Comm. 107 Final Study Guide
Comm. 107 Final Study Guide
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73014 509 PM FINAL 730 COVERS It is cumulative so half of it also covers Chapters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 focus on chapters 4 8 9 11 of reading Green Scantrons Affect mood emotion similarities differences 0 AffectFeelings short term emotional reactions that generate limited arousals typically don39t trigger attempts to manage their experience or expression common feelings gratitude concern pleasure relief and resentment Mood low intensity states that aren39t caused by particular events and last longer than feelings or emotions typical moods boredom contentment grouchiness serenity Emotion occur occasionally in response to substantial eventsstimuli Emotions are intense reactions to events involving interpreting meaning becoming physiologically aroused labeling the experience as emotional managing reactions and communicating through emotional displays and disclosures o Feelings are the briefest and least intense emotions are the most intense but last longer than feelings Moods are more intense than feelings and last the longest Emotions action tendencies basic emotions intensity blended effects of culture gender and personality o Emotions are intense reactions to events involving interpreting meaning becoming physiologically aroused labeling the experience as emotional managing reactions and communicating through emotional displays and disclosures o Action Tendencies O Basic Emotions Surprise Joy Disgust Anger Fear Sadness o High Intensity Counterpart emotions Amazement Ecstasy Loathing Rage Terror Grief o Blended Emotions when an event triggers two or more primary emotions simultaneously o Culture effects on emotion in cultures like china where emotional control is desired they don39t display feelings like those in a Mexican culture would o Gender men express their affects and emotions less than women 0 Women report more sadness fear shame and guilt while men feel more anger Has to do with orientation towards their interpersonal relationships 0 Personality Extraversion Agreeableness and Neuroticism of the OCEAN personality acronym heavily affect your emotions o High extraversion and agreeableness have more positive emotions where high neuroticism has more negative emotions Communicating emotion affect displays emotion sharing emotional contagion o Affect displays nonverbal and verbal displays in exclamation expression posture gestures etc o Emotion sharing when we talk about our emotional experiences with others o Emotional Contagion when our emotions become contagious and affect others emotions true of all emotions specificay stress Emotional intelligence definition outcomes o Emotional Intelligence the ability to interpret emotions accurately and to use this information to manage emotions communicate them competently and solve relationship problems o High emotional intelligence provides Acute understanding of one s own emotions Ability to have empathy perspective taking and compassion for emotional states Aptitude for constructively managing their own emotions Capacity for harnessing their emotional states in ways that create competent decision making communication and relationship problem solving Emotion management suppression venting encounter avoidance encounter structuring attention focus deactivation reappraisal O Emotion management the marshmalloworeo experiment Children who waited for better treat were more socially skilled better able to cope with stress less likely to have emotional outbursts when frustrated better able to deal with temptations and had closerstable friendships Suppression and venting are 2 most common forms of emotional management Suppression try to modifycontrol emotions and response after were aware of them Involves inhibiting thoughts arousal and outward displays of emotion Most widely practiced 4 unavoidable and unwanted emotions Venting allowing emotions to dominate our thoughts and explosively expressing them Can be positive but not good w negative emotions o Suppression and venting have to do with dealing with emotions the next 4 have to do with avoidingpreventing emotion from happening Encounter Avoidance staying away from people places or activities that you know will provoke emotions you don39t want to experience Encounter Structuring intentionally avoiding specific topics that you know will provoke unwanted emotion during encounters with others Attention Focus intentionally devoting your attention only to aspects of an event or encounter that you know will not provoke an undesired emotion o Deactivation systematically desensitizing yourself to emotional experience o Reappraisal engaging in difficult and unavoidable past emotions by actively changing how you think about the meaning of emotion eliciting situations so that their impact is changed Conflict definition frequency common causes in relationships 0 Interpersonal conflict a transactional process between people who perceive incompatible goals scarce resources or interference in achieving their objective perception o 4 features of conflict they begin with perception they involve clashes in goals or behaviors they unfold over time as a process and they are dynamic 0 Frequency of conflicts depends on how you handle each individual conflict o Common causes of conflict in relationships come from 3 sources 0 Irritating partner behaviors o Disagreements regarding relationship rules o Personality clashes Power definition power currencies resource expertise social network personal intimacy culture and gender differences symmetrical complementary 0 Power is the ability to influence other people or events Power is granted people recognizeagree on power 0 Dyadic Power