreamline shell 2 webbed feetflipper viii adapted for land ix 1 round shell 2 have feet with claws eggs laid on land 18 1 Class Aves a b 3 h i J k m Biology notes Ornithology study of birds For Endothermy must have Arose 150 million years ago i 30 orders ii about 10000 modern species reptile like i legs with claws and scales keratin ii talons special claws on birds of prey High constant metabolic rate High internal temperature Good food source nsuation feathers fur hair fat blubber endothermic i high efficient for flight ii 104 106 body temp Edentate toothless horny beak of keratin parentalnesting behavior i both male and female especially in raptors ii 995 courtship behavior iii amniote egg oviparity feathers i mainly protein keratin ii come from skin pits iii flight and warmth iv penguins with about 10000 per square inch wings hollow bones pessarinelargest order includes 5000 species perching birds includes song birds only males sing Rest 5000 species i Pelicans and their relatives ii Birds of prey iii Parrots iv Cavity nesting birds v Herons and their relatives vi Ostriches and their relatives Key stone species Digestion system i Beaks adapted to food made of keratin 1 short fine insects 2 short thick seeds 3 strong hooked carnivorous 4 long thin nectar probing 5 large flat fruit 6 long fat fish food moves fast thru digestive system mouth pharynx 1 syrinyx song box 2 homologues to mammalian larynx v esophagus vi crop stores moisten regurgitates for young crop mik made of protein and fat ii iii iv 19 n 0 P 0 Biology notes vii proventricuar 1 stomach stores food in carnivores 2 small in other birds 3 hold digestive enzyme and gastric juices viii gizzard 1 muscular swallowed stones in order to grind food 2 mechanical digestion ix small intestine molecules absorbed villi dupd and ileum x cloaca 1 amphibian retile like 2 digestive waste 3 nitrogen waste uric acid crystal from kidneys eggs and sperm xi vent xii Accessory organs pancreas liver gallbladder Nervous system i Brain large for body size large than reptile ii Much more on learned behavior than on instinct learning iii Large optic lobes with color better than ours 1 Binocular vision carnivores 2 Non carnivores don t need it iv Large cerebrum voluntary actions 1 flying nest building courting song care for young 2 some instinctive most learned v small cerebral cortex on top some instinctive most learned vi large cerebellum muscle coordination precise movement vii medulla oblongata involuntary activities prim reptilian viii hearing good no external ears tympanic membrane ix little taste or smell Reproduction some learned and some instinct i Internal fertiization cloacas pressed together ii amniote egg calcified shell iii nesting femae incubate heat in carnivores both male and female iv Courtship 1 song and behavior male only v Rearing of young only female in carnivores both parents 1 precocia ready to go most birds not carnivores 2 atricial blind naked hepess most carnivores vi reproductive system shrink and enlarge for less weight for flight vii egg tooth in order to open shell migration seasonal i stars celestial bodies ii landmarks iii magnetic fields Respiration 1 way also same for mammals and some reptiles i Trachea ii 2 bronchi singuar brochus iii bronchioles L iv alveoli L both in the lungs pred and lobed v air sacs in body cavities and hollow bones store air reduce body density and buoyancy vi air circulation is one way in flight birds 20 r s Biology notes 1 75 enters and goes to posterior air sacs 2 25 to lungs in body cavity and bones for CO2 and 02 exchange forward to lungs 3 1 way path constantly getting 02 rich blood 4 helps maintain high metabolic rate and high altitude flights Right Circulatory System almost same for birds and mammals Atrium i Double oop closed ii 2 atria and 2 ventricles quotValV quot iii Separated by complete septum iv To RA systemic veinvena cava R393ht 1 superior head neck Ventricle 2 inferior chest posterior Left Atrium vave Left Ventricle v RARV valve vi RV pumps to the lung pulmonary artery pulmonary loop 1 only artery in the body with deoxygenated blood 2 lined with cardiac muscle vii Pulmonary vein to LA Only vein in body with oxygenated blood viii LA LV valve ix LV pumps to body systemic 1 Aorta a ascending head b descending legs 2 layers much thicker than RV of cardiac muscle x arties arterioes9 capillaries beds every cell with 2 or 3 xi venuas veins with valve to heart with CO2 Movement 90 flying i Wing evolved from fighted soaring dinosaurs 1 Pterodactys didn t give rise to birds 2 Archaeopteryx may have given rise