New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Introduction to American Government (POLI 2051)

by: Madison

Introduction to American Government (POLI 2051)

Marketplace > Louisiana State University > Political Science > Introduction to American Government POLI 2051

Gabriela Vitela

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is a review based off of lecture notes and the textbook covering the exam material for test one.
Gabriela Vitela
75 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Political Science

This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Madison on Thursday July 10, 2014. The Bundle belongs to a course at Louisiana State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 152 views.


Reviews for Introduction to American Government (POLI 2051)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 07/10/14
Review Questions 1 Progressive era reforms what were the progressives ghting for and what did they win policy wise Why were these victories important a The progressives were one of the more successful movements in US History b Their main desire was to see an increase in democracy and involvement of the people in the electoral process c They came to prominence during the Gilded Age a lot of really shady stuff was going one The people in power the rich were in charge of govemment and therefore kept the common people down d At this time only members of the House of Representatives were directly elected by the people e 22nd Amendment i Provided for the direct election of Senators f Primaries i The people who chose the president were not representative of all people they were big bosses who wanted to keep up the status quo ii The Progressives required that Presidential candidates go from state to state to campaign and let the people know about their agendas led to greater electoral knowledge and participation the people knew what was going on g Initiative Referendum Recall 2 Describe some of the grievances the Colonists had with the British govemment How were these concerns addressed in the Constitution a Taxation done without our permissionconsent i Stamp Act ii Townshend Act b Demands made of the British Govemment as a result of the things they did to piss off the colonists i Free Assembly ii Removal of Troops iii Self Taxation iv Trial by Jury c The British Govemment over time took more and more of the rights of the colonists away they were supposed to have the same rights of an English citizen this was not so d The things the British did to piss off the colonists ultimately became the basis of the Articles of Confederation and later was adopted into the Constitution i Right to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness ii Very weak national govemment with most of the power left to the states iii Single chamber congress everyone got one vote 3 Be able to describe what some of the issues were with the Articles of Confederation why they were problematic to the new nation and how the Constitution xed these issues a Issues with the Articles of Confederation i Articles could only be amended by unanimous decision ii Inability to establish trade agreements states negotiated their own trade agreements with foreign powers iii No economic equality or uniformity iv Congress could not interfere in issues between the states b Congress was supposed to be able to provide for the defense and establish a basis for an economy but was unable to do so mainly because of its inability to levy taxes no taxes no money and interference with state economic policy c During the Second Constitutional Convention the representatives from each state recognized that the Articles of Confederation did not work and that the country needed a strong central govemment i The Constitution is the result of a series of compromises ii The Great Compromise a compilation of both the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan It created the bicameral legislature we have today made up of the Senate equal votes and the House of Representatives proportional representation iii The 35ths Compromise The South was economically dependent on slaves who outnumbered the white population The North even though they were against slavery did not want slaves to count because they did not want the South to have greater representation in Congress The South proposed the 35ths Compromise which made every slave count as 35 of a person for purposes of apportionment of taxes and the number of seats in the House iv The North South Compromise the South feared economic disadvantage from the North s importexport policy so it was decided that Congress could tax imports but not exports 4 The Constitution provides for limited govemment in certain ways Be able to describe and give examples of Grants of Power Shared Powers and Federalism a Shared Powers i Checks and Balances ii Relationship between the branches of the federal govemment judicial executive legislative b Federalism i Relationship between the States and the Federal Govemment c Grants of Power 1 Article 1 ii Gives Congress the power to tax coin money regulate commerce create laws etc iii Powers explicitly granted to the branches of govemment by the Constitution 5 The federal govemment has used various methods to grow its reach and in uence Name and describe clauses in Article 1 Section 8 of the Constitution which have facilitated the govemment s growth a Necessary and Proper Clause i Grants Congress the power to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for the implementation of its enumerated powers b Commerce Clause i The Federal Govemment has the right to regulate commerce among the states and with other nations 6 Starting a new country is hard to do In the Constitutional Convention there were many plans advanced as to how the government should be organized think representation what were the two competing plans who did each plan favor and who won the debate a Virginia Plan i Proportional Representation ii Two Chamber Congress with limits to only what the states could not do themselves defense interstate trade etc iii Bene ts the larger states b New Jersey Plan i One Chamber with equal votes for everyone ii Ability to tax and regulate commerce iii Mostly maintained the Articles of Confederation iv Benefitted the smaller states 7 Originally there wasn t a Bill of Rights included in the Constitution Which party did this bother and why what were they trying to guard against a AntiFederalists were angry about the lack of a Bill of Rights in the original Constitution they feared a strong central govemment 8 The doctrine of shared powers or checks and balances ensures that all branches have a role in each branches area of specialty power Describe the checks and balances in the legislative process How do Congress the Executive and the Judicial branch interact in the legislative