Theory Moderate power causes more controlling communication in people 0 Legitimate power is the power that we have due to our title we give power to people based on titles officer dr president etc 0 Power currencies are resources that other people value that you possess o Resource currency material goods like money property and good Resources are only as powerful as they are valued by others o Expertise currency special skills or knowledge mechanic musician etc o Social Network Currency size and strength of the social network Size derived by the people we are connected to not our own interests o Personal Currency personal characteristics particular to you like your beauty or intelligence or humor o Intimacy Currency social bonds that we have with other people power of a relationship etc o Cultural Differences of Power in high power distance cultures like Mexico and china unequal distributions of power are OK less likely to engage in conflicts more likely to defer authority o Gender Differences of Power Large gender gaps in terms of economic and political power women have 59 of the economic opportunities of men and only 18 of the political representation o Complementary Relationships Low power people are more likely to accommodate to higher power people PEOPLE MUST MAINTAIN A BALANCE OF POWER o Symmetrical Relationships balance of power is equal therefore both people have the same power in the relationship Nobody accommodates because it is Handling conflict avoidance skirting sniping accommodation competition reactivity collaboration escalation cumulative annoyance pseudo confict effects of gender and culture outcomes of different strategies o In Interpersonal relationships men expect women to listen attentively but practice selective attention and women feel their viewpoints are being ignored or minimized Avoidance ignoring the conflict frequent easy little emotional drain and risk of direct conflict problems cumulative annoyancepseudo conflicts But it can help in highly emotional times o Skirting changing topic or making a joke o Sniping communicating in a negative way then physically leaving Accommodation abandon your own goals and acquiesce another s desires More likely to occur with loved ones high concern of others and low self concern Competition Direct discussion of goal clash and pursuit of one s own goals without regard for others goals o more likely towards people we don39t respectadmireneed because it might have negative relational consequences Can easily escalate the fight Reactivity when you don39t really do anything besides flip out on somebody Collaboration conflict as a mutual problem solving challenge Often results in a compromise where everyone modifies goals More likely with people we respect or admire and leads to more trust commitment and overall relational satisfaction o Steps of Collaborating Attack problems not people Focus on common interests and long term goals Create options before arriving at decisions Critically evaluate your solutions Effects of Gender Women socialized to avoidsuppress conflict and accommodate Men are socialized to be competitive but not harm women As a result in inter gender conflict men often adopt avoidance strategies instead O O Effects of Culture People in collectivistic cultures are more likely to direct messages regarding conflicts as personal attacks 0 Colectivistic Cultures Avoid or Accommodate o Individualistic compete react collaborate Strategy Outcomes o Avoidance lower relational satisfaction and more frequent conflicts 0 Reactivity Lower relational satisfaction 0 Collaborative higher relational satisfaction shorterfewer disputes Conflict resolutions separation domination compromise integrative agreements structural improvements O Separation sudden withdrawal of one person from the encounter Domination one person39s goals trump the others Compromise where everyone involved modifies goals to better meet all needs Integrative Agreements both parties preserve and attain original goals through creative problem solving Structural Improvements redefine relational expectations and rebalance power Challenges to handling conflict destructive messages sudden death statements dirty secrets serial arguments physical violence chilling effect these are the things that can arise and make solving problems EVEN HARDERltlt O O O O Sudden Death Statements declarations that a relationship is over Dirty Secrets statements that are honest in content but have been kept hidden to protect partner39s feelings Serial Arguments series of unresolved disputes all having to do with the same issue Physical Violence men and women are equally likely to be violent to eachother women are more likely to be injured 0 Chilling Effect stop discussing relational issues out of fear of physical violence some conflicts are unsolvable best solved by avoidingending relationship Interpersonal relationships definition characteristics intimacy liking commitment choice duration 0 Liking is a feeling of affection and respect that we typically have for our friends Love is a vastly deeper and more intense emotional experience that consists of three parts intimacy caring and attachment 0 Intimacy is a feeling of closeness and union between you and a partner 0 Caring is the concern you have for your partners welfare and the desire to keep him or her happy o Attachment is a longing to be in your partner39s presence as much as possible o Commitment a strong psychological attachment to a partner and an intention to continue the relationship long into the future o Choice We choose who and when to enter and maintain a relationship o Duration Relational tensions openness vs protection autonomy vs connection novelty vs predictability o Competing impulses between our selves and feelings