Molecules of Life & Cell Structure/Function Class Notes
Molecules of Life & Cell Structure/Function Class Notes Bio 103
Popular in Introduction to Life Science
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by wscarpetta on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Bio 103 at Rock Valley College taught by L. Constant in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Life Science in Biological Sciences at Rock Valley College.
Reviews for Molecules of Life & Cell Structure/Function Class Notes
No all-nighter needed with these notes...Thank you!!!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/12/15
Introduction to Biology 08182015 Unit 1 What is Life Made Of Chapter 1 Process of Science Science way of knowing Method of seeking answers to questions on the basis of observation and experiment Anecdotal Evidence observation that has not been systematically tested Peer Review review of an article before publication Hypothesis possible answer to the question under investigation Testable established or rejected by experiment Falsifiable if false can be proven wrong Experiment way of testing a hypothesis 0 Experimental group receiving the factor being tested 0 Control group does not receive any interventionmanipulation o Placebo fake treatment given to control group 0 Independent variable factor being changed Dependent variable factor not being changed Measured result 0 Sample size number of individuals participating in study 0 Statistical signi cance not be due to chance 0 Scienti c theory explanation of the natural world that is supported by a large body of evidence compiled over a period of time by numerous researchers Epidemiology scienti c study of the incidence of disease in populations Correlation consistent relationship between variables Randomized Clinical Trial subjects randomly chosen to receive experimentalstandardplacebo treatment Unit 1 What is Life Made of Chapter 2 Chemistry and Molecules of Life oAll living things have 5 common functional traits o 1 Grow 2 Reproduce 3 Homeostasis Maintain a relatively stable internal environment while the external environment changes 4 Sense and respond to their environment 5 Obtain amp use energy Energy ability to do work Metabolism living things breaking down food through a series of chemical reactions allowing the organism to obtain amp use energy 0 0 Eements substances that cannot be broken down by chemical means into smaller substances Matter fundamental components that take up space or has mass Atom smallest unit of an element that retains the property of that element Proton positively charged Neutron neutral 0 Electron negatively charged Nuceus atoms dense core 0 Carbon is the 4th most common element in the universe 0 6 elements make up the bulk of humans 65 oxygen 18 carbon 10 hydrogen 3 nitrogen 15 calcium 1 phosphorous Covalent bond strong chemical bond resulting from the sharing of electrons between two atoms 0 molecules atoms linked by covalent bonds 0 Carbon atoms have 4 attachmentbonding sites Organic molecules C based backbone with at least one CH bond Carbohydrates o Made up of repeating subunits of monosaccharides simple sugars 0 Energy storing molecules Proteins o Made up of reapating units of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds o Speed up rate of chemical reactions o Move things through and around cells o 20 different amino acids Lipids triglyceridesfats 0 Not made up of repeating subunits o All are hydrophobic molecules o Fatty acids ong chains of carbon atoms bonded to one another and to hydrogen atoms o Triglycerides fat three fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol molecule o Sterols 4 connected carbon rings choestero o Phospholipids 2 fatty acid chains amp 1 phosphate group attached to a glycerol molecule cell membranes Nucleic Acids o Polymers of repeating subunits of nucleotides o Two types both critical for storagetransmissionexecution of genetic instructions DNA n2 chains of bonded nucleotides twisted into a heHcalshape RNA n1 linear chain of bonded nucleotides 0 Nucleotide share common core structure of a phosphate group amp sugar 5 different variations Inorganic molecules lacks a Carbon based backbone and CH bonds Macromolecules large organic molecules that make up living organisms Monomer one chemical subunit of a polymer Polymer when two or more monomers join Monosaccharide building block monomer of a carbohydrate Amino acid monomer of a protein Nucleotide monomer of a nucleic acid Cell basic structure unit of life Cell membrane phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that forms the boundary of all cells 0 each phospholipid hast 2 sides o hydrophobic dislikes water o hydrophilic likes water Polar Molecule electrons are not shared equally between atoms partial negative charge amp partial positive charge Hydrogen bonds weak electrical attraction between a partially H atom amp an atom with a partial charge 0 Make water sticky hoding water molecules together Cohesion water molecules sticking to one another through H bonds Adhesion water molecules sticking to OTHER surfaces through H bonds Solvent substance where other substances can be dissolved Solute dissolved substance Solution mixture