HIST Ch 18 & 19 Notes
HIST Ch 18 & 19 Notes HIST 1113
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CHAPTER 18 1.An Urban Age and a Consumer Society 1. Farms and Cities For the last time in American history, farms and cities grew together. It was the city that became the focus of Progressive politics and of a new mass consumer society. New York was the largest city. 2. The Muckrakers A new generation of journalists writing for masscirculation national magazines exposed the ills of industrial and urban life. Lincoln Steffens Major novelists of the era took a similar unsparing approach to social ills. Upton Sinclair 3. Immigration as a Global Process Between 1901 and 1914, 13 million immigrants came to the United States, many through Ellis Island. Asian and Mexican immigrants entered the United States in fewer numbers. Asians entered through Angel Island. 4. The Immigrant Quest for Freedom Like their nineteenthcentury predecessors, the new immigrants arrived imagining the United States as a land of freedom. Some immigrants were "birds of passage," who planned on returning to their homeland. The new immigrants clustered in closeknit ethnic neighborhoods. 5. Consumer Freedom The advent of large department stores in central cities, chain stores in urban neighborhoods, and retail mailorder houses for farmers and smalltown residents made available to consumers throughout the country the vast array of goods now pouring from the nation's factories. Leisure activities also took on the characteristics of mass consumption. "Nickelodeon" motionpicture theaters 6. The Working Woman Traditional gender roles were changing dramatically as more women were working for wages. Married women were working more. The working woman became a symbol of female emancipation. Battles emerged within immigrant families of all nationalities between parents and their selfconsciously "free" children, especially daughters. 7. The Rise of Fordism Henry Ford revolutionized manufacturing with the moving assembly line. Ford paid his employees five dollars a day so that they could afford to buy his car. 8. The Promise of Abundance Economic abundance would eventually come to define the American way of life, in which personal fulfillment was to be found through acquiring material goods. Earning a "living wage" came to be viewed as a natural and absolute right of citizenship. Father John A. Ryan Mass consumption came to occupy a central place in descriptions of American society and its future. 2. Varieties of Progressivism 1. Industrial Freedom Frederick W. Taylor pioneered scientific management. Eroded freedom of the skilled workers Many believed that unions embodied an essential principle of freedomthe right of people to govern themselves. 2. The Socialist Presence and Eugene Debs The Socialist Party called for immediate reforms. Socialism flourished in diverse communities throughout the country. New York Milwaukee Eugene Debs was socialism's loudest voice. He ran for president in 1912 on the Socialist ticket. 3. AFL and IWW The AFL sought to forge closer ties with forwardlooking corporate leaders who were willing to deal with unions as a way to stabilize employee relations. A group of unionists who rejected the AFL's exclusionary policies formed the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). 4. The New Immigrants on Strike Immigrant strikes demonstrated that while ethnic divisions among workers impeded labor solidarity, ethnic cohesiveness could also be a basis of unity. The Lawrence strike demonstrated that workers sought not only higher wages but the opportunity to enjoy the finer things in life. 5. Labor and Civil Liberties The courts rejected the claims of labor. Labor unions fought for the right to assemble and speak freely. 6. The New Feminism Feminists' forthright attack on traditional rules of sexual behavior added a new dimension to the discussion of personal freedom. Issues of intimate personal relations previously confined to private discussion blazed forth in popular magazines and public debates. 7. The BirthControl Movement Emma Goldman lectured on sexual freedom and access to birth control. Margaret Sanger placed the issue of birth control at the heart of the new feminism. 8. Native American Progressivism The Society of American Indians was founded in 1911 as a reform organization independent of white control. Carlos Montezuma became an outspoken critic, demanding that all Indians be granted full citizenship. 3. The Politics of Progressivism 1. Effective Freedom Progressivism was an international movement as cities throughout the world experienced similar social strains from rapid industrialization and urban growth. Drawing on the reform programs of the Gilded Age and the example of European legislation, Progressives sought to reinvigorate the idea of an activist, socially conscious government. Progressives could reject the traditional assumption that powerful government posed a threat to freedom because their understanding of freedom was itself in flux. John Dewey 2. State and Local Reforms State and local governments enacted most of the era's reform measures. The Gilded Age mayors such as Hazen Pingree pioneered urban Progressivism. The most influential Progressive administration at the state level was that of Robert M. La Follette, who made Wisconsin a "laboratory for democracy." 