towards others o Openness vs Protection as relationships become more intimate we share and exchange more info and resources We want to maintain a balance of personal information though to prevent feelings of a loss of pnvacy o Autonomy vs Connection we enter relationships in order to connect into bonds but if we are too close we lose our autonomy over ourselves 0 Novelty vs Predictability clash between our need for stability and our need for excitement and change Coming together initiating experimenting intensifying integrating bonding o Knapp s Model of Relationship Patterns broken into coming together and coming apart 5 in each and they suggest how relationships tend to progressdigress but relationships may jump forward backwards or go in and out of stages etc o Initiating sizing up of the person drawing on visual info to determine attraction You always try to come off positively in this stage o Experimenting you exchange demographic info and small talk disclosing facts that are relatively unimportant but allow safe and controlled introductions You look for commonality could be in casual dating o Intensifying when your verbal and nonverbal becomes increasingly intimate reveal previously withheld info secrets about past dreams and goals physical affection etc officially dating honey and we o Integrating when personalities begin to blend together reinforced through sex and exchanging of belongings you have attitudes activities interests and things you share our favorite movies etc problems of connectedness versus autonomy o Bonding public ritual that announces commitment marriage Coming apart differentiating circumscribing stagnating avoiding terminating o Differentiating when you begin to distinguish and focus on the differences between you and your partner 0 Circumscribing when oneboth respond to problematic differences by ignoring them and spending less time O talking You restrict quantity and quality of info exchanged Stagnating when there is almost nothing left to talk about and you presume talking is pointless o Avoiding when you are physically distant and emotionally distant ignoring someone etc o Terminating pretty straightforward includes physical distance lack of eye contact and discussion of the relationship before Attraction physical attractiveness halo matching proximity mere exposure similarity reciprocal liking resources O Proximity physical attractiveness similarity reciprocal liking and resources influence attraction in all romances Proximity being in one another s physical presence mere exposure effect you39re more attracted to people you interact with more Halo effect belief that because someone is sociallyphysically attractive they may have many other good qualities about them Matching we tend to end up with others who are our level of physical attractiveness Reciprocal Liking the matching in level and amount in the intimacy of information exchanged in disclosures power balance creates trust and security I like you too lol o Mere exposure effect beautiful is good effect birds of a feather effect Social exchange theory worth rewards costs comparison level comparison level for alternatives equity overbenefited underbenefited satisfaction stability O Developed from economics states we are always looking out for ourselves in relationships based on rewards vs costs look to make decisions with the greatest reward outcomes O each person has a set worth based on their resources and rewards they can offer each other minus the costs of those rewards Each person then compares this worth to alternative levels to determine social exchanges in the future Equity is equality in the relationship in terms of giving and receiving these rewards and stuffz Overbenefitted are people who get more rewards then costs in there relationships and underbenefited are those who work harder than they receive Relational maintenance positivity assurances openness sha ng O Relational maintenance using communication and supportive behaviors to sustain a desired relationship status and level of satisfaction Positivity communicating in a cheerful and optimistic fashion doing unsolicited favors gifts most important tactic for happiness Assurances second best technique messages that emphasize how much a partner means to you how important the relationship is and a secure future together I love you cant wait to see you etc Sharing most frequently practiced maintenance mutual responsibility for chores and division of labor Acceptance communicating your affirmation of acceptance Self DisclosureOpenness creating a climate of intimacy and security within relationship Allows partners to disclose fears and feelings Must display predictable ethical and trustworthy behavior Managing privacy private information boundary rule formation shareholders boundary coordination boundary linkages ownership rights permeability boundary turbulence O Comm Privacy Management Theory individuals create informational boundaries by carefully choosing the kind of private info they reveal and the people with whom they share it o Family Privacy Rules the boundaries defined about disclosing the conditions governing what family members can talk about how they can discuss such topics and who should have access to family relevant information 0 Families stories courtship birthentrance survival conversation orientation conformity orientation patterns pluralistic consensual aissez faire protective 0 Family is a network of people who share their lives over long periods of time and are bound by marriage blood or commitment who consider themselves as a family and who share a significant history and anticipated future of functioning in a family relationship o Stories one of the most powerful ways we define our collective family identity is through