Chapter 1-3 of psychology
Chapter 1-3 of psychology PSYC 110 - 004
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This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Michelle Donner on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 110 - 004 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Rebecca Faith Wiener in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Psychology Notes 8212015 0 Take chp 1 quiz sun Chapter 1 Thinking A Framework for Everyday Life What is psychology 0 Not easy to define 0 The scientific study of the mind brain and behavior Discipline psychology spans many levels of analysis 0 Runs from biological to social in uences Can t understand by focusing but instead study them all Five factors that make psychology difficult but rewarding 1 Human behavior is difficult to predict I Actions are multiply determined 2 Psychological in uences are rarely independent of each other 3 Individual differences among people 4 People in uence one another I Reciprocal determination 5 Behavior is shaped by culture Common Sense 0 Most of us trust our gut intuitions about how the world works Intuition vs Science 0 Common sense can be very useful for some purposes but its sometimes completely wrong 0 Our intuitive understand of the world and ourselves is sometimes wrong Nai39ve Realism 0 The belief that we see the word precisely as it actually is in truth seeing is believing 0 Works well in ordinary life When common sense is right 0 Not all common sense is wrong 0 Should serve as a generator for hypotheses which can be tested 0 Think like a scientist learn to think critically Psychology as a Science 0 Science is not a body of knowledge 0 It s an approach to evidence 0 Begins with empiricism but then test those observations 0 We must abandon relying on opinion 0 Find out which explanation best fits the evidence or data Theories and hypotheses 0 Scientific Theory an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world 0 Hypothesis a specific prediction based on a theory which can be tested 0 A theory is never proven hypothesis can be confirmed 0 Theories are general explanations hypotheses are specific predictions Science as a Safeguard against Bias 0 Confirmation Bias tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypothesis and neglect or distort contradicting evidence 0 Need to design studies that may disprove their theories 0 Belief Perseverance tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them 0 don t confuse me with the facts bias Metaphysical Claims 0 Non testable assertions fall outside the realm of science 0 The existence of God the soul or the afterlife We Might be Wrong 0 Good scientist are aware they might be wrong 0 Scientific knowledge is always tentative and open to revision 0 Science forces us to question our findings and conclusions Popular psychology 0 About 3500 self help books are published each year only 5 are tested 0 The quality of the information can be misleading or even dangerous 0 Internet offers easy quick information but quality is questionable What is Pseudoscience 0 Set of claims that seem scientific but aren t 0 Lacks safeguards against conformation bias and belief perseverance that characterized science 0 Testable beliefs that are not supported by the evidence 0 Ad hoc immunizing hypothesis 0 Escape hatch to protect against falsification usually a loophole or exception for negative findings 0 Lack of self correction 0 Overreliance on anecdotes O Anecdotes are often not representative cant tell us about cause and effect Why pseudoscience 0 Our brains are predisposed to make order out of disorder and make sense out of nonsense 0 Apophenia is when we find connections among unrelated or random phenomenon 0 Pareidolia seeing meaningful images in something 0 We believe what we want to believe 0 Many pseudoscientific beliefs offer control over uncontrollable world 0 Terror management theory Think Clearly 0 Can help avoid falling prey to pseudoscience Logically fallacy not a good way to think when approaching science Emotion reasoning fallacy emotions rather than evidence Bandwagon Fallacy lots of people say it s true so it s true Not Me Fallacy other people may have those bias but not me Why should we care 0 Because pseudoscience can be dangerous 0 The major reason to be concerned 1 Opportunity cost 2 Direct harm 3 Inability to think scientifically Scientific Skepticism 0 To Consider closely 0 Being scientifically skeptical does not mean being closed minded 0 Evaluate claims with open mind but insist on persuasive evidence before accepting them 0 Skeptics are willing to change their minds but must have good evidence before doing so Critical Thinking 0 A set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open minded and careful fashion 0 This allows us to overcome our own biases especially conformation bias Six critical thinking principles Critical Thinking principles Ruling out rival hypothesis 0 Have important alternate explanations for the finding been considered Correlation vs Causation 0 Can we be sure A