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Date Created: 07/07/14
ANATOMY EXAM SEMESTER 2 Teeth Vocabulary Bolus chewed food mixed with saliva Dentine modified form of bone 0 Enamel hardest substance made by any living thing forms the crown 0 Periodontal ligament hold the tooth inside the socket 0 Deciduous tooth milk or baby teeth replaced once by a set of permanent teeth 0 Carie cavity local pocket in the tooth 0 Abscess an enclosed infection in a pocket near the body surface 0 Tooth impaction any situation where a tooth fails to erupt properly Relationship between surface area and digestion 0 The greater the surface area the faster food is broken down and absorbed by the gut Structure of a generic tooth be able to draw it including mechanisms that anchor it in its socket 9 Figure 11 Basic tooth types and functions in biting chewing 0 lncisor distinctly flattened used for gripping food 9 Canine resemble and function like incisors but not critical to chewing process 9 Premolar bicuspids help to crush food items during chewing 0 Molar most responsible for chewing process capable of grinding shearing and crushing food K Which teeth include deciduous versions 0 lncisors canines premolars Formation of dental caries 0 Caused by erosion of the mineral component of a tooth due to organic acids produced by oral bacteria in the mouth What happens when a tooth becomes abscessed 9 Caused when a carie becomes so invasive that it penetrates the pulp cavity causing oral bacteria to invade and start the infection What happens when a tooth is impacted and normal cause 0 Tooth doesn39t erupt properly not at all bad position or wrong location 9 Most common cause inadequate space but could also be an idiopathic cause The Digestive System Vocabulary 0 Hernia any bulge of tissue where it shouldn39t be 39 Peristalsisz rhythmic muscular contractions in the gut wall that move food down the length of the gut 0 Chyme creamy mixture produced by mixing a bolus with gastricjuice 0 Homeostasis regulation of involuntary body functions to maintain normal function levels 0 Autonomic Nervous System responsible for homeostasis 0 Bile greenish yellow substance produced in the liver that is important in the digestive process 0 Hypothalamus region of the brain that controls the autonomic nervous system 0 Emulsion pseudo solution of water insoluble chemicals in water Important rule about food absorption in the gut 90 Gut can only absorb food molecules in their simplest biochemical forms Carbohydrates gt monosaccharides glucose fructose galactose Proteins gt amino Acids Fats gt fatty acids includes monoacyl glycerides J Components and functions of saliva 0 Each side of the face has 3 a parotid maxillary gland submandibular gland and sublingual gland 0 Components water mucous ions lysozyme amylase 0 Functions lubricating food for swallowing cleansing mouth and teeth controlling mouth microbes Basic tissue organization of the gut be able to draw 0 Epithelial inner lining smooth muscle middle layer and CT outer cover 0 Epithelial inner lining consists of both a mucous and stratify squamous epithelium 90 Figure 21 Basic function of the esophagus 0 Actively propel food down to the stomach from the throat Describe the heartburn condition and explain its cause 0 Esophageal inflammation produced by stomach acid splashing up through the cardiac sphincter into the esophagus Function of the stomach including roles in chemical digestion nutrient absorption 0 Limited chemical breakdown of food proteins 0 Limited nutrient absorption water electrolytes some drugs alcohol W Properties of autonomic nervous system including the two branches 90 Sympathetic triggers a variety of physiological responses that help the body survive a crisis blood is shunted from non critical organs BP rises breathing and heart rate rises glucose levels rise perspiration increases 9 Parasympathetic brings the body back to a relaxed state reverses effects of sympathetic NS J Functions of pancreas what food molecule types where it takes place 0 Secretes insulin and glucagon which govern blood sugar levels dorsal lobe 99 Contains enzymes that break down different molecules ventral lobe Pancreatic amylase breaks down nearly all dietary starch into glucose Trypsin chymotrypsin digest protein fragments peptides or entire proteins into free amino acids Role of bile in digestion process 9 Helps to neutralize acidic chyme in duodenum 99 Emulsifies fats in duodenum so they can be acted upon by lipase Functions of liver including those unrelated to digestion 9 90 Storage and breakdown of glycogen 9 90 Storage