sharing stories 0 Family stories are narrative accounts shared repeatedly within a family that retell historical events and are meant to bond the family together They help tell individuals about their role in the family and about the family39s norms values and goals They provide powerful images of family relationships Family members often collaborate in storytelling adding details correcting confirming etc o Courtship stories how dad serenaded mom mom and dad meeting at magic mountain How parents fell in love emphasize solidarity of relationships Give framework for understanding romantic love 0 BirthEntrance Stories describe latter stages of pregnancy childbirth and early infancy of a child Help children understand how they fit into family Baby firstborn etc entrance stories are for adopted kids Survival Stories relate to the coping strategies family members have used to deal with major challenges Can be physical emotional financial survival Conversation orientation the degree to which family members are encouraged to participate in unrestrained interaction about a wide array of topics Like the weasleys Conformity Orientation the degree to which families believe that communication should emphasize similarity or diversity in attitudes beliefs and values Use comm to enforce uniformity of thought More traditional families have high conformity obey parents and elders sacrifice personal goals for family Family communication patterns are used to direct family conversation Consensual families families that are both high in conversation and conformity orientation Members are encourages to share their views with eachother and debate beliefs Marked by high disclosure attentive listening and frequent expressions of caring concern and support In these families parents hold strong control over attitudes behaviors and interactions of children Goal is to preserve family unity Pluralistic families high in conversation but low in conformity they communicate in open and unconstrained ways with a broad range of topics and depth Judge on merit rather than the speaker don39t try to control eachother Goal is to resolve disputes in productive and mutually beneficial ways highest rate of conflict resolution Type of family that holds meetings Protective Families low on conversation and high on conformity comm in these families functions to maintain obedience and enforce family norms and little value is placed on exchanging ideas or developing comm skills Parent child power difference is firmly enforced and children obey seen not heard children type of family Parents don39t try to create family discussion results in low disclosure Goal is to avoid conflict because it threatens conformity and they don39t deal with it well Laissez Faire Families families low in both conversation and conformity Few emotional bonds exist between members resulting in low caring concern and support within the family Their detachment shows itself w a lack of interaction comm and family maintenance Believe children should be independent decision makers and thinkers but don39t really care what they do Children tend to abuse drugs and alcohol well its up to the children to decide how they want to live Goal is to avoid conflict or compete to win debate since they rarely interact anyways conflict is rare too Friendships communal agentic o Friendship is a voluntary interpersonal relationship characterized by intimacy and liking can be casual close short or long term 0 Friendship is voluntary we choose friends based on mutual desire can be friends with anyone unlike relationships sort of and family o Friendship is driven by mutual interests When these interests and activities change so do friendships This is the most common reason for friendships ending o Friendship is characterized by self disclosure this distinguishes friends and acquaintances I barely know the guy it is THE defining feature of friendship Sharing private thoughts feelings and secrets 0 Friendship is rooted in liking affection and respect we enjoy their company that39s another major feature Were supposed to be more loyal to romantic partners and family because they friends aren39t as emotionally demanding and attached You would go to your mom39s birthday before meeting a friend for d nks o Friendship is volatile less table and more likely to change than family or romantic relationships You would choose a career over your friends not to destroy friendship but it isn39t as major as family and romantic interests o The two main functions of friendship are companionship and achieving practical goals communal and agentic friendships The chance to do fun things together and receive emotional support and the ability of friends to help us deal with problems including everyday tasks respectively 0 Communal Friendships enabling us to share life events and activities with others The least task oriented form of relationship revolves around leisure activities Friendships that focus primarily on sharing time and activities together are communal friendships These friendships try to get together as often as possible and provide encouragement and emotional support to each other Because emotional support is a central aspect of communal friendship only when both friends fulfill the expectations of support for the relationship does the friendship endure o Agentic Friendships friends help achieve practical goals in personal and professional lives study fix cars projects etc Agentic friendships are when friendships focus primarily on helping each other achieve practical goals They also value sharing time together but only if they don39t have anything more important to do not as preeminent in one s thought They don39t usually invest emotionally or in personal info like communal friendships 73014 