process a Legislative Branch i Congress has legislative authority ii Limits 1 Bills must be passed through both house of Congress 2 Veto power by 23 vote 3 Presidential Agenda 4 Presidential Veto 5 Interpretive Execution The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy and implement and execute laws as they see fit 6 Judicial Review The Supreme Court can declare laws unconstitutional b Executive Branch i The President ii Limits 1 Appointments of officials and treaties must be approved by Congress 2 Impeachment powers by Congress 3 Congress sets appropriations controls the money 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 4 Judiciary can invalidate presidential action if it is outside the scope of the law c Judicial Branch i The Supreme Court and Federal Court System ii Judicial Review of Congress and President iii Limits 1 Appointed by President and Approved by Congress 2 President enacts judicial decisions 3 Congress can rewrite laws the Supreme Court has declared unconstitutional 4 Congress determines jurisdiction and size of federal system Which Supreme Court case establishes judicial review What were the circumstances facts of the case what was the ruling and why was the ruling significant a Judicial Review was established in Marbury vs Madison 1803 b The case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury who had been appointed by President John Adams as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia but whose commission was not subsequently delivered Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court to force the new Secretary of State James Madison to deliver the documents The Court found that Madison39s refusal to deliver the commission was both illegal and remediable Nonetheless the Court stopped short of compelling Madison to hand over Marbury39s commission instead holding that the provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that enabled Marbury to bring his claim to the Supreme Court was itself unconstitutional since it purported to extend the Court39s original jurisdiction beyond that which Article III established The petition was therefore denied c This ruling was important because it gave power to the judiciary to decide whether a govemment official or institution has acted within the limits of the Constitution and if not to declare its action null and void Describe the Supremacy Clause of the Constitution Why is it important a Article IV of the Constitution b National Law is supreme law over state law when the national govemment is acting within its constitutional limits c National Govemment has final say Explain the 10th amendment it s important in the federalism debate a States can do things b Contradicts the 14th amendment Describe Section 1 of the 14th amendment a States cannot do things b Contradicts the 10th amendment How do the 10th amendment and section 1 of the 14th con ict with each other a Contradicts what states can do and what they cannot do In various cases the Supreme Court differentiates between national citizenship and state citizenship what does this mean Incorporation applies to the states what Federal feature Think Constitution a Incorporation is when the Supreme Court decides that the Bill of Rights applies to the states through the 14th Amendment b The Slaughter House cases start the thought that national law and state law is a different thing aka the Bill of Rights doesn t really apply to the states state constitutions are more important than the national constitution c For a long time the Bill of Rights did not apply at all however starting with Gitlow vs New York 1929 the Supreme Court tums around on this and decide that federal rights do apply to the states they only do this case by case though Gitlow vs NY only applied to the First Amendment d It took awhile for the Bill of Rights to become fully incorporated 16 Name the two Supreme Court cases we discussed in class where the court decided in favor of business over both the state and federal govemment a Lochner vs New York b Hammer vs Dagenhart 17 FDR comes in and changes the way the federal and state govemment relate to each other Describe some of the ways the New Deal changed the relationship between the two levels of govemment a FDR changed many things federalism the presidency etc b FDR had such an affect because of the Great Depression everyone was broke c He wanted the country to get back on its feet so he embarked on a major federal spending program d However if you wanted federal money there were all kinds of strings attached e At this time the states had a lot of power FDR took this power back when he started handing out money f He changed the way the Judiciary worked at that time the Supreme Court knocked down every thing he did by calling it unconstitutional He let them know that if they don t shape up he would replace people on the Court until he had the majority Once they realized he was serious they switched sides and started ruling in favor of the federal govemment and FDR s legislative programs and implementation he took control of the states this altered the course of federalism as we understand it 18 Name a few primary agents of socialization a Primary Agents i The first people you interact with who help develop your ideas ii Family iii School 1 School in the US is a major agent of socialization saying the pledge in class govemment courses etc 2 They have us for most of the day they basically train us iv Church b Secondary Agents i The people you come in contact with later in life ii Work iii Media 1 We process so many things through the media since it is one of the only ways we can leam about what s going on 2 The media sets an agenda for how emotionally attached we become to certain issues they paint the pictures in our heads 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 iv Leaders 1 The President actually has a lot of in uence on us because he can control the media when he really wants to its called bully pulpit because of the president wants eyes on him to deliver a message he is going to have them c Contact Theory The people you come in contact with will in uence the way you think and the opinions you form The media has the ability to in uence what s on our minds what is this phenomenon ca ed a Selective Perception Describe Party Identification How is this different from political ideology a Party Identi cation is the political party with which you identify with Republican Democratic Libertarian they are associated with party goals and platforms This is how we organize politics Party identi cation comes from political ideology b Political Ideology is belief about govemment conservatism liberalism populism these do not come with party labels however we have attached them to certain parties This is how we figure out what we believe govemment should be and