Social Psychology 3623 Social Psychology
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3623 Social Psychology
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Dana Bramlitt on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 3623 Social Psychology at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Thomas Carskadon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Social Psychology Social psy.: Scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to each other. Social psychology is the youngest area of psychology. It was developed during WWII. Social psychologists try to figure out how to keep morale up in the army and nation during WWII. Principles of social psy. 1. Construct our own social reality. 2. Our social intuitions are very powerful, but they’re also perilous. (We are horrible at predicting our own reactions and emotions. 3. Personality and attitude shape our behavior. 4. Social psy. principles are applicable to real life. 5. Our values shape social psy. –shape what we decide to look at, study, and what we draw from it. Social Influences Where we grow up influences how we treat people. Standards of beauty depend on where you are. A lot of behavior is biologically determined. Ex: aggression can wipe out human kind. Our values come out by how we label things. Ex: In war, when we attack an enemy the innocents (women and children) are labeled as collateral damage. Perversion: sexual acts that we don’t practice There are two contradictions of social psy. 1) Psy. documents the obvious. 2) Social psy. is dangerous. Correlation: As one changes another one does. Doesn’t mean one is causing the other to change. Correlation between selfesteem and achievement in children and college students: the higher selfesteem, the higher rate of achievement. Deception is used in about a third of social psy. experiments. Expectations Demand characteristics: A cue in the environment that tells a participant what behavior is expected. Ex: proposal Spotlight Effect: Thinking people are paying more attention to your appearance or behavior than they are. Ex: bad hair day no one notices. Illusion of Transparency: The thought that our concealed emotions are easily perceived by other people. Our inner thoughts and feelings aren’t obvious. Ex: Public speech class you are nervous but no one notices People have the tendency to misexplain and mispredict our own behavior. Who’s advice should you seek for your relationships? Your friends are the best predictors of the success of your relationships. Don’t trust yourself on the odds of your success in a relationship. Mood Study: People record moods and the reasons they had them daily. The moods weren’t there for the exact reasons they thought. People aren’t very good at predicting what would make them happy. And they’re not good at predicting what will make them unhappy. Planning Fallacy: Underestimate the time it will take you to complete something. People don’t predict their own emotions very well. Particularly, the intensity and duration of our emotions. Impact Bias: Overestimate enduring impact of some emotional causing effect. People aren’t very good a understanding their own thought processes. They’re more aware of the end results but not the process that got them there. Ex: pros and cons of two different cars What controls our behaviors is a different system than what explains our behavior. It comes from a different mental system. Low SelfEsteem and Relationships: People with low selfesteem don’t choose less desirable partners. They greatly overestimate their partner’s view of them. Effortful Self Control: Training yourself physically to do something; usually the right thing. If you overdo ESC you are more likely to collapse. SelfEfficacy: Sense that we can do something confidently. Ex: school kidsself efficacy is better than selfesteem. Teachers don’t realize how transparent their evaluations of their students are. Locus of Control: Concept of Julian Rotter your perception of what causes the outcomes in your life. 1) Internal: You believe your experiences stem from yourself or your actions. You are the source. You control them. 2) External: Belief that the outcomes in your life come from external sources you can’t control. Ex: In nursing homes, people are there to help, but how do you help? People in nursing homes aren’t typically left with choices. Social psychologists did a study in a nursing home. They divided into two groups. In one group, they were given choices. In the other group, they were given none or few choices. The morale of those who had choices increased and so did their health. Some people are stressed with more options, and are happier not knowing all other choices they missed out on. Finality of Choice and Satisfaction: People are happier with decisions that are not reversible. This usually shows up in relationships. Selfserving Bias: The tendency to distract things to perceive ourselves in a more favorable way. Selfserving Attribution: Attribute positive things to ourselves. Ex: Get a raise in pay we only view our raises are fair, if we get more than our share. Biased Blind spot: We think others are biased and we are objective. Ex: group projects people overestimate their participation in the group. People truly believe their own selfserving bias so much that they will bet their own money. Adolescent Invulnerability Theory: Young adults believe they can do anything without being hurt. False Consensus Effect: Overestimate the degree to which the beliefs and behaviors of others are like ours. It is likely to occur in matters of opinion or choice. Ex: Hilary Clinton is obnoxious not everyone thinks this. We rationalize things by saying other people do the same things. False Uniqueness Effect: Our positive traits are rarely found in others. If people in a workgroup feel that they are underpaid and undervalued, then you will get a lot more hostility, disharmony, and tension. A study of college and university faculty, 90% feel they are superior to their colleagues. 