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POSC 110 - 06
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Stacey Boateng on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to POSC 350 at Radford University taught by Dr. Theresa Schroeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Foreign Defense policy in Political Science at Radford University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Foreign Defense Policy 09/18/2015 ▯ Factors of public Support for war: ▯ ▯ Gender gap: The persistent difference in support for military operations between men and women ▯ -Socialization of men and women ▯ -Public support for the use of force ▯ -Men are more likely to support use of force ▯ -Women are less supportive because they are less violent, more nurturing and maternal ▯ ▯ Gender and type of military operation: ▯ ▯ Female: aid/humanitarian; UN sanctioned ▯ ▯ Casualties and support for war: ▯ ▯ -high casualties diminish public support for war ▯ -not over all numbers, but sharp increases ▯ -public can accept casualties ▯ ▯ Rally-Around-The-Flag: ▯ ▯ -trying to have community support and rally behind the president/ overall public support for the war ▯ -Claim: the public doesn’t pay attention/care about foreign affairs ▯ -Depends on salience of the issue ▯ -salience can come from events—high casualties ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ How do we reach our foreign policy? ▯ What is Diplomacy? ▯ The process of representation and negotiation between states ▯ The business f communication between governments ▯ Exchange of information ▯ Can be formal and informal ▯ Protecting national interests and promoting the objectives of the president. ▯ The profession of persuasion ▯ ▯ Diplomatic Strategy: seeks advantage for the state by measures short of war ▯ Seeks to ensure as many paths as possible lead to peaceful gains ▯ Must be judged by what it prevents as much as what it achieves ▯ During wartime: supports military strategy by managing relations allies and enemies ▯ The unbloodied arm of war strategy ▯ ▯ Tactics of Diplomacy ▯ Accommodations agreements: to use air space; land for military bases; sea ports; buy land ▯ Turkish air space ▯ Overseas military bases ▯ Use of ports ▯ Exclusion: restrict access of the target state from the benefits of normal international relationships ▯ Remove Embassy ▯ Uninvited to diplomatic meetings—Russia ▯ Détente: accepts fundamental conflicts of national interest, but seeks to manage them not remove them ▯ Live and let live ▯ Not overly friendly, but can still have working relationship ▯ EX: Ping Pong Diplomacy ▯ Relations with Russia ▯ Constructive Engagement: allows common interests to be pursued even as sharp differences continue to exist ▯ Hopes that greater cooperation and interconnection will promote better relations in the future ▯ U.S China today ▯ EX: USSR during World War II ▯ ▯ Coalitions and Alliances ▯ Coalitions: short-term military arrangements, created as the need arises ▯ Coalition of the willing ▯ Alliance: formalized military agreement created by signing of treaty ▯ Becomes international law ▯ Multilateral arrangements: agreement by multiple states to hold forums or conventions on a routine basis to discuss common interests ▯ ▯ Tactics of Diplomacy ▯ Appeasement ▯ Accommodations ▯ Containment ▯ Détente ▯ Constructive engagement ▯ Coalitions ▯ Alliances ▯ Multilateral Agreements ▯ ▯ *** Morgenthau’s Rules of diplomacy: ▯ ▯ 1. diplomacy must be divested of the crusading spirit: not to conquest ▯ ▯ 2. the objective or foreign policy must be defines in terms of national interest and supported with adequate power: engage in diplomatic relations sparingly (speak softly and carry a big stick) be able to back it up ▯ ▯ 3. diplomacy must look at the political scene from the point of view of the other nations: what will be harmed if the nation only pushes their national interest ▯ ▯ 4. nations must be willing to compromise on all issues that are not vital to them: compromise ▯ ▯ 5 Perquisites of compromise: ▯ ▯ 1. give up the shadow of worthless rights for the substance of real advantage: be willing to compromise unnecessary things to get something better (don’t be nitpicky) ▯ ▯ 2. never put yourself in a position from which you cannot retreat without loosing face and from which you cannot advance without risk: don’t be a punk*** ▯ ▯ 3. never allow a weak ally make decisions for you ▯ ▯ 4. the armed forces are the instrument of foreign policy not its master: the military general do not create foreign policy (not its master) ▯ ▯ 5. the