3. Progressive Democracy Progressives hoped to reinvigorate democracy by restoring political power to the citizenry and civic harmony to a divided society. But the Progressive era also witnessed numerous restrictions on democratic participation. Voting was seen more as a privilege for a few. 4. Jane Addams and Hull House Organized women reformers spoke for the more democratic side of Progressivism. In doing so, they placed on the political agenda new understandings of female freedom. Jane Addams founded Hull House in Chicago. The new woman was college educated, middle class, and devoted to providing social services. Settlement houses produced many female reformers. 5. The Campaign for Woman Suffrage The campaign for woman suffrage became a mass movement. By 1900, over half the states allowed women to vote in local elections dealing with school issues. 6. Maternalist Reform Ironically, the desire to exalt women's role within the home did much to inspire the reinvigoration of the suffrage movement. Muller v. Oregon (1908) upheld the constitutionality of an Oregon law setting maximum working hours for women. Louis Brandeis Brandeis argued that the right to government assistance derived from citizenship itself. 4. The Progressive Presidents 1. Theodore Roosevelt Roosevelt's Square Deal attempted to confront the problems caused by economic consolidation by distinguishing between "good" and "bad" corporations. Roosevelt used the Sherman Antitrust Act to dissolve the Northern Securities Company. He pushed to strengthen the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and for more regulation of the food and drug industry. 2. The Conservation Movement Roosevelt also moved to preserve parts of the natural environment from economic exploitation. John Muir and the Sierra Club 3. Taft in Office Taft pursued antitrust policy even more aggressively than Roosevelt. He supported the Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution. Progressive Republicans broke from Taft after the BallingerPinchot affair. 4. The Election of 1912 The election was a fourway contest between Taft, Roosevelt, the Democrat Woodrow Wilson, and the Socialist Eugene V. Debs. It became a national debate on the relationship between political and economic freedom in the age of big business. 5. New Freedom and New Nationalism Wilson insisted that democracy must be reinvigorated by restoring market competition and freeing government from domination by big business. Roosevelt called for heavy taxes on personal and corporate fortunes and federal regulation of industries including railroads, mining, and oil. The Progressive Party platform offered numerous proposals to promote social justice. 6. Wilson's First Term Wilson proved himself a strong executive leader. With Democrats in control of Congress, Wilson moved aggressively to implement his version of Progressivism. Underwood Tariff Clayton Act 7. The Expanding Role of Government Federal Reserve system Federal Trade Commission CHAPTER 19 • An Era of Intervention 1. "I Took the Canal Zone" Roosevelt was more active in international diplomacy than most of his predecessors. Roosevelt pursued a policy of intervention in Central America. Panama 2. The Roosevelt Corollary The United States had the right to exercise "an international police power" in the Western Hemisphere. Dominican Republic Taft emphasized economic investment and loans from American banks, rather than direct military intervention. Dollar Diplomacy 3. Moral Imperialism Wilson promised a new foreign policy that would respect Latin America's independence. Wilson's moral imperialism produced more military interventions in Latin America than any president before or since. 4. Wilson and Mexico The Mexican Revolution began in 1911. When civil war broke out in Mexico, Wilson ordered American troops to land at Vera Cruz. Mexicans greeted the marines as invaders rather than as liberators. • America and the Great War 1. War broke out in Europe in 1914. 2. The war dealt a severe blow to the optimism and selfconfidence of Western civilization. 1. Neutrality and Preparedness As war engulfed Europe, Americans found themselves sharply divided. Wilson proclaimed American neutrality, but American commerce and shipping were soon swept into conflict. Lusitania By the end of 1915, Wilson embarked on a policy of "preparedness." 2. The Road to War Wilson won the reelection in 1916 on the slogan "He kept us out of war." Germany resumed submarine warfare. The Zimmerman Telegram was intercepted in 1917. 3. The Fourteen Points Russia pulled out of the war after the Lenin Revolution in 1917. Wilson issued the Fourteen Points in January 1918. They established the agenda for the peace conference that followed the war. When American troops finally arrived in Europe, they turned the tide of battle. 3. The War at Home 1. The Progressives' War Some Progressives viewed the war as the possibility of reforming American society along scientific lines, instilling a sense of national unity and selfsacrifice, and expanding social justice. 2. The Wartime State The war created a national state with unprecedented powers and a sharply increased presence in Americans' everyday lives. Selective Service Act War Industries Board War Labor Board 3. The Propaganda War The Wilson administration decided that patriotism was too important to leave to the private sector. The Committee on Public Information (CPI) was created. The CPI couched its appeal in the Progressive language of social cooperation and expanded democracy. Freedom took on new significance. 4. The Coming of Woman Suffrage America's entry into the war threatened to tear the suffrage movement apart. Jeannette Rankin opposed war The National Woman's Party was militantly fighting for suffrage. Alice Paul The combined efforts of women during the war won them suffrage. Nineteenth Amendment 5. Prohibition The campaign to ban intoxicating liquor had a variety of supporters and gained momentum. Like the suffrage movement, prohibitionists came to see national legislation as their best strategy. Eighteenth Amendment 6. Liberty in Wartime Despite the administration's idealistic language of democracy and freedom, the war inaugurated the most intense repression of civil liberties the nation has ever known. 