and release of minerals iron copper 9 90 Vitamin storage A D some B Destruction of worn out RBC 9 90 9 90 Processing of amino acids to be incorporated into glucose gluconeogenesis 9 90 Storage and release of bile 9 90 Detoxification of points in the blood Functions of small intestine espjejunum ileum role of intestinal juice 09 Duodenum site of most chemical digestion in the body 00 Jejunum and ileum secrete intestinal juice and absorb virtually all food molecules as well as trace nutrients 9 Intestinal juice responsible for chemical breakdown of disaccharides and proteins limited 39 Functions of the colon and roles of colonic bacteria 02 Water reabsorption from gut processed food 09 Colonic bacteria produce vitamins some B K which are absorbed through the colon wall Blood Vocabulary 0 Anemia chronically low hematocrit 0 Hematocrit RBC density in blood 0 Plasma all components of blood minus the cells 0 Sickle cell disease misshaped RBCs inside the capillaries as to resemble sickles causing large numbers to stick together and starve organs of critical oxygen 0 Erythropoiesis RBC production process in bone marrow 39 Functions of circulatory system 9 Transportation oxygen glucose hormones etc 02 Regulation of body environment pH temperature blood glucose etc 9 Protection against microbes WBCs blood born anti microbial substances Three types of blood cells 0 Erythrocytes red blood cells 0 Leukocytes white blood cells 0 Thrombocytes platelets Unusual properties of RBCs and basic life history 0 Expel their nuclei during formation mammals only 0 Have a concavo convex shape 0 Fold into crescent like shapes when they enter capillary vessels 9 Life history Produced in bone marrow rate of production is governed by kidney produced hormone erythropoietin Once fully mature and released into blood RBCs suffer cumulative wear from changing shape and wear out after about 120 days K Worn out RBCs are destroyed by liver and stores the iron for later use J Function and components of hemoglobin 9 Function oxygen transport 929 Components iron and a protein called glob in 4 glob ins per hemoglobin Heart Vocabulary 0 Artery transport blood away from heart mostly carry oxygenated blood 0 Vein transport blood towards the heart most carry low oxygen blood 0 Atrium relatively small chamber at the top of the heart that receives low pressure blood from a great vein and pumps it into a ventricle 0 Ventriclez relatively large chamber at the base of the heart that receives relatively low pressure blood from an atrium and pumps it into a great artery at high pressure 0 Capillary site of exchange between blood and cells 0 Systemic circulation all blood flow in the body that is not part of pulmonary circulation 0 Pulmonary circulation all blood flow either moving towards or away from the lungs 0 Systoe any heart chamber in a state of contraction 0 Diastole any chamber in a state of rest 0 SA node pacemaker that sends out an electrical pulse to begin the heartbeat 0 Fibrillation atria andor ventricles are contracting arhythmically failing to pump blood effectively 0 Ischemia any situation in which the blood flow to an organ is restricted 0 Angina heart muscle pain caused by coronary ischemia 0 Infarction any situation in which arterial blockage to an organ occurs that has the potential to cause tissue death if not quickly alleviated 0 Atherosclerosis caused by a build up of arterial plaque in an artery narrowing the lumen Basic structure of the heart including the valves be able to label 029 Right and left atrium right and left ventricle AV valves semilunar valves 9 Figure 31 Basic blood flow path with reference to pulmonary and system loops be able to draw the path 9 90 Figure 32 9 90 Low oxygen venous blood flows from vena cavas into right atrium 9 90 When properly filled right atrium contracts and pumps blood into right ventricle at low pressure through AV valve 9 0 Right atrium contracts pumping blood into the pulmonary artery which splits to blood off to lungs where it picks up a supply of oxygen 92 Now oxygenated blood returns to heart via left and right pulmonary veins which is collected by the left atrium 9 Left atrium contracts pumping blood into the left ventricle through another AV valve 92 Left ventricle contracts with great force pumping oxygenated blood into aorta and systemic circulation eventually returning to heart through vena cavas and restarting the cycle How cardiac conduction system functions in making a heartbeat include roles of nodes 9 SA node pacemaker sends out an electrical pulse 9 Pulse travels through both atria at the same time causing