509 PM Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Listening Steps include Reception recognition of a stimulus or auditoryvisual message Attention focus on a specific stimulus selected from all of the stimuli received at any given moment Perception taking received material and attempting to analyze it Assignment of meaning the process of putting stimulus into some predetermined category Response Brain Dominance when someone uses one hemisphere of the brain more than the other Low context cultures communicators expect to give and receive a great deal of info Instruction Brief and exact High context cultures more indirect speech you have to figure out what somebody means rather than what the words said Discriminative Listening one attempts to identify auditory and visual stimuli Comprehensive Listening the objective is to recognize and retain the information in a message Therapeutic Listening requires a listener to learn when to ask questions when to stimulate discussion and when to give advice Critical Listening listener assesses argumentsappeals in a message and decides whether to accept them Appreciative Listening when a person listens for entertainment purposes Listener Apprehension fear of misinterpreting inadequately processing andor not being able to adjust psychologically to messages Chapter 5 Self talk conversations with yourself in your head your inner voice Sequential Steps of Linguistic Development Prelinguistic and Preconceptual Stage echoing babbling reflexive vocalization Linguistic Stage sentence building Conceptual Stage concept formation Rhetorical Stage rhetorical strategies The 4 Areas of Self Esteem Physical how you perceive your body Mora Ethica evaluation of your belief system Family your views of your family relationships Social your evaluation of your self in social situations Psychological Vulture and Types Attacks a person39s perceived weaknesses and eats at their self worth intelligence creativity family relationship physical sexual Self Love accepting yourself as a worthy person Cognitive Processing the comprehending organizing and storing of ideas Values what we perceive to be of positive or negative worth Attitudes our predispositions Beliefs our convictions Cognitive Dissonance imbalance between our values attitudes and beliefs and what we do may lead to guilty conscience Self confidence sense of competence and effectiveness Real Self what you think of yourself when you are being honest about your interests thoughts emotions and needs The Self Composed of 4 Parts Spiritual what we are thinking and feeling Material our possessions and physical surroundings Social our interactions with others Physical our physical being Forces that Drive behavior and speech Pleasure seeking Securty Territoriality Survival of species Anxiety perception of real or perceived threatdanger Communication Apprehension is speech anxiety Systematic Desensitization being taught to recognize tension in your body and relax Cognitive Modification substituting negative thoughts for positive ones Self Credentialing Societies emphasis is placed on drawing attention to one s personal accomplishments Self Humbling Societies importance placed on lowering oneself via modest talk verbal restraints etc Chapter 6 Self Disclosure intentionally letting someone else know who you are by communicating self revealing messages Power the ability to control what happens Expert power your capacity to influence another person because of the knowledge and skills you have Referent Power obtained through demonstration of friendliness and trustworthiness Reward Power requires that you be perceived as the best or only source of rewards Coercive Power based on possible negative outcomes that are used as weapons Legitimate Power stems from one person39s perception that another person has the right to make requests of him Androgyny a person that communicates with both masculine and feminine patterns Interpersonal Relationships social associations connections or affiliations between 2 people Intercutura Intimate Conflict disagreement or friction between partners due to cultural or ethnic membership differences Knapp s Relationship Escalation Model Initiation Stage short involves observation of appearance or mannerisms Experimenting Stage asking questions of each other to gain more information Intensifying Stage relationship becomes less formal and self disclosure becomes more common Integrating Stage a label is placed on the relationship Bonding Stage entails formal announcement of relationship engagement marriage Economic Model of Relationships as long as rewards are equal to or exceed costs the relationship will continue to progress Relational Fusion when one partner dictates what is acceptable for the other partner Stages of Relational Development Tension development False ignoring the decision to stop talking about the topic of disagreement and pretend nothing is wrong Resentment end result of repeated disappointment Unforgiveness one partner views the other as purely bad Knapp s Relationship Termination Model EMC Differentiating stage one partner realized that he or she needs to assert independence Circumscribing stage diminishment of volume and quality of the intercouple communication Stagnating Stage individuals avoid discussing the relationship because both are afraid of what the other will say Avoiding Stage partners physically separate Terminating Stage final end stage of relationships Electronically Mediated Communication includes all forms of communication using electronic devices Chapter 7 Requesting process of expressing a desire for something Asking seeking out info by inquiring Conflict any situation in which you perceive that another person is frustrating some concern need want or desire