Chapter Notes ANTHROP 2202H
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Ch 1 What is Anthropology cross cultural test is fundamental to the anthropological approach ethnography the firsthand personal study of local settings ethnographic fieldwork is spending a year or more in another society learning their customs beliefs practices and way of life but remaining an alien in their society particular interest in human adaptability anthropology study of the human species and its immediate ancestors holistic pertaining to the whole of the human condition past present and future biology society language and culture culture traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs distinctly human transmitted through learning enculturation how children learn culture transmitted through learning not biologically inherited adaptation the process by which organisms cope with environmental stresses food production plant cultivation and animal domestication general anthropology the field of anthropology as a while consisting of cultural archaeological biological and linguistic anthropology the rate of cultural adaptation and change has accelerated in the past 10000 years 4 main fields of anthropology sociocultural archaeological biological and linguistic 4 field view developed only in North American anthropology not European where the subfields are just separate fields biocultural combining biological and cultural approaches and perspectives Example female competitive swimming in North America vs Brazil human biology is plastic culture plays a huge role on body development cultural anthropology the study of human society and culture describes analyzes interprets and explains social and cultural similarities and differences ethnology the theoretical comparative study of society and culture compares cultures in time and space ethnography based on fieldwork ethnology based on crosscultural comparison cultural anthropologists discover how programs developed at national level work for small communities explore the exploitation of small communities and their role in the nation archaeological anthropology the branch of anthropology commonly known as archaeology that reconstructs describes and interprets human behavior and cultural patters through material remains best known for the study of prehistory artifacts material items that humans have made used or modified archaeologists use artifacts to reconstruct life as it once was to the best of their ability can tell a lot from pottery remains Paleoecology study of past ecosystems five special interests within biological anthropology Ch 2 Human evolution as revealed by the fossil record human genetics human growth and development human biological plasticity the biology evolution behavior and social life of monkeys apes and other nonhuman primates primates members of the zoological order that includes humans apes monkeys and prosimians environment and genes determine traits primatologists work closely with paleoanthropologists because primate behavior can shed light on early human behavior linguistic anthropology the branch of anthropology that studies linguistic variation in time and space including interrelations between language and culture includes historical linguistics and sociolinguistics sociolinguistics study of relationships between social and linguistic variation study of language in its social construct applied anthropology the application of anthropological data perspectives theory and methods to identify assess and solve contemporary social problems cultural resource management the branch of applied archaeology aimed at preserving sites threatened by dams highways and other projects many different fields to go into as an applied anthropologist 00000 What is Culture enculturation the social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations Edward Tyler believes that cultures obey natural laws and can be studied scientifically symbols verbal or nonverbal sign that arbitrarily and by convention stands for something else with which it has no necessary or natural connection culture helps guide behavior and perceptions throughout life unconscious or conscious behavior modifications symbols are often linguistic also nonverbal symbols flags arches McDonalds holy water crosses culture is transmitted in three ways direct teaching observation and unconscious absorption our culture affects how we perceive nature human nature and the naturalquot all people are cultured pop culture is an important part because it influences enculturation integrated patterned systems core values key basic or central values that integrate a culture and help distinguish it from others changes in attitudes and behavior regarding marriage family and children since the 50s now late marriage living together and divorce are more common culture trains individual members to share certain personality traits 0 work ethic and individualism are core values in American culture cultural ways of adapting o thermostat drink cold drinks jump in pool use culture instrumentally to fulfill their basic biological needs for food drink shelter comfort and reproduction also psychological and emotional needs friendships companionship traits can be maladaptive 0 may threaten a group s continued existence 0 overpopulation overconsumption industrial pollution hominids members of the zoological family that includes fossils and living humans chimps and gorillas hominis members of the evolutionary line leading to and including modern humans as distinct from chimps and gorillas shared with other primates o ability to learn from experience and change behavior as result 0 tool use and making tools for specific use how we differ cooperation and sharing more developed amount of information stored in human band far greater mate throughout the year human bonds more durable and exclusive exogamy marriage outside one s kinship exogamy allies two kins through marriage ties of affection and mutual support more prevalent in humans 0 humans maintain lifelong ties with sons and daughters the physic unity of man all human populations have equivalent capacities for culture universal something that exists in every culture generality culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies particularities distinctive or unique culture trait pattern or integration universals 0 long period of infant dependency 0 year round sexuality 0 complex brain 0 life in groups and some kind of family generalities 0 nuclear family 0 speaking English particularity difficult to find these days because of diffusion and culture borrowing 0 food dishes similar culture causes produce similar culture results 00000 way occasions are celebrated become particularities system vs individual people use their culture actively and creatively culture is contested different groups struggle over whose values are better many people don t follow the rules culture dictates ldeal culture vs real culture 0 what they should do vs what they actually do now emphasis is on day to day action practice or resistance can make and remake culture agency actions that individuals take both alone and in groups in forming and transforming cultural identities practice theory recognizes individuals within a society or culture have diverse motives and intentions and different degrees of power and influence 0 how they manage to influence create and transform the world they live In popular culture each nation has its own but there is spillover individuals creatively consume and interpret pop culture as their own meaning civic culture legal system compliance to participate in it public culture generally accepted social behaviors enacted in public spaces national culture cultural experiences beliefs learned behavior patterns and values shared by citizens of the same nation international culture cultural traditions that extend beyond the national boundanes subcultures different cultural symbolbased traditions associated with subgroups in the same complex society ethnocentrism the tendency to view one s own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one s own standards cultural relativism the position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect 0 anthropology is characterized by methodological rather than moral relativism in order to understand another culture fully anthropologists try ti understand its members beliefs and motivations does not preclude making moral judgements or taking action both present problems human rights doctrine that invokes a realm of justice and morality beyond and superior to particular countries cultures and religions usually seen as vested in individuals include the right to speak freely to hold religious beliefs without persecution and to not be enslaved cultural rights doctrine that certain rights are vested not in individuals but in identifiable groups sucha s religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies intellectual property rights each society s cultural base its core beliefs and principles IPR is claimed as a group right a cultural right allowing indigenous groups to control who may know and use their collective knowledge and its applications diffusion borrowing between cultures either directly or through intermediaries can be direct forced or indirect acculturation the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered but the groups remain distinct independent invention development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate cutters as a result of comparable needs and circumstances globalization a set of processes inclusion diffusion migration and acculturation that promote change in today s interlinked world 0 increasing global political and economic interdependence 0 increased mobility of people 0 fast and efficient communications technologies that link people across the globe
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