causes B Falsifiability 0 Can the claim be disproven Replicability 0 Can the results be duplicated in other studies Extraordinary Claims 0 Is the evidence as convincing as the claims Occam s Razor 0 Does a simpler explanation fit the data just as well Psychology s Early History For many centuries psychology was indistinguishable from philosophy In 1879 Wilhelm Wundt developed the first psychology laboratory in Germany But psychology had to break away from another in uence as well spiritualism Great Theoretical Frameworks What unifying theoretical perspective best explains behavior Five Primary schools of thought have shaped modern psychological response questions Structuralism O Maj or figures were Wundt and EB Titchner O Aimed to identify the most basic elements or structures of psychological experience 0 Emphasized systematic observation 0 What Questions 0 Functionalism O Maj or figures was William James heavily in uenced by Charles Darwin 0 Hoped to understand the adaptive purpose or functions of psychological characteristics 0 Why Questions Behaviorism 0 Major figures were Watson and Skinner O Focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning underlying human and animal behavior by looking outside the organism O Observable Behavior Cognitivism 0 Major figures were Piaget and Neisser O Focuses on the mental processes involved in different aspects of thinking Psychoanalysis 0 Major figures were Freud and Jung 0 Focused on internal psychological processes of which we re unaware Contributions to Scientific Psychology Structuralism insistence on systematic data collection and empiricism Functionalism in uence on evolutionary theory on modern psychology Behaviorism helped to understand how we learn and the importance of scientific rigor Congnitivism focus on not only rewards or punishers but on our interpretation of events Psychoanalysis may have actually delayed scientific advance of clinical psychology but theories of mental processing outside of conscious awareness are holding up Psychology Today Very diverse as re ected in the 500000 psychologists worldwide There are many types of psychologists who work in many settings Types of Psychologists Clinical 0 NM and LA they cannot prescribe medication though psychiatrists MDscan O Therapists may have different degrees Psy D MSW PhD etc 0 Counseling 0 Help people whether its Marriage counseling etc 0 School 0 Assess and developed intervention programs 0 Differs from educational psychology 0 Developmental 0 Study why and how people change over time 0 Most work with infants and children 0 Experimental 0 Use sophisticated research 0 Biopsychologists 0 Examine physiological bases or behavior 0 Most work in research settings 0 Forensic 0 Assess diagnose and assist with rehabilitation and treatment of prison inmates 0 Others conduct research on eyewitnesses or juries Great Debates in psychology 0 Two great debates have shaped the field of psychology both currently and in the past 0 Nature nature 0 Are our behaviors attributable mostly to our genes or rearing environments 0 Free will determination 0 To what extent are our behaviors freely selected rather than caused by factors outside of our control How Psychology Affects our Lives 0 Two broad categories of research 0 Basic examines how the mind works 0 Applied examines how we use basic research to solve real world problems 0 Yellow fire engines three brake lights commercials and standardized tests are all examples of in uence of psychology Conclusion 0 Learning to think scientifically will help you make better decision not only in this course but in everyday life a When confronted With claims from popular psychology and popular culture remember to insist on evidence PsychologyAugust 26 Chapter 2 Research Research Design Matters 0 Even well educated intelligent people can be fooled 0 Well planned designs can help eliminate biases when examining phenomena 0 Prefrontal lobotomy is example of what happens when we rely on subjective impressions 0 Developer won the Nobel Prize 0 In it the neural fibers connecting frontal lobes to the thalamus were severed 0 Control studies showed it didn t work How we can be fooled 0 Heuristics are mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that we use daily 0 They reduce the cognitive energy required to solve problems but we oversimplify reality Common Heuristics 0 Representatives like goes with like 0 We ignore how common behaviors actually are in a population and commit the base rate fallacy 0 Availability off the top of my head 0 Estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our mind Cognitive Biases 0 Systemic errors in thinking that can lead to confidence in false conclusions 0 Hindsight bias or I knew it all along 0 Overconfidence tendency to overestimate our ability The Scientific Method Toolbox 0 Allows us to test specific hypotheses derived from broader theories of how things work 0 Theories are never proven but hypotheses can be confirmed or disconfirmed 0 We can use a number of different types of method tools to gain