of yours Types of Conflict 0 Fair Fighting Participants work toward an amicable solution to a problem 0 Conflict Avoidance Not confronting the conflict 0 Conflict Accommodation Putting the needs of others ahead of your own 0 Conflict Smoothing Over One seeks above all else to preserve the image that everything is ok 0 Conflict Compromise Attempts to satisfy the needs of both parties 0 Conflict Competition Gets another person to accept your point of view or do something that they may not want to do 0 Conflict integration Seeks to gain a win win solution for both parties whereas conflict compromisers often reach only partially satisfying solutions Assertive Communication a person stands up for and tries to achieve personal right without damaging others Non assertive Behavior person avoids conflict Aggressive Behavior goal is to dominate and get your own way Direct Aggression outward expression of dominating or humiliating communication Passive Aggression attacks or embarrasses in a manipulative way Simple Assertion state the facts related to the existence of a problem Empathetic Assertion state your own needs but also recognize other person39s problem Follow up assertion restates the assertion Negotiation the act of bargaining to reach an agreement Win Lose Negotiation one person gets what he wants and the other doesn39t Lose Lose Negotiation neither person is satisfied with the outcome Win Win Negotiation the outcome is satisfying to everyone Arbitration alternative process for deciding disputes cases are heard by third party who is an expert in a particular field and conducted in an office setting decision is final without appeals Litigation dispute is settled by presenting evidence to a judge or jury who decide who is right Mediation a neutral person who has no vested interest in the outcome facilitates communication between parties and helps them resolve their disputes Confict Active Societies conflict is accepted as an important part of life Confict Avoidance Societies face to face conflict should be avoided Face your socially approved self image and other image Facework strategies used to maintain our own social self image and attack or defend the social images of others Speech Anxiety physical or emotional response from high stress situations Fight or flight mode Overcoming Speech Anxiety 0 Don39t avoid it Accept Nervousness Don39t take drugs or drink to relax Use breathing techniques Recognize your anxiety Prepare Practice visualization of giving a good speech 0 Think about something else before you give your speech Conquering Public Speaking 0 It isn39t inherently stressful 0 You don39t have to be brilliant 0 Nothing bad will happen 0 Don39t have to control behavior of audience OOOOOO 0 Audience wants you to succeed What is an interview 0 Direct Questions explicit and require specific answers where did A purposeful conversation between 2 or more people that follows a q and a format you last work who was your last girlfriend etc 0 Closed Questions provide alternatives narrowing the possibilities Open Questions less direct and specify only the topic what is your educational background for response and probing for opinions on opposite ends of a continuum 0 Leading Questions encourage a specific answer implies how the Bipolar Questions a form of closed questions that require a yes or no response interviewee should answer 0 O Loaded Questions a type of leading question designed to elicit an emotional response YesResponse Questions another form of leading question stated in such a way that the respondent is encouraged to agree with the interviewer you would agree with me in saying Mirror Questions intended to follow up on the initial questions and get a person to reflect on what he or she has said and expand on it Probes used to elicit a more detailed response 5 W39s and an H who what when where why how Group a system which is characterized by interconnectedness of its constituent parts 0 O O A small group consists of 312 people A large group consists of more than a dozen people Groupthink the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action Risky Shift maintains that decisions reached after discussion by a group display more experimentation are less conservative and contain more risk than decisions reached by people working alone before any discussion is held Work Teams small groups of workers who function as teams to make and implement decisions about their own work Study Groups established to enable individuals to work together to study and learn with the assistance of others Support Groups a system that allows people to interact with others who share similar goals or problems Committees a small group responsible for study research and recommendations about an issue Actions are usually brought back to larger group for action Focus Groups groups designed to test reactions to a particular product process or service offered by an organization randomy selected group of participants Groups of Family an assemblage of people who have legally been declared a group or who have defined themselves as such 0 OOOO Natural Family married typical Blended created by divorce or remarriage Singe Parent Extended Self Declared Primary Groups groups that exist to meet our needs for inclusion and affection Family and friends Secondary Groups groups that are formed to do work exist to accomplish a task Tuckerman39s Stages of Group Development forming norming storming conforming performing adjourning O Forming groups come together because they are appointed to accomplish a task Norming Establish rules and procedures as well as get to know eachother cohesion collaboration emerging trust motivation to achieve group goals Storming conflict power plays constructive disagreements Conforming norms have