Biology Notes/ Study Guide
Biology Notes/ Study Guide 197
Popular in Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life
Popular in Biology
This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Taylor Neal-Burrell on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 197 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Nichols in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life in Biology at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Heirarchy of Living Things Life is made up of relationships between individuals at many different levels Begins at atoms and molecules Atoms gt Molecules gt Organelles gt Cells gt Tissues gt Organs and Organ Systems gt Organisms gt Populations gt Communities gt Ecosystems gt The Biosphere Energy Flow Through Biological Systems Most energy in living things originate with the sun Energy transferred among living things Covered in great detail in Ecology Diversity of Llfe and Classi cation of Living Things There are living things everywhere on the planet Scientists are obsessive classi ers We like naming and organizing things Living things are classi ed by their characteristics Nucleus Before Cells before they had a nucleus Love of extreme conditions Ancient bacteria I True True cells Domain gt Kingdom gt Phylum gt Class gt Order gt Family gt Genus gt Species Evolution Through Natural Selection Framework in which Biology is best understood Accepted by overwhelming majority of scientists Observed in naturedemonstrated in labs on a daily basis Biologists believe in mechanisms Science As A Process Scienti c Method Often misunderstood Hypothesis driven Science As It Interacts With Society New challenges in this area Animal Models In Research Typically used as stand in for another organism often humans We use models because they have a similar feature to the organism for which they are standing in for and are easier to use in a scienti c setting Public is sometimes used why model organisms are used Chemicals Common in Biololgy C O H and N most abundant Phosphorus Calcium Sodium Mg K and S are common Most organic material comprises only 25 atoms Atomic Strusture Protons and neutrons in nucleus Protons p charge Neutrons n 0 charge they are neutral Electrons quotorbitquot nucleus in electron shell Electrons e charge Atomic Characteristics of p and e is under most conditions no net charge Atomic of p Atomic mass combined of p and n in nucleus Isotopes atmo that conatains the same of p but different of n Chemical Bonding Atoms or molecules w full valence shells are very stable inert gases Chemical bonding takes palce to allow lling of calence shells 2 types of bonding Covalent Ionic New molecule often has characteristics unique from parent atoms Covalent Bonding Mult atoms share e to ll outer shell Can take place btwn 2 identical atoms OZH2 Carbon based molecules are typically covalently linked Polar Covalent Bonding Attraction of atom for e is called electronegative force In some compounds the difference in electronegative force is large enough that one atom pulls shared e to itself Results in molecule w slightly charged regions Ionic bonds Caused by strong electronegative diff betwn atoms One atom donates an e to another Both atoms are now charged and opp charges cause an attractive force Bonds are strong outside of aqueous solution but weak in solution Hydrogen bonding Weak bonds gthat are made broken very easy H2 of a polar covalent molec has attraction to N2 or 02 of similar moec Results from weak charge of regions on polar molecs Molecular Shape Determined by e shells and size of atoms included Space lled models attempt to demonstrate the shape of moecue Biological Activity Bio activity of molecs is largely determined by Shape of matter 3D structure allows moec to interact w other molecules Charge of moec on portions of molec Charged regions often interact w opp charged molecs Bond type Coval bond is more easily broken and assembled Molecular Mimicry One oec has shape similar to another moev The similarity in shape often results in function Seen in pharmaceutical development Structure of H20 Covalent bond Polar moec H2 Bonding Occurs btwn H2 of one H20 moec w 02 of another One molecule may make H2 bonds to 4 other molecs Weak and transient bonding 120th as strong as a covalent bond CoAdhesion H20 molecs bond together cohesion Allows capillary ow of H20 Allows surface tension H20 molecules bend to other surfaces adhesion Allows H20 to cling to vertical surfaces Thermodynamics H20 requires a lot of energy to heat it Buffers temp of ponds lakes oceans and organisms 1 Cal the energy to raise one gram of H20 one degree Evaporation of H20 results in cooling of surfaces Most active molecs become vapor leaving a less active environment Expansion upon Freezing H2 bonds form lattice structure near 4 degrees C Results in 10 decrease in density lce oats on surface of H20 Prevents permanent freezing of bodies of H20 H20 as Solvent Can dissolve substances w ionicpolar properties by interaction w charged regions Hydrophillic substance that will be dissolved in or by wet H20 sugar cotton Hydrophobic substance that will not dissolve in H20 and repels H20 oil Allows cells to contain many substances in solution Chemicals tend to be more reactive in solution Dissociation of H20 Molecules randomly dissociate into OH and H Amt of H in H20 determines acidity High H acidic low H basic pH logH pH 7 neutral pHlt7 acidic pHgt7basic Most biological systems are btwn pH6 and 8 Buffers are weak acids or bases that tend to keep pH of system near neutal conditions
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