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POSC 110 - 06
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Stacey Boateng on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to POSC 350 at Radford University taught by Dr. Theresa Schroeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Foreign Defense policy in Political Science at Radford University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Foreign Defense Policy section 2: History 10/19/2015 ▯ Monroe Doctrine (1823): the nations of the western hemisphere are henceforth not to be considered subjects for future colonization by any European power ▯ -What does this mean? They are strong enough to exert some kind of sphere of influence ▯ -We should consider any attempt on their part (Europe) as dangerous to our peace and safety ▯ Simon Bolivar (the George Washington of Latin America): helped start independence movement through Latin America ▯ ▯ -US Exceptionalism (Manifest Destiny) ▯ -Gunboat Diplomacy: Show of strength to “encourage” opening of Asian markets ▯ Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: Chronic wrong- doing may ultimately require intervention by the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the Monroe doctrine may force United States to exercise police power ▯ “speak softly and carry a big stick”- Roosevelt: engage in diplomacy but have the military to encourage ( have them back you up when you do speak) ▯ -The United Fruit Company: US needed to promote economic stability and put out ideas on how to be a good business person ▯ *Honduras was the First banana Republic (banana wars) ▯ -Dollar Diplomacy: foreign policy based on advancing US private commercial interests (Promote US business interests) ▯ ▯ Post WW1: US and the League of Nations (Woodrow Wilson) ▯ -The US never joined the league of nations: congress didn’t want entanglement and neither did the public (this is why it failed) ▯ ▯ US involvement in WW2: ▯ -1931: japan invades china ▯ 1937: japan, Germany Italy form axis alliance ▯ 1938: Germany occupies Austria, demands the Sudetenland ▯ *Appeasement by Great Britain ▯ 1939: Germany invades Poland ▯ Us Response: ▯ 1953: president Roosevelt to congress- repeal neutrality act of 1930 ▯ congress to Roosevelt-NO!! ▯ -Roosevelt created the lend lease executive agreement: lending out military equipment ▯ -1940: draft was reinstated ▯ -1941 :A day that will live in infamy ▯ *Romania is the last country the US declared war on in order to get to Germany ▯ ▯ Allied Powers: FDR, Stalin, Churchill ▯ -the United Nations is considered to be the boldest experiment in international organization yet adopted by man ▯ -The headquarters were in New York to force the US to Never Retreat (Document was signed in San Francisco California 1945) ▯ -One of out greatest allies (USSR) became our greatest enemy ▯ **Read the policy of containment for class!!!!! ▯ ▯ ▯ Containment: stopping the spread of soviet influence (communism) ▯ who is X (George Keenan)- he was a foreign service officer stationed in Germany ▯ Reading: Source of Soviet Conduct ▯ 2 Sources: 1. Ideology(Party) ▯ 2. Circumstance(History) ▯ -Russia wanted to spread communism and fight capitalists(the west) ▯ -There is a natural clash and constant fighting ▯ -There is no long-term alliances between the Soviet Union and the United States ▯ -There is no power at the bottom, decisions are all made by the party ▯ -The soviet Union patient, cautious and willing to accept short term setbacks for long-term gain ▯ -George Keenan suggests that the US policy should be containment: prevent the influence of the soviets (this must be long term, patient, and vigilant) ▯ -this was out policy from 1947-1989 ▯ ▯ Tools of Containment: Aid and Force ▯ Foreign Aid: ▯ -Berlin airlift: soviet union tried to force the west side of berlin to become communist by cutting all aid, the US air force airlifted aid to Germany for 10 months ▯ -The Marshall Plan: any European country was given money to rebuild economy and infrastructure (if people aren’t dying there is democracy) ▯ -The alliance for progress: the Marshall plan for Latin America, providing financial aid in order to fight communism (Kennedy) fighting against Cuba in the 1950’s ▯ Force: sending in troops to push back the spread of communism ▯ 1. The Korean War ▯ 2. Vietnam War ▯ -Using covert opts to aid domestic forces to push back communist forces (bay of pigs in Cuba) ▯ ▯ Vietnam Video: ▯ -Belief and seeing are often wrong: Gulf of Tonkin ▯ -If 1 domino falls, then all will follow (Vietnam) ▯ -The US should see the Soviet Union as a threat and as a rival ▯ -Operation Rolling thunder: trying to soften Vietnam, without putting boots on the ground and using airpower ▯ -Protecting our own lives ▯ -Public opinion ▯ ** Vietnam has influenced American policy: don’t get involved in someone else’s civil war ▯ Morality: is there law about the use of chemicals? ▯ Norm: conduct of war; proportional; you cannot use weapons that kill more than the considered target ▯ Collateral Damage ▯ Applying levels to the Vietnam war: -System: stop the spread of communism to the other regions (the US view) -Domestic: public opinion was against Vietnam especially later on in the war (we were not winning or gaining progress; unilateral; there was no vital interest; the draft did not help) -Individual: civilian vs. military leaders (civilian leaders considered public opinion because of re-election the military commanders knew what was needed to get the job done quickly) McNamara Vs. LBJ *All of these things interacted with one another to create the outcome of Vietnam ▯ ▯ **Dictatorships & Double Standards (Jeane Kirkpatrick: 1980’s) ▯ **The Berlin wall fell in 1989 ▯ ▯ A New World Order: ▯ *Engagement and enlargement: (Clinton): ▯ -Engagement through economic ▯ -Promote liberalization of markets ▯ -Assistance to liberalize & democratize ▯ -Humanitarian aid to liberalize and democratize ▯ -Enlarge democratic and capitalist countries ▯ ▯ Technology: More communication Individual: New invention/ Larger market State: best practice (Rise of the Internet in the late 80’s) ▯ ▯ Focus: Eastern Europe- Bringing into NATO ▯ Money and technical assistance ▯ ▯ Latin America- Creating NAFTA ▯ Aid to Haiti ▯ ▯ Use of Military: Rise in peace keeping ▯ - A Power Vacuum: end of the cold war brought a rise in civil war ▯ * South Africa was the only country that was not under Soviet influence in Africa ▯ ▯ Failed States: Lack of government control ▯ -Somalia, Afghanistan ▯ ▯ Ethnic Wars: Yugoslavia Nigeria ▯ Iraq ▯ Al Qaeda: clash of civilizations ▯ ▯ Waging the War on Terrorism: “ we will make no distinction between terrorists and the nations that harbor them… and hold both to account” (President Bush (George W.)) ▯ -Terrorism is mobile and continues to move ▯ ▯ Factors that promote radicalization and recruitment of terrorism: ▯ -Poverty and Unemployment ▯ -Gender: Men are more likely to become terrorists although the men get in it for honor and women get in it fro revenge (The black widows of Chechnya) ▯ -Youth: young men and boys are usually targeted ▯ ▯ Sex and the Shaheed: ▯ -Shaheed: suicide terrorists who are doing it to gain honor for their family so their brothers would be more likely to get married ▯ -Poor men are more likely to become terrorists because of the promise of receiving 72 virgins to sleep with ▯ ▯ Winning Hearts and Minds: ▯ -It helps stop radicalism by finding who the terrorists are ▯ -Creating collateral damage only recruits more enemies and doesn’t win the trust of the opposition ▯ Nuclear Proliferation: ▯ proliferation of nuclear weapons ▯ danger to global relations ▯ 109 states that are weapon states ▯ ▯ Policy option 1: begin reduction of US nuclear arsenal as means of facilitating international nuclear deproliferation ▯ ▯ Policy option 2: work with the international community to impose economic sanctions on states that have not yes signed the NTP ▯ ▯ Policy option 3: work with states with nuclear weapons to implement safer security practices ▯ ▯ -the option chosen was working with the international community ▯ ▯ Israel: ▯ -Since 1976 Israel has been the largest annual recipient of US foreign aid (more) ▯ -Current aid iron dome ▯ -625 million ▯ ▯ Policy option 1: give more arms to our allies ▯ ▯ Policy option 2: no trading arms with allies use budget for things that are necessary ▯ ▯ Policy option 3: increase economic aid ▯ ▯ -the option chosen is doing nothing ▯ -There are about 11.3 million illegal immigrants in the United States. ▯ ▯ Will building a wall on illegal immigrants work? ▯ -No because they will find a way to get over the wall regardless ▯ -People are coming over to the US in order to escape the drug war and gang violence ▯ ▯ -Alliance for prosperity: 5 year plan giving 20 million dollars to boost economic growth and improve safety ▯ ▯ Syrian Refugees: ▯ -More than half of the nations governors say Syrian refugees are not welcome ▯ -there have been 335 estimated deaths in the US due to mass shootings this year alone ▯ ▯ Hilary Doctrine : Fempolitik: using force to promote human (women’s rights) ▯ -Empowering women and girls is a vital interest ▯ -Democracy promotion, universal values ▯ -Economic Prosperity: Education ▯ Enlarge workforce ▯ Money in the hands of women ▯ Increased security ▯ ▯ US Interest: ▯ -National security ▯ -Economic prosperity ▯ -Universal values: *Human right ▯ *Democratic government ▯ *Environmental protection ▯ ▯ Women in politics: ▯ - Gender gap ▯ -“Better” policy ▯ -Hostility level is lower ▯ -Decreased rick of a coup ▯ -Decreased risk of Civil war ▯ ▯ What to study for the final: ▯ Know levels of FP ▯ Constitution making ▯ Just war theory ▯ Know what US interests are ▯ PowerPoints from presentations in class ▯ Videos shown in class ▯
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