been settled the group has found a way to handle power 0 Performing harmony productivity problem solving shared leadership Task is accomplished and social maintenance 0 Adjourning goal accomplished celebration disengagement Plurality one who gets the most votes Assembly Affect group performance that is better than the performance of any individual group member or any combination of individual member efforts Coercion act of forcing another person to take action he or she does not want to do centers on offering a selection of choices all of them undesirable Persuasion convincing someone to see your point of view by factslogicemotions It39s a fair choice Manipulation forcing someone to see your point of view through psychological control Audience Types agree disagree neutral uninterested uninformed undecided A good interviewer builds a climate of trust is aware of and adapts to verbal and non verbal cues good listener able to adapt to needs and concerns of interviewee Oral History Interview a way for families to preserve history by interviewing members of the family who have ties and customs they can share Problem Solving Interview interviewer and interviewee meet to solve a personal or work related dilemma Counseling Interview interview designed to provide guidance and support to the interviewee Persuasive Interview interview to change or reinforce a person39s beliefs or behavior Includes sales interviews Appraisal Interview performance interview where the interviewer helps the interviewee realize the strengths and weaknesses of his or her performance Media Interview a host questions the guest can be tv podcast blog etc The 6 Step Standard Agenda Of Decision Making 0 Problem Identification 0 Analysis Solution Criteria Solution Suggesting Selection Implementation Nominal Group Technique a technique for decision making that centers on brainstorming without direct group interaction in the initial stage Mediate Messages electronically held meetings to be held anywhere o Teleconference telephone conference calls 0 Video Conferencing meetings conducted with video and audio 0 Web Conferencing Central conference database is used 0 Virtual Conferencing second life is internet based virtual world using avatars Types of Leadership Power 0 Legitimate Reward Coercive Expert Referent OOOO OOOO 5 key features of emotion Emotion is reactive based on past experiences Emotion causes physiological responses of increased heart rate blood pressure and adrenaline To experience your emotions you must understand them Emotional response is constrained by historical cultural relational and situational norms governing what is and isn39t appropriate The choices you make in emotion management are reflected in verbal and nonverbal displays Feelings are shore term emotional reactions to events that generate limited arousal but don39t trigger attempts to manage experience or expression Common feelings include gratitude concern pleasure relief and resentment Moods are low intensity states such as boredom contentment grouchiness or serenity that aren39t caused by particular events and typically last longer than feelingsemotions Primary emotions O OOOO O Surp se Joy Disgust Anger Fear Sadness Hindu philosophy suggests 9 primary emotions sexual passion amusement sorrow anger fear perseverance disgust wonder and serenity Extraversion Agreeableness and Neuroticism strongly influence our experience and communication of emotions O 3 extreme beliefs of neurosis I must be outstandingly competent or I am worthless Others must treat me considerately or they are completely rotten the world should always give me happiness or I will die Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy was developed to combat these beliefs of neurosis The steps include Call to mind common situations that lead you to be upset Identify irrational beliefs about your self and others that are tied to these situations Consider the emotional behavioral and relational consequences that you suffer as a result of these beliefs Critically challenge these beliefs Identify more accurate and realistic beliefs about yourself others and the world 0 Marshmallow test gave kids treats told them if they waited while he left they would get a second treat Follow up results showed kids who waited were substantially more adapted in life People with high emotional intelligence show these traits 0 Acute understanding of their own emotion 0 Ability to see things from other s perspectives and have a sense of compassion regarding others emotional states empathy o Aptitude for constructively managing their own emotions 0 Capacity for harnessing their emotional states in ways that create competent decision making communication and relationship problem solving Anger a negative primary emotion that occurs when you are blocked or interrupted from attaining an important goal by what you see as an improper action 4 styles of listening 0 action oriented listeners want brief to the point and accurate messages from others info they can use to make decisions 0 Time oriented listeners brief and concise encounters tend to let others know in advance exactly how much time they have available for each conversation 0 People Oriented Listeners view listening as an opportunity to establish commonalities between themselves and others strive to demonstrate empathy 0 Content Oriented Listeners prefer to be intellectually challenged by the messages they receive during interpersonal encounters Enjoy receiving complex and provocative information Comm 107 Notes 73014 509 PM Intergroup vs Interpersonal Interpersonal Communication occurs when people define self or others in terms of their personal identity When we think of others and their unique characteristics Intergroup Communication occurs when