government is the leader of public opinion, not its slave ▯ ▯ Tasks of a Diplomat: ▯ -the nonviolent advancement of the political, economic, cultural, and military interests of the state ▯ How? ▯ -nurtures friendly relationships (between states and individuals) in tines of crisis and in peace ▯ * formal and informal meetings ▯ -gathers information about formal and informal politics ▯ * builds knowledge networks ▯ ▯ - Trust what diplomats are saying but also verify ▯ ** one in 5 ambassadors is a political appointee: they got the spot by giving money to the political campaign ▯ ▯ When is it appropriate to loose military force? ▯ ▯ Why do states go to war? ▯ -War: an act of violence to compel our opponent to fulfill out will ▯ -continuation of policy by other means ▯ -Purpose: to fulfill a political objective ▯ ▯ ****Just war theory: war must be justified and carried out the right way ▯ Components: ▯ ***Just add bellum: conditions that justify war ▯ -Last resort ▯ -Just cause: self-defense ▯ -Legitimate authority (state) ▯ -Probability of success: a state should not engage in a war they think they would loose ▯ ▯ *Just in bello: conduct of war ▯ -Right intention: promote peace ▯ -Proportional response: using necessary force ▯ -Weaponry: don’t use weapons that are gruesome (napalm) ▯ -Collateral damage: diminishes death to civilians ▯ ▯ ***U.S. Doctrine: ▯ -Weinberger Doctrine(1984): military action must involve vital national interest (George Shultz sais it hobbled U.S. policy) ▯ -The U.S. must intend to win ▯ -Operation must have clear cut political-military objectives ▯ -Subject to continual reassessment ▯ -American people must be in support ▯ -All alternatives must have been tried first before force is used ▯ ▯ -Powell Doctrine(1990): 6 Questions to consider prior to getting involved ▯ 1. Is the political objective important, clearly defined , and understood ▯ 2. Have all non-violent policy means failed ▯ 3. Will military force achieve the objective ▯ 4. At what cost ▯ 5. Have the gains and risks been analyzed ▯ 6. What might the situation we seek to alter once altered by force develop further, what might be the consequences? ▯ ▯ -Shock and Awe(rapid dominance): Rumsfeld and Chaney; use overwhelming force, Go big win quickly ▯ ▯ -Avoiding Mission Creep: (Vietnam) avoid getting into the quagmire of why we are there originally is not our intended purpose ▯ ▯ -Bush Doctrine: ▯ -Make no distinction between terrorists and the nations that harbor them- and hold both to account ▯ -Preemptive strike: take the fight to the enemy overseas before they can attack us again here at home (operation Iraqi freedom) ▯ -Confront threats before they fully materialize (get them early) ▯ -Advance liberty and hope as an alternative to the enemy’s ideology of repression and fear ▯ ▯ -Obama Doctrine? Multilateralism and disengagement ▯ -Not getting involved unless we have international support ▯ -Let enemy bring himself down with his weaknesses ▯ Proportional response: use force appropriately (Adm. Mullen) ▯ ▯ Military options: ▯ -give arms and materials ▯ -train/advise opposition fighters/armed forcers ▯ -no-fly zones ▯ -full on military offensive ▯ -covert ops: an operation that is planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible deniability ▯ ▯ Drone strikes: ▯ -Target killing of terrorist organization leaders ▯ -Issues: breaches sovereignty and violates international law and US domestic law (Ford (1973)- banned political assassination) ▯ collateral damage: Civilian casualties ▯ lacks transparency (morality) ▯ Choice vs. Necessity: -Libya: Dictator Gaddafi Partner GWOT (public opinion- air power) democratization: democratic peace -Iraq: weapons of mass destruction (doesn’t harm national security-not necessity) connected with 9/11 -Opportunity(choice) ▯ 1.Sanctions: influence behavior of the target state ▯ -Positive: provide economic incentive to alter behavior (Alliance for progress-aid to Latin America, increasing trade for them to stay democratic; China- most favored nation status to promote human rights) ▯ ▯ -Negative: restrict economic activity to coerce a change in behavior (boycott: Sierra Leone; Cuba: cigars; Divestment-withdraw assets ban new investments (south Africa); Embargo: USSR; Freezing assets: Syria; Suspending foreign aid: Iraq (Dessert storm) ) ▯ ▯ Are sanctions more humane than war? Reasons sanctions don’t work is because they have to be universal agreement; sanctions rarely impact the military’s ability to wage war (they can find other ways to assert the money) ▯ The government uses increased