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POSC 110 - 06
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Stacey Boateng on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to POSC 350 at Radford University taught by Dr. Theresa Schroeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Foreign Defense policy in Political Science at Radford University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
FINAL Exam Study-guide Theories State: recognized borders, permanent population, government; sovereignty: no higher authority Realism: glass half empty, seek power and prestige, skeptics of independence. Choose lesser of 2 evils (no natural harmony- trust yourself only) bold military maintains security: Republicans- Hawks Liberalism: you can make things the way you want, opportunities for peace or conflict negotiation because of concern for peace, war should be the last resort (international law not all about power): Democrats- Doves Constructivism: fluid set of norms, people and states; anarchy is what states make it; action based on changing international norms Feminism: critique of realism, men in charge, military power, masculine ways to provide security (feminist IR- promotes gender equality) Geopolitics: Influenced by size, strength, location and physical characteristics of state Tactics of diplomacy: Accommodations agreements: to use air space; land for military bases; sea ports; buy land –Turkish air Exclusion: restrict access of the target state from the benefits of normal international relationships-Russia Détente: accepts fundamental conflicts of national interest, but seeks to manage them not remove them – ping pong diplomacy (Russia) Constructive Engagement: allows common interests to be pursued even as sharp differences continue to exist – China Morgenthau’s Rules of diplomacy: 1. Diplomacy must be divested of the crusading spirit: not to conquest 2. The objective or foreign policy must be defines in terms of national interest and supported with adequate power: engage in diplomatic relations sparingly (speak softly and carry a big stick) be able to back it up 3. Diplomacy must look at the political scene from the point of view of the other nations: what will be harmed if the nation only pushes their national interest 4. Nations must be willing to compromise on all issues that are not vital to them: compromise 5 Perquisites of compromise: 1. Give up the shadow of worthless rights for the substance of real advantage: be willing to compromise unnecessary things to get something better (don’t be nitpicky) 2. Never put yourself in a position from which you cannot retreat without loosing face and from which you cannot advance without risk: don’t be a punk 3. Never allow a weak ally make decisions for you 4. The armed forces are the instruments of foreign policy not its master: the military general do not create foreign policy (not its master) ▯ 5. The government is the leader of public opinion, not its slave ▯ Just war theory: war must be justified and carried out the right way ▯ Components: ▯ Just add bellum: conditions that justify war ▯ -Last resort ▯ -Just cause: self-defense ▯ -Legitimate authority (state) ▯ -Probability of success: a state should not engage in a war they think they would loose ▯ ▯ *Just in bello: conduct of war ▯ -Right intention: promote peace ▯ -Proportional response: using necessary force ▯ -Weaponry: don’t use weapons that are gruesome (napalm) ▯ -Collateral damage: diminishes death to civilians ▯ Factors of public supporting war: 1. Interest at stake: vital interest 2. Multilateralism: many countries (women are nurturing-giving life; negotiation) 3. Early in the intervention: unified front, no knowledge, less casualties 4. Cost/Benefit: money and casualties FINAL Exam Study-guide International/System: power distribution, geopolitics (Location geography) complex interdependence; regional power (sphere of influence) State/domestic: regime type; public opinion; history Individual: foreign policy makers (pres. Sec. of state…) where one stands depends of where one sits; past experiences; personality of the leader ▯ War by blank check: stop communism- approval to start wars no target or time (Eisenhower) ▯ War Powers Resolution (act): attempt to make it harder to commit troops without congressional approval (haven’t declare war since WW2) Nuclear taboo: popular disgust and loathing against nuclear weapons; defacto prohibition against the use of nuclear weapons. Used atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in order to save more lives; this stopped japan from further attacking us (1945) this taboo has deterred the US and other nations from using Nuclear weapons since japan. Russia and Syria reading: Russia wants to keep Assad in power and go after fighting ISIL and ISIS because he is the lesser of the 2 evils -Is humanitarian intervention opportunity cost? **Levels of foreign policy: State- focuses on international characteristics, culture, people, political institutions and history. System (international)- everything worldwide Individual- foreign policy leaders, focus on roles, characteristics, experiences and viewpoints of individual and groups of foreign policy decision makers. Section 2: ▯ Containment: stopping the spread of soviet influence (communism) ▯ Tools of Containment: Aid and Force ▯ Vietnam Video: ▯ -Belief and seeing are often wrong: Gulf of Tonkin ▯ -If 1 domino falls, then all will follow (Vietnam) ▯ -The US should see the Soviet Union as a threat and as a rival ▯ -Operation Rolling thunder: trying to soften Vietnam, without putting boots on the ground and using airpower ▯ -Protecting our own lives ▯ -Public opinion ▯ ** Vietnam has influenced American policy: don’t get involved in someone else’s civil war ▯ Morality: is there law about the use of chemicals? ▯ Norm: conduct of war; proportional; you cannot use weapons that kill more than the considered target ▯ Collateral Damage FINAL Exam Study-guide ▯ Monroe Doctrine (1823): the nations of the western hemisphere are henceforth not to be considered subjects for future colonization by any European power ▯ -What does this mean? They are strong enough to exert some kind of sphere of influence ▯ -We should consider any attempt on their part (Europe) as dangerous to our peace and safety ▯ Simon Bolivar (the George Washington of Latin America): helped start independence movement through Latin America ▯ ▯ -US Exceptionalism (Manifest Destiny) ▯ -Gunboat Diplomacy: Show of strength to “encourage” opening of Asian markets ▯ Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: Chronic wrong-doing may ultimately require intervention by the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the Monroe doctrine may force United States to exercise police power ▯ “speak softly and carry a big stick”- Roosevelt: engage in diplomacy but have the military to encourage ( have them back you up when you do speak) ▯ -The United Fruit Company: US needed to promote economic stability and put out ideas on how to be a good business person ▯ *Honduras was the First banana Republic (banana wars) ▯ -Dollar Diplomacy: foreign policy based on advancing US private commercial interests (Promote US business interests)
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