information and test the hypotheses Naturalistic observation 0 Watching behavior in real world settings 0 High degree of external validity extent to which we can generalize our findings to the real world 0 Low degree of internal validity extent to which we can draw cause and effect inferences Case study Designs 0 Studying one person or a small number of people for an extended period of time 0 Depth is traded for breadth 0 Common with rare types of brain damage or mental illness 0 Helpful in providing existence proofs but can be misleading and anecdotal Self Report Measures and Surveys 0 Psychologist often need to ask people about themselves or others 0 Selfreport measures or questionnaires asses characteristics such as personality or mental illness 0 Surveys ask about a person39s opinions or abilities 0 Not all measures and surveys are equal Random selection 0 The key to generalizability in surveys and questionnaire studies 0 Ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate 0 Non random selection can skew results and make them inaccurate when applied to the population as a whole Evaluating Measures 0 To trust results the measures must have 0 Reliability consistency of measurement 0 Validity extent to which a measure assesses what it claims to measure 0 A test must be reliable to be valid but a reliable test can still be completely wrong Self Report Measures 0 Pros 0 Easy to administer 0 Direct self assessment of person s state 0 Accuracy is skewed for certain groups narcissists 0 Potential for dishonesty 0 Response sets tendencies or research subjects to disort their responses 0 Positive impression management O Malingering Rating Data 0 People can also be asked to rate others on different characteristics 0 This can do away with some biases in self report but still has problems 0 Halo effect tendency of ratings of one positive characteristics to spill over to in uence the ratings of other characteristics Correlation Designs 0 Examine how two variables are related 0 Correlations vary from 1 to 1 and can be 0 Positive as on variable increases so does the other I 5 O Negative as one variable increases the other decreases I 73 0 Zero no relationship between variables 0 Depicted in a scatterplot 0 Illusory correlation Perception of a statistical association where none exists 0 Crime rates and the full moon 0 Arthritis when its raining Correlation vs Causation 0 Just because two things are related does not mean that one causes another 0 There are three possible explanations O A causes B O B causes A O C causes both A and B Determining Causation 0 The only way to determine if one thing is casually related to another is via an experimental design What makes a study an experiment 0 Random Assignment of participants to the 0 Experimental Group receives manipulation 0 Control Group Does not receive manipulation 0 Manipulation of an Independent Variable O The Dependent Variable is what the experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation worked 0 Cause and Effect possible to infer with random assignment and manipulation of independent variable 0 Cofounds any difference between the experimental and control groups aside from IV 0 Makes IV effect uninterpretable Pitfalls of experimental design 0 Placebo Effect improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement 0 Subjects must be blind 0 Nocebo Effect harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm 0 Experimental Expectancy Effect is when researcher s hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias a study outcome 0 Clever Hans the mathematical horse 0 Using a doubleblinded design van decrease this 0 Demand Characteristics Cues that participants pick up that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher s hypotheses 0 Disguising the purpose of the study using filler items can help to decrease these Ethical Issue in Research Design 0 Tuskegee study ran from 1932 1972 0 African American men living in rural Alabama diagnosed with syphilis 0 US public health never informed or treated the men merely study course of disease Modern Ethical Guidelines 0 Research go through a careful process of review to ensure that it is conducted ethically 0 Institutional Review Board IRB 0 Informed consent 0 Justification of Deception O Debriefing Subject Informed Consent 0 Researchers must tell subjects what they re getting information before asking them to participate 0 Participants can ask question during this process to learn more about whats involved 0 Participants should be told they are free to leave Justification of Deception 0 Deception deliberately mislead participants about the studys design or purpose 0 Milgram Study 1963 When is Deception justified 0 When the researchers couldn t have performed the study without deception 0 When the scientific knowledge to be gained from the study overweighs the cost Debriefing 0 Debriefing process by which researchers inform participants what the study was about 0 Required after deception Modern Ethical Guidelines 0 Animal research goes through the institutional