9 out of every 10 professors believe they’re better than other professors. Group Survey Bias: Tend to be very sensitive to anything negative of their group. When they hear positive comments about their group, they become highly suspicious. Selfhandicapping: Protect our selfimage by engaging in behaviors that excuse us for our failures later. Impression Management: Carefully managed impression; decide what people think of you. Selfpresentation: Expressing yourself; behaving in such a way to create an impression. Ex: How you act on a first date. Ex2: Politicians like to make the impression that they’re good, patriotic, and family oriented people. Selfmonitoring: When we are constantly aware of the way we are representing ourselves, and making adjustments according to reactions. People who selfmonitor themselves a lot tend to be less committed to and less satisfied in their relationships. Some people are called social chameleons where they change to what you’re putting out there. They change based on what thoughts you express. People don’t respond to reality. Instead, people respond to it as they construe it. They respond to what they see. This happens when they perceive events and recall memories. Also, when they explain and judge events. And when they expect or anticipate events. Priming: Activates certain associations in the memory. Preconceptions: They have the greatest impact on us when multiple choices are available or many interpretations/possibilities are available. Ex: Shows up in sports a lot. People believe officials favor other teamit is universal. What you say about others will make people think that about you. Belief Perseverance: Persistence of an initial belief even when it is discredited. Implant False Bias: Explain reasons why it would be true then discredit what you were told. Subliminal Perception: Information comes into your brain but not your conscience. The more we have a belief the harder it is to dislodge that belief. Ex: A rumor makes people believe false information and gets spread as fact. When we recall a memory it gets reconstructed. You can introduce new info to an event to change what people remember. People’s attitudes and beliefs may change over time while they actually think they’re consistent in their beliefs and attitudes. Rosy Retrospection: Looking back on things much more positively than you experienced them. Parents in each generation forget how immature they were when they were their children’s ages. Intuition: Only works when someone has expertise in an area. It is overrated and more likely inaccurate than accurate. Women’s intuition is a myth. Schemas: Mental concepts that guide our perceptions and interpretations. If there is subliminal perception, can there be subliminal advertisement? Yes, but it doesn’t work. It can’t change your behavior on anything that actually matters. Information Bias: Search for information that confirms our preconceptions, and ignore those that go against our preconceptions. To avoid over confidence: Prompt feedback helps lessen our information bias. Breaking projects down to accurately predict when things will be done Explain the opposite. Heuristics: Making judgments or predictions on probability. Representativeness Heuristic: Assuming someone or something belongs to a particular group if they resemble the typical member of that group. Ex: 1970s Ford Maverick added stripes to make it seem like a fast muscle car. Availability Heuristic: Judge the frequency of something based upon its availability in your memory. Ex: The news plays up crime in the U.S. as worrisome when it actually isn’t skyrocketing. Ex2: Flying in airplanes is dangerous because you hear more about plane crashes when it actually is safer in a plane than a car. For instance, after 9/11 all aircraft was grounded until new procedures were instilled. People drove more cars, which caused 266 more people than 9/11 to die because planes weren’t in use. Probability Neglect: Worrying about things that are actually improbable, and not worrying about the actual probable events. Ex: The spread of diseases from other countries is worrisome to people in the U.S. while ignoring the very serious diseases that are here in the U.S. Counterfactual Thinking: Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened but did not. Ex: Three medalists (Gold, Silver, and Bronze), which is going to be the unhappiest? The silver medalist is going to be least happy because they probably imagine doing better and getting gold. Fundamental Attribution Error Spontaneous Trait Inference: Making effortless and automatic inferences on traits. Trait Inference: Making assumptions about someone’s personality after seeing a person. What’s the connection between intelligence and fundamental attribution error? The smarter you are, the more likely you are to make a fundamental attribution error. Ex: When you’re looking for a parking space and you see one, but a car is parked over the line. You make an assumption that they’re an idiot because we don’t check how others have parked to make them park that