repression: restrictive practices, freedom and political violence, increased death at the hands of the government. ▯ ANSWER: NO they are not always more humane ▯ ▯ ▯ 2.Trade: The US is the worlds single larger international trader ▯ -US relies on less developed states for natural resources ▯ -Economic liberalism: commercial activities should serve the interest of the state (that’s why we still trade with Russia) ▯ ▯ -is said to overlap free trade: removal of government tariffs or other restrictions on international commercial transaction. ▯ ▯ Washington consensus: remove high tariffs and import quotas- limit on how many goods can come into a certain country ▯ ▯ -Good: every state has comparative advantage (each country is really good at making something Germany-cars if every one focuses on what they are good at) ▯ *supports jobs in export fields ▯ *supports higher paying jobs ▯ *increases domestic competition ▯ ▯ -Bad: Shifts jobs overseas (union members don’t like free trade) ▯ *drives wages down (manufacturing jobs) ▯ *exploits workers in less develops states (poor working conditions overseas) ▯ *free trade vs. fair trade- workers are not exploited ▯ ▯ Brokering free trade agreements: a 2 level game ▯ Foreign policy constraint: ▯ Individual: focuses on individual policy makers (president, prime minister…) ▯ **Domestic/state: (Manufacturing unions and business owners) ▯ **International/system ▯ **(16% of polish population died in world war 2)** ▯ ▯ ▯ 3. Foreign Aid: the voluntary transfer of resources, not a loan; it is a grant ▯ -we spend 2% of government budget on foreign aid (seems small but we give more money than anyone else) ▯ ▯ -Types of aid: ▯ Economic and development: promote trade ; industry ; private business; develop social and political institutions ▯ Military: training military personnel (Syrian rebels) ▯ Humanitarian: providing short term ▯ ▯ -Truman doctrine: economic and military aid specifically to turkey and Greece in order to avoid communist influence ▯ -Marshall plan: expanded Truman doctrine to any country needing economic and military aid in Europe including Russia ( WHO DID NOT ACCEPT AID) ▯ ▯ Aid- Development- Democracy- Security ▯ ▯ -Presidents Emergency Plan For AID Relief: George W. Bush (2004) committed to support HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment in developing countries, aid to Africa tripled during this time (providing aid to target a specific disease 51 million has been given out) ▯ Aid- Democracy- Security (3 pillars of foreign policy) ▯ * America is a shining city upon a hill (morality) ▯ ▯ -Military aid: we give over 2 million dollars to Israel ▯ -Humanitarian Intervention: ▯ Costs: 1.Opportunity Cost (Expense): help our economy; health ▯ 2.Casualties (collateral damage): retaliation ▯ 3. Prolong war (arm rebels that aren’t so great) ▯ 4. The Moral Hazard: Provoking because they know the will be backed up (Benefit-Saving lives) ▯ 5. Political (China, Russia): Keep good relations ▯ ▯ -R2P: responsibility to protect; if a state cannot protect its people it does not have sovereignty (constructivism) ▯ * Are we obligated to protect people? Human Security-individual (Feminism) exam is multiple choice matching and 5 short answer ▯ Short answer on nuclear war taboo ▯ Know names and dates for exam ▯ War powers act ▯ War by blank check: stop communism- approval to start wars no target or time (Eisenhower) ▯ ▯ Know post 9/11 changes to foreign policy ▯ ▯ Public opinion& Use of force: ▯ -regime change ▯ -multilateral ▯ -casualties ▯ -cost $$ benefit ▯ -women favor humanitarian ( less in favor of military opp.-gender gap) ▯ -early on intervention will see higher support (less casualties and less information) ▯ **know what rally around the flag means ▯ -Interest at stake ▯ ▯ Maternal thinking: women want to give life not destroy it ▯ -less violent (socialization) ▯ -use cooperation and negotiation to solve problems ▯ - all about the end outcome!! ▯ ▯ Tactics of diplomacy: know the differences between them ▯ -appeasement ▯ -accommodation ▯ -constructive engagement ▯ -coalition ▯ ▯ know Morgenthau’s rules and prerequisites for diplomacy!! ▯ -ALL OF THE READINGS ON D2L!!!!!! ▯ ▯ International/System: power distribution, geopolitics(Location geography) complex interdependence; regional power(sphere of influence) ▯ State/domestic: regime type; public opinion; history ▯ Individual: foreign policy makers (pres. Sec. of state…) where one stands depends of where one sits; past experiences; personality of the leader ▯ ▯
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