animal care and use committee IACUC 0 Only 7 8 of psychological research uses animals 0 Vast majority are rodents and birds Statistics the language of research 0 Descriptive statistics numerical characteristics of the nature of the data set 0 Inferential Statistics allow to determine whether we can generalize findings from our sample to the population 0 Statistic significance finding would have occurred by chance less than 1 in 20 times 0 Partial significance real world importance 0 Statistical deceptions Evaluating psychological research 0 The process of peer review helps to identify and correct aws in research and research conclusions 0 Keep look out for placebos cofounds experimenter expectancy correlation vs causation etc Evaluating the media 0 Most reporters are not scientists so consider the source 0 Tabloids vs Science magazines PsychologyAugust 31 Chapter 3 Biological Psychology Biological Psychology Neuroscientists have made huge strides in understanding how brain works Bridging is the gap between the neuron system Nerve Cells Neurons are brain cells that specialize in communication Around 100 billion neurons with around160 billion connections between them Oddly shaped compared to other cells they have a number of specific features Neuronal Components Cell body soma 0 Center of neurons build new all components Dendrites O Branchlike extension that receive information from neurons Axon O tails of the neuron that spread out from cell body and transmit information Axon Terminal terminal button 0 Knob on the end of axon that connects synaptic vesicles filled with neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter NTs 0 Chemical messenger allow neuron to neuron communication Synapse 0 Space between neurons through which NTs travel Action Potential 0 Abrupt waves of electric discharge triggered by a change in charge inside axon This is the neuron firing an all or none response Originate near cell body and travel down the axon to the axon terminal triggering NT releases At resulting potential charge inside axon is negative polarized When AP triggered inside of all becomes more positive depolarized After AP ion balance is restored returns to negative charge inside cell Neurons can fire 100 1000 times per second In between firings there is a very brief absolute refractory period The longer the axon the more limited their maximal firing rate is Glial Cells Supporting cells to neurons Plentiful in the brain 1 1 ratios with neurons Astrocytes are most common abundant and increase reliability of neuronal transmission Oligodendrocytes promote new connections and produce myelin sheath around axon Also clear away debris in nervous system Myelin sheath insulator for axon and speed up rate of action conductor Electrifying Thought Neurons respond to NTs by generating electrical activity action potentials When there are not NTs acting on a neuron it is at the resting potential When there is enough charge inside the neuron reaching threshold action potential will occur Neurotransmission Communication inside neurons is electrical but communication between neurons is chemical via NTs When NTs are released they blind with receptor sites of the next neuron This process is halted reuptake when NTs go back into the axon terminal Different NTs are different messengers some excite and others inhibit the nervous system Each NT has a specific role and function in brain and body function NTs and Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive Drug target either production or inhibition of certain NTs and impact mood arousal or behavior Opiates mimic endorphins and increase activity antagonists while SSRIs block reuptake or serotonin Antagonists decrease activity like dopamine blockers for schizophrenia Neural Plasticity Changes over time in brain and nervous system Neurons change in 4 ways during development 0 Growth of dendrites and axons O Synaptogenesis O Myelination O Pruning 0 During learning longterm potentiation occurs and makes synapses perform better 0 Once we reach adulthood our plasticity decreases sharply but not completely 0 Less likely to recover fully from brain injury and illness Brain Behavior Network 0 Sensory information comes into and decisions come out of the Central Nervous System CNS 0 Made up of brain and spinal cord 0 The Nervous outside CNS are called Peripheral Nervous System PNS 0 Rest of the body man ligation like HEWEIIS System l Central Nervous System 0 CNS particularly the brain is divided into systems based on location Cerebral CorteX 0 Consists of 2 Cerebral Hemispheres connected by corpus callosum which allow communication between them 0 Can be divided into four lobes each associated with different function 0 Frontal Lobe assists in motor function language memory 0 Oversee and organize most other brain functions executive functioning 0 Contains Prefrontal CorteX responsible for thinking planning personality self awareness language 0 Parietal Lobe specialized for touch and perception 0 Temporal Lobe plays a role in hearing understanding language and