to birds many have feathers 3 feathers on forelimbs replace scales 4 claws on wing tips 5 large bones became fused9 rigidity frame for flight muscles ii Adaptations for flight 1 Large bones fused 2 Wings with feathers 3 Large chest muscles attached to sternkeel 4 Hollow bones have quotstruts inside less weight 5 Extremely high metabolic rate makes energy for flight 6 Air sacs in hollow bones and coelom 7 Pygostyle term fused vertebrate to tail feathers 8 attachment steering braking lifting 9 furcua fused collar bone wish bone 10feathers a contourlifting force coloration balance i molten yearly especially before migration ii pume enhance male iii special contour feather on wings and tail for flight iv little bristle like feather and nose to keep dust out modified contour feathers b has hollow shaft barbs barbules with hooks like Velcro c preening gand at base of tail oiling and rearranging of barbules Biology notes d down small fluffyno hooks trap air close to the body9 warm layers e powder down water proof down for in or on water bird f Brood patch only place without feathers is a thickened patch of skin on abdomen for incubation iii fedging period of first flight for young 2 Class Mammalia 4500 species a Common characteristics i ii Unique to mammals 1 mammary gland modified sweat glands a both male and female are functional b milk 50 fat 50 protein and sugar c on thorax or abdomen or both 2 hair or fur over some part of body even in aquatic mammals 3 single lower jawbone moves sideways 4 specialized teeth different functions Other Characteristics 1 4 chamber heart closed system 2 endothermic subcutaneous fat layers hair fur prevent heat loss 3 diaphragm 4 definite head thorax and abdomen 5 most viviparous 6 most 4 appendages 7 all with amniote egg internal fertilization most with internal development shell is mother and placenta 8 100 maternal care some paternal because of period of maturing especially primates b Evolution i ii 325 million years ago 2 groups of terrestrial vertebrates 1 Dinosaurs birds and modern reptiles 2 2 39 try for mammals a synapsids single opening behind eye socket in skull i mammals are the only group left ii were about 20 inches long iii resembled modern lizards iv small amount of tooth specialization v appendages directly under body b therpasids i mammals ii teeth differentiation iii limbs under body iv some endothermic hair v today39s mammals 3 early mammals a about 4 inches 2 ounce b large eye sockets nocturna binocular vision c carnivorous insect insectivore tree dwellers d primitive mammary glands e fur f stayed small during age of dinosaurs not divide much 5 orders 165 144 million years ago 3 main groups of modern mammals 1 Monotremes oviparous 1 order 3 species 2 Marsupias viviparous 1 order primitive pacenta about 280 species 22 Biology notes a both montremes and marsupials make up 5 3 Pacenta viviparous with pacenta 19 orders 95 iii 65 million years ago 1 death of dinosaurs 2 mammals evolved to fill habitats c Digestive System i iii iv v vi Mouth 1 mechanical digestion teeth 1 set 2 sets or continuous replacement a carnivores i canines and incisors sharp cut tearing ripping biting ii moars sharp shredding b herbivores i reduced canines and flattened incisors tearing holding ii moars flat grinding 2 chem digestion salivary glands digestive enzyme especial carbohydrates Pharynx with tongue swallowing larynx voice box 2 membranes esophagus 1 3 patterns a herbivores i grazers ruminants 1 cows deer oxen 2 4 chambered stomach 3 1 rumen newly swallowed and processed food has symbiotic bacteria for ceuose9 cud 4 Regurgitate and re chewed cud 5 then to stomach again then to small intestine ii nongrazers 1 rodents elephants horses rabbits 2 straight to stomach to small intestine b carnivores straight to stomach to small intestine stomachmechanical and chemical digestion small intestine 1 duodenum1 section of small intestine 2 ileum2 39 portion lined with villi 3 finish chemical digestion 4 absorption of nutrients with villi 5 symbiotic bacteria for plant matter nonherbivore 6 villi along entire length 7 Caceum end of small intestine a With symbiotic bacteria for cellulose in grazers b Nothing in carnivore or omnivores Large intestine colon 1 reabsorption of water 2 absorption of vitamins vii anus cloaca in monotremes viii accessory organs 1 liver make bile 2 gabadder store bile changes fats to fatty acids 3 pancreas a digestive enzymes exocrine glands 23 d f g Biology notes b insuin blood sugar endocrine glands Execratory system i Pair of kidneys along the dorsal surface 1 filter out