of the solvent amp solute lonic bonds bonds that have formed between atoms that have opposite electrical charges charged atoms ions o ions form when one atom loses a H charged electron positive charge ion 0 OR when the atom gains a charge election negative charged ion pH concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution Ranges from 014 Acids have higher concentration of H ions amp pH is closer to 0 0 Base have a lower concentration of H ions amp pH is closer to 14 0 Neutral 7 Viruses infectious agent made up of a protein shell that holds genetic information Prions noncellular protein only infectious agent Unit One What is Life Made Of Chapter Three Cell Structure and Function Antibiotic chemical that can slowstop the growth of bacteria Many are produced by living organisms Bug Bullet Antibiotics exert destructive effects on bacteria without harming their humananimal host 0 Cell theory all living things are made up of cells every new cell comes from the division of preexisting ones 0 Two different categories 0 Prokaryotic Small and lack internal membranebound compartments called organelles DNA oats freely within cytoplasm o Eukaryotic Larger and contain many organelles DNA housed within a nucleus 0 Cell membrane phospholipid bilayer with proteins that form the boundary of all cells Cytoplasm gelatinous interior of all cells Ribosomes complex of RNA and proteins that carries out protein synthesis in all cells Nucleus organelle in eukaryotic cells that contains genetic information 0 Cell wall rigid structure that encloses the cell membrane 0 Water has the tendency to move across the membrane to try and balance out the solute concentrations on each side of the membrane 0 Osmosis move from solution with lower solute concentration to the solution with higher concentration 0 Hypotonic solution surrounding a cell that has a lower concentration of solutes than the cell 0 Hypertonic solution surrounding a cell that has a higher concentration of solutes than the cell 0 isotonic solution surrounding the cell that has the same solute concentration as the cell 0 Water moves in a direction that will tend to even out the solute concentrations on each side of the membrane 0 Many bacteria are hypotonic o Eukaryotic cells are protected from osmotic pressure due to the cholesterol in the cell membranes Peptidoglycan polymer made of sugars and amino acids that link to form a chain like sheath around the cell Only in bacteria 0 Penicillin interferes with the synthesis peptidoglycan weakening the cell wall which is no longer able to counteract water pressure resulting in the cell bursting O From Fungus to Pharmaceutical 0 Mary Hunt Penicillium Chrysogenum o Produced more than 200 times the amount of penicillin as the original strain Stockpiling The Antibiotic Arsenal 0 Bacteria falls into two different categories that re ect the way a bacteria cell wall traps a dye known as Gram stain o Gram positive Retains the Gram stain Appears purple or blue 0 Gram negative Does not retain the Gram stain Appears red or pink Crossing Enemy Lines 0 Cell membrane 0 Phospholipids compromise the bulk of the membrane Two main parts n Hydrophobic tail n Hydropihilic head Tails cluster together in the middle of the membrane away from the water while the heads face outward towards the water a Forms the bilayer where proteins can be found a Proteins found here transport nutrients in amp waste out n Semipermeable to small uncharged molecules 02 n Impermeable to large molecules 0 Simple diffusion 0 Movement of small molecules across a membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration Does not require the input of energy 0 Transport proteins proteins involved in the movement of molecules across the cell membrane Sit in the membrane bilayer with one end outside cell amp one end on the inside Provide a passageway from large hydrophilic molecules to cross membrane Move substances with or against concentration gradient Facilitated diffusion aka Passive Transport 0 Large hydrophilic molecules move across a membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration with the help of transport proteins Does not require use of energy 0 Active Transport 0 Requires energy 0 Solutes are pumped from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration with the help of the transport proteins Your Inner Bacterium Nuclear envelope double membrane made of two lipid bilayers Mitochondria quotpower plantsquot use oxygen to extract energy from food and convert it to a useful form Endoplasmic Reticulum ER network of membranes that serve as an assembly line for the manufacture of proteins and lipids 0 Rough ER studded with ribosomes making the proteins 0 Smooth ER makes lipids Golgi Apparatus made up of stacked membrane enclosed discs that packages proteins and prepares them for transport Chloroplast protein synthesis Lysosomes recycling centers Digest and recycle molecules Cytoskeleton allows cells to movemaintain their shape Endosymbiosis theory that freeliving prokaryotic cells engulfed other free living cells billions of years ago forming eukaryotic organelles such as the mitochondria and chloroplasts
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'