way. Actor/Observer Bias: When we’re doing something (without being focused on the situation around us) and something goes wrong, we tend to believe it is our fault. When we’re watching someone else and something bad happens, we assume it’s his or her fault. Camera Perspective Bias: Ex: People are shown a video of a crime confession. If the interrogator is shown in the video, watchers believe the confessor isn’t guilty and vice versa. Fundamental Attribution Error does diminish over time. Expectations play a powerful role in social psychology. Experimenter Bias: The experimenter has certain expectations. Selffulfilling Prophecy: You make a prediction, which will make it more likely to occur. Teacher Expectation: What teachers expect of their students tends to happen. Rosenthal (1968): He took the IQs of elementary students. Then gave teachers fictitious test results of those same students. He told certain teachers that certain students were going to do better and better. He retested those students’ IQ scores after a while, and the result was an increase due to the teacher giving more attention to those that they believe will do better. Students were led to believe that a teacher they had was rated highly, thus they also rated the teacher with high ratings. The ratings were higher than those who took the same teacher, but were not told how high the teacher was rated. Idealizing someone or something usually leads to disappointment. If you worry about if someone loves you, you tend to distance yourself; so it comes true that the person loves you less. You’re actually harming the relationship by doubting their love. Behavioral Confirmation: Selffulfilling prophecy where your social expectations lead people to behave in ways themselves that cause them to act on your expectations, which confirms your expectations. Attitude and Behaviors It was assumed that attitude influenced behavior. However, it is not true. Actually behavior causes attitude more than attitude changes behavior. Our behavior causes our attitude. Attitude: A favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward someone, something, or some idea. It is rooted in our beliefs and exhibited in our feelings and intended behaviors. Ex: What do students think about cheating? Usually they say they’re against it; however, that doesn’t mean they don’t cheat when given the chance. Attitudes don’t predict behavior. Ex: Is church a good thing? Yes, but do people actually go? Not necessarily. When social influences on us are minimal, attitude actually has a better chance of predicting behavior. Implicit (unknown) attitudes are better predictors than explicit (known) attitudes. Roles: A set of norms that define how people in a social situation ought to behave. Roles that we’re in dictate the expectations. Beware of power and roles. We tend to accommodate our audience, and we tend to believe what we’re saying. Footinthedoor Phenomenon: People are likely to comply with a large request if you first get them to comply with a small request. Lowball Technique: You offer someone something until you find out that they’re going to take your offer. Then once you have their interest, you don’t give them the offer but they still settle for the item you’re offering even if it’s not at the same deal. It’s hard to find people who have only succumbed to temptations only once than never at all. You will actually get someone to like you by asking them for a favor. You actually can legislate morality. Because we have laws in order to make people refrain from crimes and immoral behavior. Cognitive Dissonance: Leon Fesstinger came up with it. It often happens when our beliefs don’t match our behaviors. Change your behavior or change your attitude and beliefs to resolve cognitive dissonance. We are more likely to change our attitudes, beliefs, and values. Insufficient Justification: When we have this, we are likely to have cognitive dissonance. Postdecision Dissonance: Once you make a decision, you tend to perceive what you chose in higher value. And the one you didn’t choose wen down in value to you. Selfperception Theory: If we are not sure of our own attitudes, we infer from our behaviors. Over Justification Effect: Overly rewarding people for doing something they already like. They may find it less interesting or like it less. Don’t overly reward something that should already be rewarding in itself. Ex: Telling kids to play with toys and over rewarding them for it. It’s good to praise, but it’s not a good idea to (over justify) over reward them. Ex2: Paying kids money for doing well in school. You should encourage and use words of praise like “I’m proud of you” instead. Selfaffirmation Theory: When we do something we know we shouldn’t do threatens our selfimage. If we commit it we tend to see ourselves as bad. But we then say look at what I did that was good. Values Affirmation Theory: Dr. C’s theory that people look for opportunities to affirm their values. They like doing that. Usually in low cost to them but higher cost to others. Ex: Facebook and liking things that are good like veterans’ pages or breast cancer awareness. If you want to change something in yourself, start behaving as if you wanted to change. You will change. Conformity: Changing our behavior and beliefs as a result of group pressure. Compliance: Outwardly going with a group but inwardly not going with a group. Acceptance: Behave the way people want you to and you actually believe in the way they want you to behave.
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