storing autobiographical memories 0 Occipital Lobe responsible for vision Limbic System 0 The emotional center of brain that also has a role in smell motivation and memory 0 Thalamus relays information from the sense organs to primary sensory corteX 0 Hypothalamus regulates and controls internal bodily states controls the pituitary glands 0 Amygdala Plays key roles in fear excitement and arousal 0 Hippocampus plays a role in spatial memory damage causes inability to reform new memories Brain Stem 0 Connects the cerebral corteX and spinal cord 0 Performs some basic bodily functions 0 Serves as relay station between corteX and rest of nervous system Hindbrain 0 Cerebellum play predominant role in sense of balance and enables us to coordinate movement and learn motor skills 0 Pons connects corteX to cerebellum and triggers dreams 0 Medulla regulates breathing heart beat and other vital functions Spinal Cord 0 The thick bundle of nerves that conveys signals between the brain and the body 0 Sensory nerves carry information from body to the brain motor nerves carry information from brain to the rest of the body Peripheral Nervous System 0 Somatic Nervous System conveys information between the CNS and the body controlling and coordinating voluntary movement Autonomic Nervous System controls the involuntary actions of our internal organs and glands has two divisions Sympathetic Division is engaged during a crisis or after actions requiring or ight Parasympathetic Division controls rest and digestion When one is activated the other is inactive Brain Mapping Methods There have been many attempts to map the mind onto the brain Phrenology was one of the earliest but was falsified and discredited by the mid 18005 mainly due to examining persons with brain damage Electroencephalograph EEG 0 Measures electrical activity generated by the brain Via electrodes placed on skull 0 Can tell which regions of the brain are active during specific tasks Neuroimaging techniques allow us to see brain structure function or both Computed tomography CT uses multiple Xrays to construct three dimensional images Magnetic resonance imaging MRI uses magnetic fields to indirectly Visualize brain structure 0 Measures release of energy from water in biological tissues Positron emission tomography PET measures consumption of glucose like molecules to give a picture of neural activity Functional MRI FMRI uses magnetic fields to Visualize brain activity 0 Measures blood oxygen level These both measures structure and function Transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS applies strong and quickly changing magnetic fields to the surface of the skull that can either enhance or interrupt brain function 0 Allows casual determination of functioning Magnetoencephalography MEG measures tiny magnetic fields generated by the brain Which area for what task Many areas of the brain are associated with a particular function localization of function However complex tasks often require numerous parts working together 0 Visual perception 0 Each region participates in many functions so coordination across multiple brain regions contributes to each function Which side do we use for what 0 Many brain functions show Lateralization 0 Left Hemisphere O Finetuned language skills I Speech comprehension speech production phonology syntax reading writing 0 Actions I Masking facial expressions motion detection 0 Right Hemisphere 0 Course language skills I Simple speech simple writing tone of voice 0 Visuospatial skills I Perceptual grouping face perception Behavioral Genetics 0 Studies the relative impact of nature and nurture on psychological traits 0 Estimates heritability percentage of the variability in a trait across individuals that is due to genes 0 Some traits are highly heritable height others are not religious affiliation Behavioral Genetics Designs 0 Scientists use three types of designs to estimate heritability of traits 0 Family studies 0 Twin studies 0 Adoption studies 0 Determine how much both genes and environment contribute to a particular trait Family Studies 0 Examine the extent to which a characteristic runs or goes together intact families 0 Can be useful in estimation the risk of a disorder for example 0 But they don t allow us to disentangle the effects of nature from nurture because the families usually share similar environments as was as genetics Twin Studies 0 Examine differences between identical and fraternal twins 0 Identical twins are more similar genetically than fraternal twins 0 So we can measure different traits and if the twins are more similar on a trait we can infer it may be more genetically based assuming that the environments were also similar Adoption Studies 0 Examine the extent to which children adopted into new homes resemble their adoptive as opposed to their biological parents 0 Share genes with their biological parents but not environment 0 Share environment with adoptive families but not genes 0 Selective placement can be a confound
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