nitrogenous waste amp filter out blood cells and reabsorb water 2 urea water urine 3 ureter to urinary bladder to urethra and then out of the body endocrine system gands oil glands are ductless secrete directly into circulatory system exocrine have ducts i in fish amphibians birds reptiles and mammals ii produce hormones chemical messengers proteins regulate all body actives 1 Greek for excite 2 Protein amp steroid hormones iii pituitary gland in brain quotmaster gland produce many different hormones iv thyroid controls metabolism and the hormone thyroxin v parathyroid mineral levels especially calcium vi thymus shrinks as adult holds mother39s immunities for a new born baby 6 months vii adrena flight or fight adrenalin viii Gonads androgens male testosterone females9 estrogen ix Pinea circadian rhythms x Pancreas isles of langerhans 1 insuin isles cells 2 A endocrines digestive part exocrine Circulatory system i Double oop closed mostly same as birds ii 25000 miles of capillaries in humans iii blood 1 plasma clearyellowish iquid slightly viscous sticky a plasma with protein fibbers for clotting b serum without protein fibers 2 3 sets of cells mostly mammalian trait a erythrocytes RBC Red Blood Cell i exchange of gases ii contain iron in protein hemoglobin iii while in circulatory system already dead only used for 28 days b eukocytes WBC White Blood Cell i protect against invading organisms ii 20 different kinds all help immunity iii 1 for every 1000 RBC c platelets i small pieces of a huge cell ii Help in blood clotting and forming scabs Respiratory system i 2 way both in and out like reptile 1 trachea bronchus9 bronchioes continuous branches aveous sing alveoli millions ii Path 1 lungs 2 bronchioles 3 aveoi paired lobes moistbubble like structures for gas exchange iii 39 increase surface area9 increase amount of O2 intake and increase CO2 given off thanks to diaphragm IV 24 Biology notes v 15OOft2 of alveolar surface h Nervous system i Very compex highly developed ii Brain 15 larger than any other classes iii Large cerebrum voluntary activities with iv cerebral cortex outer layer starts with birds thinking learning complex behavior Few instincts v Large cerebellum muscular coordination precise movements vi Medulla obongata involuntary actives primitive in reptiles vii olfactory lobes optic lobes amp auditory areas increased decreased depending on important to life style 1 color vision usually only in diurnal only 2 only primates with full color ability and most have binocular vision 3 echoocation bats dolphins and whales 4 low frequency vibrations group stomping elephants soles pads viii paired spinal amp cranial nerves 1 vertebras surround a atas 1 vertebrate b axis 2 39 vertebrate 2 in fish amphibians and mammals i Skeletal system endoskeeton 2 girdles i Bones replace cartilage ii Osteocyte in matrix of calcium and other minerals have capillaries and nerves throughout iii Limbs and digits are adapted to life style Homologous All digits end in nails modified for different species j lntegumentary system skin i Largest organ ii Protection Prevent water loss Prevention of pathogens k Reproduction 3 patterns depending on development and birth most viviparious i Order Monotremata monotremes L One opening a cloaca receives sperm reptilian like b oviviparous leathery covered eggs c buried in river banks or incubated with body heat d 1 or 2 eggs e nesting behavior 10 days incubation f milk oozes onto fur and young lick it up g example duck bill platypus amp echidna 2 species of spiny anteaters in New Zealand Australia area I Order Marsupialia marsupials L marsupium pouch 1 immature birth no pacenta primitive placenta 2 Born with essentially 1 inch with head amp fore limbs 3 mothers may or may not lick a path to pouch 4 attaches to nipple till development will use pouch for up to 2 years in and out for protection 5 example kangaroos opossum and koala bears m Placenta mammals 19 orders 1 pacenta temporary tissues link between mother and embryo for exchange of gases 2 chorion grows into uterus 3 gestation time between fertilization and birth 4 female provides through umbilical cord no mixing of maternal and embryo s blood in the cord a digested nutrients digestive system b gives O2 amp removes CO2 respiratory system c removes nitrogenous waste excretory system 5 a placenta allows for longer internal development viable 25 Biology notes 6 larger offspring the longer the gestation period 7 most involve parenting half the species require both maternal and paternal care 26
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