Chemistry week 1 & 2 notes
Chemistry week 1 & 2 notes CHEM-10055-003-201580
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CHEM-10055-003-201580 at Kent State University taught by Bansidhar Datta (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 434 views. For similar materials see MOLECULES OF LIFE in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Molecules of Life Chemical Foundations Chem 10055 003 Week 1 831 What defines life 0 movement 0 replication Parts of a living cell 0 small molecules 0 h20 02 NH3 glycerol glyceraldehydes etc 0 large molecules biomacromolecules o monosaccharides amino acids nucleotides fatty acids steroids etc o macromolecules o polysaccharides proteins enzymes lipids nucleic acidsetc 0 DNA is composed of nucleotides 0 nucleotides are subunits of nucleic acids 0 nucleic acids are large molecules necessary for life forms nucleotides dATP deoxyadenosine triphosphate dCTP deoxycytidine triphosphate dGTP deoxyguanosine triphosphate dTTP deoxythymidine triphosphate 0 DNA is composed of4 building blocks or bases Adenine Guanine Cytosine and Thymine 0 STRUCTURE base sugar phosphate nucleotide Bases suoars and phosohates 0 components of bases sugars and phosphates are small molecules such as urea aldehydes water carbon dioxide ammonia 0 elements simple building blocks of small molecules cannot be broken down 0 organized in the periodic table httpsenwikipediaorgwikiNucleic acid httpwwwbiologyreferencecomMoNuNucleotideshtml 92 The Periodic Table httpchemistryaboutcomcshowthingsworkfblbodyelementshtm httpeducationjlaborgdaelementhtml 0 Elements are substances made from one kind of atom they are arranged by groups in the periodic table 0 the group of an element is the of electrons on the outer shell O 0 example group 1 elements have 1 electron on the outer shell group 7 elements have 7 electrons on outer shell atomic of protons atomic weight average mass Main group elements are 0 00000000 element symbol group characteristics helium He 18 very light and abundant colorless gas lithium Li 1 alkali metal light metal highly reactive and flammable soft beryllium Be 2akaline earth metal white grey divalent rare boron B 13 metalloid uncombined not found on earth naturally nitrogen N 15 transparent odorless carbon C 14 chemical base of life oxygen 0 16 highly reactive non metallic fluorine F 17 pale yellow gas extremely reactive Noble gases group 18 no reaction and have maximum electrons in outer shell O 0000 O helium above neon Ne colorless odorlessinert red glow in lamps argon Ar very common krypton Kr xenon radon metals have multiple charges Elements in the body MAJOR ELEMENTS 0 hydrogen H 63 75 of the body is H20 0 oxygen 0 255 0 carbon C 95 o nitrogen N 14 MINOR ELEMENTS calcium Ca potassium K sulfur S sodium Na chlorine Cl magnesium Mg phosphorous P cobalt Co iron Fe manganese Mn molybdenum Mo iodinel fluorineF selenium Se copper Cu zinc Zn OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO atom smallest particle inside of an element isotope atoms that contain the same of protons and different of electrons different forms of an element 0 example 0 C12 and C14 are isotopes of carbon C12 6 protons 6 neutrons C14 6 protons 8 neutrons LIVING CELL 0 compounds in a living cell are ionic or covalent O m I ionic bonds held by and charges atom is lost or gained and forms with another atom caton and an anion and repel I combine 0 covalent molecular I bond formed by shared pair of electrons I covalent interactions more strength than an ionic I httpstudvcomacademvlessonwhatareionic reactionsdefinitionexam leshtm Spin Pairing o magnetic field created by the opposite spinning of electrons creates attraction 0 one atom spins clockwise one spins counterclockwise 0 elements gt small molecules gtarde molecules gt biomacromolecules gt weak forces gt 3D structures of biomacromolecules gt cell 0 about 116 element not all form compounds 0 small molecule examples COZ H20 NaCl 0 large molecules examples fructose amino acids citric acid glycerol 0 biomacromolecules examples lipidsenzymes polysaccharides nucleic acids 0 weak forces examples bonds and interactions 89 Founda ons 0 elements arranged in table metals nonmetals and metalloids 0 atoms smallest particle of element 0 subatomic particles 0 protons o neutrons no charge 0 electrons 0 atomic number number of protons o isotopes diff electrons same protonselectrons 0 mass protons neutrons Forces in subatomic particles 0 positive charges nucleus attract negative extranuclear space Atom Structure how electrons fill orbitals 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d and 7p s holds 2 electronsthese stay together because of spinning pairs p holds 6 d hold 10 fholds 14 1s 25 2p 2px 2py 2pZ lt subshells 35 3P 39X 39y 392 3d Electron Distribution H1 131 2He 152 58 152 252 2p1 Electrons in outer shell bonding Classification httpIlhyperphysicsphyastrgsuedulhbaselpertablmetalhtml Metals transition elements reducing agents low electronegativities malleable ductile good conductors shiny solid room tempexception mercury easily lose electrons cations electrons lost relates to its position on the periodic table octet rule Nonmetals gain electrons anions higher electronegativities oxidizing agents not good conductors non ductile solids liquids or gases room temp 8 group of electrons gained 0 example 7N its in group 5 therefore 8 5 3 I N 3 is the new charge Group 1A gt 1 Group 2A gt 2 cations positively charged ions Group 3A gt 3 lonic compounds 0 cation anion ionic compound Naming 0 name of metal root word of nonmetal suffix ide 0 example CaF2 I calcium flourlne ide I CALCIUM FLOURIDE
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