them to contract together 9 As the pulse hits the bottom of the two atria it reaches the AV node 9 AV node sends out a second pulse of electricity in response to the signal from the SA node which travels down a special cable through the wall between the two ventricles AV bundles 9 Signal traveling through AV bundles reaches the bottom of ventricles and travels upward through the ventricular muscle via Purkinje fibers triggering the two ventricles to contract together K W Briefly explain what happens in angina pectoris and a myocardial infarction 9 Angina pectoris most often caused by narrowing of coronary arteries due to long term arterial disease creating heart pain due to a blockage of blood flow to the heart 0 Myocardial infarction heart attack coronary artery becomes blocked leading to muscle tissue death if blockage is not quickly removed J Blood Vessels Vocabulary 0 Venule microscopic vein 0 Systolic blood pressure pressure experienced during high pressure pulses 0 Diastolic blood pressure pressure experienced between high pressure pulses 0 Venous milking subtle unconscious contractions of slow twitch muscles in the limbs and torso during rest W Basic tissue organization of arteries and veins be able to draw 0 Inside lining epithelium called endothelium 00 Middle layer smooth muscle 02 Outside cover dense CT Function of capillaries 00 Site of exchange between blood and cells 020 Carry blood at extremely low pressure 0 Form a bridge between arterial and venous systems K W Structural differences between arteries and veins and how they relate to differences in BP 0 Arteries thick and elastic to withstand shocllts of high pressure produced by ventricular contractions 9 Veins thin inelastic walls wide reduces friction J Female Reproduction Vocabulary 0 Hormone messenger molecule released directly into the blood that triggers a response in selective cells 0 Ovarian follicle small fluid filled pocket that contains a single egg 0 Endometrium inner lining of the uterus 0 Stratum functionalis sublayer of the endometrium that is shed during menstruation 0 Fallopian tube part of uterus that catches eggs after they39ve been released by the ovary and transport them to the uterine body also where fertilization OCCUFS 0 Ectopic pregnancy implantation of an embryo in the wall of a fallopian tube instead of the uterine body 0 Menstruation periodic shedding of the stratum functionalis of the endometrium 0 Follicular phase first phase of menstruation days 113 0 Ovulation second phase of menstruation day 14 0 Luteal phase third phase of menstruation days 1528 0 Corpus luteum hormone secreting ruptured follicle that lies on ovarian surface I0 Compare and contrast nervous and endocrine systems 029 Compare Both use messenger molecules to send messages to target cells 929 Contrast Nervous system targets specific parts of the body Nervous system messages are sent with great speed reaching them almost instantly Nervous system messages do not linger being cut off almost immediately How the number and quality of eggs in the ovaries changes over time 029 End of 1st trimester 7 million eggs 02 Birth 2 million eggs 99 Onset of puberty 300000 eggs 11 W 99 Sometime after 40 for most women the number of functional eggs becomes severely depleted which leads to the onset of menopause 0 The longer an egg has been stored in an ovary the greater the odds that something will go wrong when it finishes maturation Three regions of the uterus 99 Fallopian tubes 09 Uterine body 00 Cervix Tissue organization of the uterus esp epithelial layers 929 Outer layer dense CT 00 Middle layer smooth muscle 0 Inner layer endometrium epithelium including a mucosa Stratum basale permanent layer adjacent to the smooth muscle Stratum funcitonalis grows from the stratum basal and is periodically shed during the menstrual process forms the foundation for the placenta during a pregnancy Hormones critical to menstrual process 0 Estrogen produced by ovary 00 Progesterone produced by corpus luteum pregnancy hormone 0 Luteinizin hormoneLH hel stri er ovulationtransformsaru tured 9 P 99 P follicle into a functioning corpus luteum 99 Follicle stimulating hormone FSH produced by pituitary gland triggers maturation of both the follicle and egg setting the stage for ovulation Menstrual cycle in 3 phases pregnancy vs non pregnancy 9 Follicular phase O 90 O Estrogen and LH are low FSH levels rise rapidly before peaking and beginning to drop by the middle of the phase One follicle and its egg begins the process of maturation in response to high FSH levels New stratum funcitonalis grows from stratum