Hydrogeology Notes GEOL 313
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Nimra Muhammad on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Bundle belongs to GEOL 313 at George Mason University taught by Dr. Jules M Goldspiel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Applied Hydrogeology in Geology at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Overview of Hydrogeology Lecture 1 o sinkholes o Gulbarga washington Pkwy o groundwater ties to surface condition 0 california drought o Aquifer and water tables affects hydrology because coming of ground groundwater flow into tunnels ex Dc metro Real world Examples issues with engineering groundwater storage ex leaky vaults in California underground collapses leave big holes Hydrologic Cycles also know as the water cycle water repeated cycle throughout the environment l r7 3957 7 1 M rx m fate cycle all c n E Violleani I I I 39 E5143 Aitmnsphere l D A P 2 4 F Hiquot 4 Sublimation 39EFEEIE39QEFQQE L A gig DEF Evap ilizia apiration II Evapntii m 7le D39IFquot fl 7 2 ll quot quotl I Q mzngg 3939 5 Dept of the Interim 7 r 7 39 r 7 quot s Gerulugirgal Survey a 7 l i Fm39man r U535 39 E m urndwate r storage 39 g g gnweduiwatercyciehim l Water Phase solid ice and snow liquid oceans lakes and river gas water vapor and humidity quotF l39 39 Ilia water movement between reservoir through liquid flow through phase transition 90 moisture in atmosphere from evaporation 10 from evapotranspiration negligible from sublimation Water Phase Transition 0 evaporation condensa on sublimation deposMon transpiration evapotranspiration Terminology groundwater water below the surface in pores and fractures saturated zone zone beneath the surface where all pores fractures are saturated with water water table top of saturated zone unconfined aquifer where water pressure atm pressure Aquifer geologic formation that stores or transmits water geologic formation groupings or layers that are same stratigraphic age composed of same material with same physical appearance and properties term usually applied to water bearing formations capable of yielding water in sufficient quantity for human use Types unconfined Aquifer upper water surface water table atmosphere pressure free to move up and down Confined Aquifer impermeable slow permeability material above and below the saturated zone Saturated zone not free to move Perched Aquifer occurs above the regional water table Geologic Materials 6 types 0 unconsolidated sand and gravel semi consolidated sand gravel sandstone carbonate rock interbedded sandstone and carbonate rocks igneous and metamorphic rock General Types of fluid movement Advection mass movement of water of bulk fluid Diffusion groundwater flow random motion of individual particles with net movement determined by gradient Convection sum movement from advection and diffusion special type of advection Darcy s Law Q AK dh dl delta h delta I Q discharge ms A cross section area lengthquot2 mquot2 K constant hydraulic conductivity length time ms dh hydraulic gradient d m Hydraulic head h length gt m h total mechanical energy per unit weight of water groundwater flows from high end to low end low end doesn t necessarily mean low ground it means low and but still can go up hill K water matrix gravity k permeability l mquot2 property of matrix material only relationship of hydraulic conductivity K to permeability K k row g mu row density ggmww mu viscosity 0 Krow g mu A dh dl Boundaries of Water physical and chemical Flow Quality Public Supply water utility drinking water Domestic personal well Water Quality chemical composition identification of chemical species material organics inorganics Species Concentration major minor trace Hardness very hard 180 mgl 18 mg kg 180 ppm 180 1000 0180 ppt very hard water still good to drink drinkable lt05 physical characteristics no affect on drinking water color order turbidity exam question most water on earth combines in what oceans 96 ice caps 17 Groundwater physical environment groundwater water below the surface water in pores and fracture or caves aquifers geologic formation that stores and transmits water expel hold or absorb water as well transmits water darcy s law aquifer components water rock sediments aquifer thickness typically 3m to 100m 3m is a useful limit aquifer depth 12 km relevance to temperature and pressure water physical properties temperature celsius pure water freezes at 00 10 1K kelvinpure water freezes at 273 K boils at 373 K groundwater temp typical range 20600 can range 02250 Factors atmosphere rain temp surface water temp surface temp geothermal gradient 250 per km evry km down 25 C warmer east 250 west 34Ckm Hot spots ex yellowstone 2200 at depth pressure units and scales atm avg pressure at sea level atm bar pascalpa 1 pa 1Nmquot2 1 bar 10quot5 Pa 1atm 1011O 5 Pa 1 atm 101 bar hydrostatic pressure in liquid water P rowgh h height of water above row density pressure increases as going down because more water at the top every 10m of depth 1 bar pressure increases phase solid liquid and gas mostly liquid phase in hydrogeology freezing point temp liquid gt solid pure water at 1 bar gt T 0C melting point temp solid gt liquid pure 0 at 1 bar temp 0C boiling point temp liquid gt vapor pure water at 1 bar BP 100C dew point temp vapor gt liquid freezing point depression freezes at lower T than pure substance freezing point of seawater 2C boiling point elevation boiling at higher T BP of seawater 1004C seawater salinity 35 ppt 35gkg colligative properties effects depend on how much of substance not on substance itself density massvol also a function of temp play a role in hydrostatic equilibrium density of pure water 1000 gcmquot3 density of seawater 1025 gcmquot3 Bulk density mass of many particlesvol particles occupy mass of many particles bulk density lt grain density porosityphi percentage of open space void in given volume primary porosity pores between the grains secondary porosity pores created by the fractures and dissolution it is unitless 5 author uses n integerfor porosity typical phi igneous and metamorphic 0620 sed rocks 3 30 well sorted sand or gravel 25 50 clay 33 60 viscosity resistance to flow mu higher viscosity means higher resistance to flow ex honey vs water also a function of composition also a function of temperature dynamic properties compressibility B beta 510quot10mquot2N B of water small but not 0 precise value of function of temperature bottom of the ocean lt2 compression 2 less vol of water as in deep ocean solid rock no fissure solid piece aquifer physical properties temperature rock temp water temp aquifer unit temp compressibility same definition for water skeleton alphagt grain Beta comp gt comp loose sand alpha 10810quot7mquot2N sandy gravel alpha 1010quot8mquot2N hydraulic conductivity and permeability K k row gmu transmissivity T measure at which water is transmitted horizontally through a unit of width of aquifer under unit hydraulic gradient homogenous Vs Heterogenous same properties everywhere uniform Heterogenous different properties not uniform both are spatial isotropic Vs Anisotropic same properties in every direction Anisotropic not same in every direction both are directional homogenous is not necessarily equal to isotropic groundwater storage storativityS water volume that an aquifer releases or absorbs per unit area of aquifer per unit change in hydraulic head 8 VwA aquiferdelta h unitless specific yield Ss 1length vol of water released per given vol of aquifer due to gravity drainage drainage of pores by gravity unitless Sy lt or equal phi of e less than or equal to effective porosity specific storage vol of water released or absorbed per unit vol of aquifer per unit change in h due to compressibility of water and rock matrix storativity S S Syunconfined only Ssb aquifer thickness or heightunitless 8 applies to all aquifer confines and unconfined unconfined porosity confined compressibility stay saturated all the time if keep drainage then turn to unconfined eg sinkholes Aquifer Hydraulic Properties Hydraulic Headh derived from sum of available mechanical energy h PE KEgtO pressure height motion push Z 12vquot2ggtO Ppg h Z Prow g hydrostatic P rowgh change in h is the driving force of flow water flow from high head to low head h 10Prow g rowghrowg 101O 20 Darcy s Law
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