do Describe the differences between economic conservatives and liberals and between social conservatives and liberals Name some of the various groups you can belong to that help change the way you perceive things group orientations a Church b Economic Class c Region d Gender e Race and Ethnicity How do we measure public opinion in the US Name one of the main vehicles through which we understand people s opinions a Election Retums b Polling Random Sampling Polling works because of Sampling which is based off the law of what What two conditions are necessary for a sample a It is impossible to reach every person in America to nd out what they think b We use the law of probability c We can take a large population and then take a smaller group of people to make deductions of what the larger group thinks d For this to work samples have to be representative and random e They must be representative because a complete population is very diverse f They must be random to ensure that a population is not being over sampled What matters more in sampling the size of the sample or the size of the population a Size of the sample Name one of the wellknown polling organizations a Gallup Organization b Pew Research Center 27 There are three large problems with polling Be able to name and describe them and how they affect the reliability of polls a Polling Problems i Social Acceptability 1 Asking questions about faith race etc People aren t ever going to admit that they are racist bigots etc People often lie ii High Refusal Rate 1 Even though polls are anonymous a lot of people refuse to participate iii Way Questions are Worded 1 Ex asking about Obamacare as opposed to calling it the Affordable Healthcare Act 2 Most polls only ask you to agree or disagree there is no way to explain your opinion 28 Why would politicians listen to public opinion a REELECTION b Nation of Many Politics i Micro Audiences c Boundaries politicians know how far they can go with us d Official creating public opinion i Town Hall gives officials a chance to explain themselves ii Bully Pulpit control of the media when an official has a message 29 Name a few activities that are considered political participation a Voting b Joining political organizations c Writing to an elected official d DemonstrationsProtests e Giving money to political candidates 30 What are some of the amendments that enfranchised voters into the US electorate Name as many as possible 31 Be able to define suffrage a Suffrage The right to vote b Women s Suffrage Movement of the 1920s c The original voting system banned most people from participating poor people who did not own property women slaves anyone under 21 32 Whom do we still disenfranchise a Felons b Those without identification 33 What formula do we use to arrive at voter tumout a Voter Tumout Number of Votes CastNumber of Registered Voters b The problem with using registered voters is that it does not take into account the total number of eligible voters c Only a small percentage of people actually vote 34 Who has the burden of action in registration the individual or the state a The individual 35 Who sets the rules goveming getting registered to vote a Registration requirements are set by the states i Some make it relatively difficult for citizens to qualify ii Registration periods and locations are not highly publicized iii Eligibility can also be a problem in most states an individual must reside at an address for a minimum period before becoming eligible to register iv Some states allow citizens to register at their polling places on election day making it easier 36 Be able to give one argument for and one argument against voter identification laws a For requiring the presentation of voter identification helps to prevent voter fraud b Against the voter ID requirement only serves to keep lowerincome people many of whom do not have a drivers license or passport from voting 37 There are a lot of reasons why Americans don t vote in high numbers Name a few of these reasons a Individuals are responsible for registering to vote b Elections are held on the first Tuesday in November not on the weekend making it difficult for people to get to the voting booths c Voter ID d Absence of major labor or socialist party who would work to get lower income citizens to the polls e Lack of penalties on those who do not participate in the election process 38 What are the demographic characteristics that affect voting and in which direction do they in uence voting probability a Education and Income those who have a college education and higher incomes are fty percent more likely to participate in a presidential election b Age young adults are less likely than middleages and older citizens to vote a very small percentage of young people vote in state elections c Civic Attitudes 39 Describe apathy vs alienation vs civic duty a Apathy A feeling of personal noninterest or unconcem with politics b Alienation A feeling of personal powerlessness that includes the notion that govemment does not care about the opinions of people like oneself c Civic Duty The belief of an individual that civic and political participation is a responsibility of citizenship 40 What is the biggest way people contribute to political campaigns a Monetary contribution 41 How has technology affected the way we participate in politics How has it changed the way we interact with candidates a The Intemet has become a new venue for political participation emails chatrooms social networks blogs etc b Participation is virtual rather than facetoface c Intemet fundraising d Hacktivism i Anonymous online collection of people hackers who dig up things on the intemet to support or drag down candidates officials parties etc e Slacktivism i Raises awareness of an issue which is low cost ii EX changing pro le picture to red equal sign 42 Describe how the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street are similar and how they are different Why is one considered a success while the other is not a The Tea Party i Ted Cruz ii Marco Rubio b Occupy Wall Street i NOBODY c The Tea Party is successful because they actually got representatives in government they have policy platforms a list of goals and an agenda They want smaller govemment smaller debt smaller taxes They also aligned themselves with the GOP and therefore had access to several resources with which they used to get their message out d Occupy Wall Street was very mad about the financial crisis and that nobody got in trouble However at the end of the day they were unable to articulate remedies for the situation They didn t know what to do they just wanted to bitch about the situation They also did not want to make any relationships with other liberal groups because they did not want to be coopted


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.