basale Middle of the phase estrogen and LH begin to increase spiking around ovulation Ovulation In response to surge in estrogen and LH the developed follicle ruptures releasing the egg Ruptured follicle transforms into a corpus luteum and begins progesterone production Luteal phase Large number of new blood vessels grows into stratum functionalis LH levels drop off but estrogen levels remain high until the end of the phase Within a few days if the corpus luteum receives no outside signal it will start to degrade and completely stop progesterone production by day 28 Drop in progesterone levels trigger blood vessels to degrade killing the tissue layer and causing the body to start the process of shedding it back to follicular phase Pregnancy scenario gt Middle of luteal phase embryo reaches the uterine body gt Blastula produces and enters a cave in the stratum functionalis where it begins producing a placenta F Soon after the blastula secretes human choriogonadotropin hCG prolonging the functional life of the corpus luteum W J W Maintaining high levels of progesterone suppresses menstrual cycle for duration of pregnancy gt Eventually the corpus luteum shuts down and the placenta continues progesterone production K J lale Reproduction and Lactation 13 Vocabulary Sperm cell short storage life span 2 weeks not produced in body until puberty produced continuously throughout adult lifetime Testis site of sperm cell production and storage Cremasteric muscles special muscles that help regulate temperature of testes Germinal epithelium inside lining of seminiferous tubules where sperm cell production takes place Epididymis specialized portion of spermatic cord where sperm cells are stored Spermatic cord where sperm cells are mixed with glandular secretions to form seminal fluid Prostate gland gland important in seminal fluid contribution and power for ejaculation Seminal fluid mixture of sperm cells and glandular secretions Urethra connects to the urinary bladder to conduct urine out of the body during urination connects to the spermatic cord to conduct seminal fluid through the penis Prolactin stimulates milk production Oxytocin stimulates milllt ejection Structure and functions of testes esp germinal epithelium 09 Structure Covered by thick sheets of dense CT called the tunica albuguinea Divided into compartments called lobules which are packed with seminiferous tubules Seminiferous tubules lead into epididymis 0 Functions Sperm cell production takes place on the inside lining of the seminiferous tubules called the germinal epithelium As mature sperm cells are produced they39re transported down the length of the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis Role of temperature in sperm cell production 920 Proper formation requires temperature a few degrees lower than core body temperature 90 Cremasteric muscles raise the testes up when external conditions are cold and lower them when external conditions are excessively warm Functions of epididymis and spermatic cord 0 Epididymis sperm cell storage propel sperm upwards toward semen producing glands during ejaculation 99 Spermatic cord propel sperm cells into urethra during ejaculation location where sperm cells are mixed with glandular secretions to form seminal fluid Components and functions of seminal fluid 929 Components water fructose fibrinogen fibrinolysin prostaglandins 14 Three glands involved in production of seminal fluid including special role of prostate gland 90 Seminal vessiclez contributes to 60 of seminal fluid 9 Prostate gland contributes 25 of seminal fluid W J W Possesses a major smooth muscle component contractions create the force that powers ejaculation 0 Bulbourethral Cowper39s gland contributes 15 of seminal fluid Secretions released during pre ejaculatory arousal rinse traces of urine from urethra so as to prevent sperm cells from being poisoned Process by which lactation is regulated both inside and outside of pregnancy with emphasis on roles played by hormones 0 Inside PRL levels rise triggering milk production Surge in OT triggers labor and stimulates milk ejection Stimulation of nerves in the nipple during nursing process triggers pituitary gland to produce OT which maintains milk ejection and stimulates continued production of PRL Once nursing ceases drop in OT levels causes a drop in PRL levels bringing milk production to a halt 90 Outside absence of OT prevents from milk ejection from taking place Neurons and Nerves 15 Vocabulary 0 Dendrite attachments to the cell body that receive neurotransmitter NT commands from other neurons 0 Dendritic