7. The Espionage Act The Espionage Act of 1917 prohibited not only spying and interfering with the draft but also "false statements" that might impede military success. Eugene V. Debs was convicted in 1918 under the Espionage Act for delivering an antiwar speech. Debs ran for president while still in prison in 1920. 8. Coercive Patriotism Patriotism now meant support for the government, the war, and the American economic system. The American Protective League (APL) helped the Justice Department identify radicals and critics of the war. Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) 4. Who Is an American? 1. The "Race Problem" The "race problem" had become a major subject of public concern. Eugenics, which studied the alleged mental characteristics of different races, gave antiimmigrant sentiment an air of professional expertise. Americanization meant the creation of a more homogenous national culture. Israel Zangwill's The Melting Pot A minority of Progressives questioned Americanization efforts and insisted on respect for immigrant subcultures. Randolph Bourne The AntiGerman Crusade GermanAmericans bore the brunt of forced Americanization. The use of German and expressions of German culture became targets of prowar organizations. Toward Immigration Restriction The war strengthened the conviction that certain kinds of undesirable persons ought to be excluded altogether. 1. IQ test introduced in 1916 Groups Apart: Mexicans and AsianAmericans The war led to further growth of the Southwest's Mexican population. The policies toward AsianAmericans were even more restrictive than those against Mexicans. 1. Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907 The Color Line The freedoms of the Progressive era did not apply to blacks. Progressive intellectuals, social scientists, labor reformers, and suffrage advocates displayed a remarkable indifference to the black condition. Roosevelt, Wilson, and Race Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington to dine with him at the White House. Wilson's administration imposed racial segregation in federal departments in Washington, D.C. 1. Birth of a Nation W. E. B. Du Bois and the Revival of Black Protest Du Bois tried to reconcile the contradiction between what he called "American freedom for whites and the continuing subjection of Negroes." 1. The Souls of Black Folk (1903) In some ways, Du Bois was a typical Progressive who believed that investigation, exposure, and education would lead to solutions for social problems. 1. The Niagara movement sought to reinvigorate the abolitionist tradition. Du Bois was a cofounder of the NAACP. 1. Bailey v. Alabama (1911) Closing Ranks Most black leaders saw American participation in the war as an opportunity to make real the promise of freedom. During World War I, "closing ranks" did not bring significant gains. The Great Migration The war opened thousands of industrial jobs to black laborers for the first time, inspiring a largescale migration from the South to the North. 1. Half a million blacks migrated north. Many motives sustained the Great Migration. Racial Violence, North and South Dozens of blacks were killed during a 1917 riot in East St. Louis, Missouri. Violence was not confined to the North. The Rise of Garveyism Marcus Garvey launched a separatist movement. 1. Freedom for Garveyites meant national selfdetermination. 2. 1919 A Worldwide Upsurge Upheaval in America In the United States, 1919 also witnessed unprecedented turmoil. In 1919, more than 4 million workers engaged in strikesthe greatest wave of labor unrest in American history. The wartime rhetoric of economic democracy and freedom helped to inspire the era's greatest labor uprising. 1. Striking for union recognition, higher wages, and an eight hour day Steel magnates launched a concerted counterattack. 1. Propoganda campaign associated the strikers with the IWW The Red Scare This was a shortlived but intense period of political intolerance inspired by the postwar strike wave and the social tensions and fears generated by the Russian Revolution. In November 1919 and January 1920, Attorney General Palmer dispatched federal agents to raid the offices of radical and labor organizations throughout the country. Wilson at Versailles The Versailles Treaty did accomplish some of Wilson's goals. The Versailles Treaty was a harsh document that all but guaranteed future conflict in Europe. The Wilsonian Moment Wilson's idea that government must rest on the consent of the governed and his belief in "equality of nations" reverberated across the globe, especially among oppressed minorities and colonial peoples seeking independence. Wilson's language of selfdetermination raised false hopes for many peoples. The British and French had no intention of applying the principle of selfdetermination to their own empires. 1. Ottoman empire and the League of Nations "mandates" The Seeds of Wars to Come German resentment over the terms of the peace treaty helped to fuel the rise of Adolf Hitler. A new antiWestern nationalism and anticolonial nationalism emerged in nonEuropean nations. The Treaty Debate Wilson viewed the new League of Nations as the war's finest legacy. Opponents viewed the league as a threat designed to deprive the country of its freedom of action. On its own terms, the war to make the world safe for democracy failed.
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