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Weekly notes, quiz info for Monday

by: Graham Notetaker

Weekly notes, quiz info for Monday Bio131

Marketplace > Elon University > Biology > Bio131 > Weekly notes quiz info for Monday
Graham Notetaker
Elon University
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Weekly notes on some protists, but mostly Fungi.
David Vandermast
Bio, Biodiversity, Science
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Graham Notetaker on Saturday March 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio131 at Elon University taught by David Vandermast in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at Elon University.


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Date Created: 03/05/16
PROTISTS (continued) + Fungi   Amoebozoa    ● Species in the amoebozoa lack cell walls and take in iengulfing   ● They move viapseudopodia   ● Gymnamoebas are common, feed on detritus, bacteria and other protists (naked  ones, no cell wall)    Plasmodial Slime Molds  ● Supercell containing many diploid nuclei  ● When food is scarce, art of the amoeba forms a stalk topped by a ball like  structure on which spores are formed   ● They are important decomposers   ● In the feeding stage, they are unicellular and divide by mitosis   ● Aggregate of thousands of amoeba cells  ○ individual amoebas communicate via cyclic AMP        Bikonta    Excavata:   ● Named for the excavated feeding groove found on one side of the cell   ● Some excavates lack mitochondria and are adapted to anaerobic environments  ● Some are pathogenic  ● Parabasalids:  ○ All parasites  ○ Lack cell wall and mitochondria  ○ Includes the disease Trichomonas vaginalitis   Diplomonads:  ● live in low O2   ● Some live in guts of animals, some parasitically and other thats dont harm the  host  ● Have 2 nuclei  Euglena​ :  ● One third are photosynthetic  ● Light sensitive eyespots and use flagella to swim towards light   Plantae​ :  ● Red and Green algae  ○ Red algae live in marine habitats, and are mostly unicellular   ○ Almost all  are photosynthetic  ○ Red because of ​phycoerythrin  ○ Includes land plants  ○ Glaucophyte algae  ○ All of these lineages are descended from a common ancestor of today's  glaucophyte algae that engulfed a cyanobacterial more than 1 bya.  (primary symbiosis)  Rhizaria:  ● Single celled amoeba that lack cell walls, mostly united by genetic similarities   ○ Some have shells  ○ Move by pseudopodia  ● Have features that evolved independently from other protists    ● United by secondary endosymbiosis   ● Represents a grade ​ (shared feature, homoplasy of amoeba likeness,)​  not a clade  (synapomorphies)   ● Forams produce ​ tests which pseudopodia emerge  ● Tests sequester carbon     Chromalveolates:   ● Alveolata  ○ small sacs, called alveoli  ○ Monophyletic group  ○ Unicellular    ● Ciliata  ○ Named for cilia that surround them  ○ 2 nuclei  ○ Filter feeders, predators, parasites  ○ Important consumers   ○ Live mutualistically within guts of animals     ● Dinoflagellates  ○ Unicellular, ocean dwelling  ○ Capable of bioluminescence   ○ Parasitic, predatory, or mixotrophs    ● Apicomplexa  ○ All parasitic  ○ Causes malaria  ○ Have organelle called ​ apicoplast​  that synthesizes fatty acids. Process that  allows them to penetrate membrane of host     ● Stramenopiles ​ heterokonts​  (one smooth, one rough flagella)   ○ Water molds  ○ Resemble fungi, but are not.   ○ Diatoms (have glassy shell)     ● Brown Algae   ○ All are multicellular, largest and most complex  ○ Holdfast, stipe, blade   ○ Photosynthetic and ​ sessile ​(don’t move)   ○ Form kelp forests  ○ Secondary endosymbiosi ​                               FUNGI   Key concepts:  ● Live in close association with plantmutualist). Fungi get sugar from the plant,  fungi gives water and key ingredients   ● Decomposers (recycle)  ● All fungi areheterotrophi, and function witabsorptive feeding  ● Fungi secrete enzymes to help digest hardwoods, because these are normally  very hard to digestcellulos, and ligni)   ● Morphology provides a large surface area (gills on underside of mushroom for  example)       Intro:  ● Heterokaryotic​...Have 2 nuclei from 2 individuals (both haploid).  ○ Happens during sexual reproduction   ● Some are parasitic  ○ Haustoria: can penetrate host tissues    Human Impact:  ● Mycosis: Fungal infection myco, think FUNGUS​ )   ● Yeast (beer, leavened bread, cheese etc)  ● Source for antibiotics  ● Ergotism​ :  Fungal infection of ryegrass, which causes hallucinations….  ○ Lead to Salem Witch Trials   ○ Ex. Bog mummies  ○ Lysergic Acid (LSD!) is the active chemical in the ergot fungus      Morphological Traits:   1. Single celled forms: Yeast  2. Mycelia​: Multicellular, branch like projections.  a. The filaments that make up a mycelium are called ​hyphae  b. Hyphal cells may be haploid or heterokaryotic: contains several haploid  nuclei from different parents  c. Most heterotrophic hyphae are ​dikaryoti, with two haploid nuclei, one  from each parent  3. Each filament is separated into compartments called s​epta  a. Gaps in septa called pores enable materials to flow between  compartments   b. Or nah. It could be coenocytic (see­no­sitic, or lacking septa entirely   4. Huge surface area  a. Fungi have the highest surface area to volume ratio of any organism  because of their hyphae  5. Reproductive structures, 4 types:  a. Chrytids have flagella, are thonly known motile fungal cells  b. Zygo​mycetes have ​ zygosporangia  c. Basidia​ are specialized spore producing cells that form at the ends of  basidiomycetes​ . Monophyletic.  d. Asci have a sac that produces spores that contain ascomycetes.  Monophyletic.    Evaluating Molecular phylogenies:  ● Fungi are more closely related to animals than land plants  ● *Be able to draw phylogeny!*  ● If a protein that we share with fungi cells is still functioning in both species, it  must be important and highly conserved   ● Sister group to fungi consists of protists called choanoflagellates   ● Basidia and Asci are monophyletic, and dikaryotic    Mutualisms:  ● EMF (​ ectomycorrhizal​ fung) are usually basidiomycetes. NOT a synapomorphy  because of “usually.” They form a dense network of hyphae that cover a plant's  root,but do not enter root cel. Provides N and P to plant, Fungi gets sugars.  More temperate environments.   ● AMF(Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi)​  are all glomeromycetes. So, it’s a  synapomorphy for the group. Hyphae grow into cells (structure is called  arbuscule​). Extremely ancient, found in 80% of land species. More tropical  environments.     Reproduction:  ● Spore is the most fundamental reproductive cell in fungi. Produced in HUGE  amounts.   ● If food is scarce, the mycelium will make spores so that the lineage will continue.   ● Multiple mating types:  ○ Fungi have thousands of mating types, and if they are compatible, they  will fuse. This helps to increase genetic diversity.   Fertilization:  ● Only chytridiomycota produce gametes with flagella…  ● In most fungi, theres are 2 steps:  ○ Fusion of cells  ○ Fusion of nuclei from cells   ■ (doesn’t happen until right before meiosis)     PART ONE: When Hyphae from two individuals fuse to form a hybrid hypha  ● Plasmogamy    PART TWO: If the nuclei remains independent the mycelium becomes heterokaryotic…  When the nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote: ​ Karyogamy    4 major types of fungal life cycles:   1. Chytridiomycota are the only fungi that produce motile gametes and exhibit  alternation of generations  2.  Zygomycota form yoked hyphae that produce a spore­forming structure  3. Basidiomycota have reproductive structures with many spore producing basidia  4.  Ascomycota have reproductive structures, which are produced by dikaryotic  hyphae, with many spore­producing asci     


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