spines dendrite structures that possess a concentration of NT receptors 0 Cell body soma location of nucleus and most of the organelles 0 Axon carries an electrical signal to the synapse 0 Synapse after receiving an electrical signal from the axon it releases NT into the synaptic cleft where it will bind to NT receptors on target cell Neurotransmitter messenger molecule used by nervous system to send messages to target cells Myein fatty material that coats the axon helps maintain strength and speed of electrical signal in axon Neurotransmitterase enzyme that destroys the NT in the synaptic cleft Reuptake pump membrane protein that acts like a sponge to absorb NTs back into the synapse Nerve bundle of neurons encased in a sheet of dense CT Basic parts of a neuron show them in a diagram 0 99 Figure 41 I6 Most commonly used neurotransmitters and their functions 9 O O O O O O Acetylcholinez activates skeletal muscle utilized by parasympathetic NS Epinephrine utilized by sympathetic NS interneuron communication in the brain Dopamine activates pleasure centers utilized in skeletal muscle motor function is involved in drug addiction and Parkinson39s disease Glutamate triggers an excitatory state in brain neurons as well as some sensory receptors Gamma amino butyric acid GABA triggers a relaxed state in brain neurons Alcohol is a powerful GABA agonist which is why it39s considered a depressant not a stimulant Serotonin role in mood regulation insufficient levels are implicated in many disorders including depression anxiety and OCD Prostaglandins can be short distance hormones as well as NTs utilized by neurons that send pain messages and autonomic neurons sending commands to certain smooth muscles J 39 Simple definitions of all nerves 9 Motor consist entirely of motor neurons 9 Sensory consist entirely of sensory neurons 9 Mixed consist of a mixture of motor and sensory neurons 9 Spinal emerges directly from the spinal cord part of the peripheral NS always mixed give rise to autonomic and somatic nerves 9 Cranial emerges from the floor of the brain completely by passing the spinal cord can be motor sensory or mixed K J The Central Nervous System Vocabulary 0 Ventricle of the brain hollow space in the brain 0 Cerebrospinal fluid viscous protein rich liquid that fills and surrounds entire CNS 0 Meninges tough sheets of CT that surround both the brain and spinal cord 0 Meningitis inflammation of the meninges sometimes when brain is involved called encephalitis can be viral or bacterial 0 Cerebrum divided into a superficial region called the cerebral cortex and a deep region 0 Cerebellumz covers the 4th ventricle in mammals responsible for most unconscious musculo skeletal actions Describe meninges 920 Contain cerebrospinal fluid 0 Divided into 3 layers from outside to inside Dura mater K Arachnoid layer J 17 Pia mater 029 Space between dura mater and surround neural canal is the epidural layer Functions of cerebrospinal fluid and basic pathway through CNS 0 Biochemically nurtures neurons of the CNS and creates a shock absorber that helps prevent brain and spinal cord from damage by bone impacts 0 Removes metabolic waste excess water from the brain 0 Produced in ventricles of brain drains out bottom of the spinal cord at the caudal equina 18 Features of cerebrum 0 Hemispheres right and left 0 Sulci and gyri raised areas and valleys between the raised areas of the cerebrum respectively 9 Lobes Frontal complex thinking planning voluntary muscle movements Parietal processes touch and pain Temporal processes auditory information Occipital processes visual information 020 Corpus callosumz thicllt sheet of myelinated nervous tissue that connects left and right hemispheres 9 Hippocampus located in deep portion of temporal lobe responsible for short term memory 9 Amygdala located in deep portion of temporal lobe plays a role in reasoning memory and fearstress related emotional responses directly connected by nerve tracts to the hypothalamus which allows for quick initiation of fight or flight responses Function of Wernicllte s area and Broca s area on the cerebrum J 19 0 Wernicke s area responsible for processing information in order to understand speech located on left parietal and temporal lobes 9 Broca39s area controls muscular functions related to producing speech as well as producing and understanding grammar located on left frontal lobe FIGURES w Fugusze 111 ENc1mE L Cguwechve Fagurze I5SM V gt 4 V 1 V c Hepi QLum 20 FIGURES Flgurze 31a Av igtaoiLe Le bawdw bmm ch 1N12veNR1C u Lari sep Ham akm 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