people define self or others in terms of their social identity When we think of others based on the groups they belong to Which aspect of the self concept is salientmentally active determines the extent to which communication is interpersonal or intergroup Principles of Interpersonal Communication IPC Goals IPC is Dynamic Purposeful Typically Dyadic Impactful Consists of verbal and nonverbal signs Often ambiguous Punctuated Conveys both content and relational information Involves adjustment Involves power Is irreversible OOOOOOOOOOO Types of goals not mutually exclusive Instrumental qoals practical aims changing their mind compliance a favor Identity or self presentation goals the desire to present oneself in a particular way Want to come off a certain way being nice etc Relational qoals building maintaining or terminating bonds with others Interpersonal Competence Abiity to communicate appropriately and effectively Appropriateness degree to which communication adheres to norms and expectations Effectiveness the degree to which communication accomplishes intended goals IPC Myths Good comm solves all problems FALSE Comm is always a good thing more is better FALSE Comm is just common sense FALSE Signs Anything that signifies something has meaning to someone can be symbolized in 3 different ways Icons a sign that denotes its object by virtue of their physical resemblancesimilarity Indexes a sign that denotes its object by virtue of an actual environmental connection between them Symbols a sign that denotes its object by virtue of conventionconsensual agreement Message production goals procedural records plan message outcome plan alterationadjustment Summary of message production 0 Information is represented by signs o Icons indexes and symbols are all signs o We pursue goals during communication that access relevant procedural records if we have them And these records shape plans o More complex plans are more likely to result in person centered messages and favorable outcomes o Complexity of plans influenced by existing procedural records knowledge about ones partner and cognitive complexity o Message production is a ski Plan Complexity Existing procedural records This allows us to make more complex plans Knowledge of our conversational partners Cognitive complexity individual difference factor Degree to which people have highly differentiated constructs for construing other people from very simplistic to highly nuancedcomplex and subtle impressions of others Cognitive complexity is learned through socialization and it increases with age Perspective Taking Increased cognitive complexity increases perspective taking or the ability to take other s perspective Consider their point of view Affects ability to create person centered messaging Increased perspective taking allows people to make more complex plans and person centered messages SelfAwa reness Self awareness the capacity for introspection and ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals Ability to step outside of yourself and reflect thoughts feelings and behaviors Not born with self awareness infants don39t have any 0 To test self awareness you can do the mirror test or the rouge test Tests show that self awareness develops around 18 months or older Sef Concept one s perception of oneself who we are to ourselves Self concept is the answer to the question who am I 2 basic components of Self Concept 0 personal identity idiosyncratic aspects of ourselves that make us unique and different from others 0 Social identity our social group memberships gender race religion age school political affiliations sports clubs teams etc Looking Glass Sef others view of us influence how we view ourselves Social comparisons we make between ourselves and others 0 Upward comparisons are made to people better off than us 0 Downward comparisons made to people that are worse off than us Biological influences topics like race or sex or age Personality an individual s characteristic way of thinking feeling and behaving 0 Based on personality traits enduring motives and impulses one possess can be biological social or other influences o The Big Five personality traits everyone possesses all five of these to different degrees the variations influence our personality Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Attachment Styles family influences on our self concept Our communication and interaction with our caregivers shape our beliefs regarding the functions rewards and dependability of interpersonal relationships They shape our 0 Attachment anxiety degree to which a person fears rejection by relationship partners 0 Attachment Avoidance degree to which someone desires close personal ties 0 Attachment styles People with low avoidance and anxiety SECURE attachment style comfortable with intimacy seek close others report warm and supportive relationships People with high avoidance and anxiety FEARFUL attachment style fear rejection avoid close relationships unless they guarantee a lack of rejection People with high anxiety and low avoidance PREOCCUPIED attachment style fear rejection constant worrying and demands for attentions difficulty maintaining long term relationships People with high avoidance and low anxiety DISMISSIVE attachment style view close relationships as relatively unimportant prioritize self reliance most likely to engage in casual sexual relationships Culture a learned set of beliefs attitudes values and behaviors shared by a group of people 0 Dimensions of Culture 0 Individualismcollectivism The degree to which individuals are integrated into groups Individualistic stress personal achievements and individual rights USA Canada New Zealand Sweden Collectivistic stress groups and group loyalty China Taiwan Pakistan Guatemala 0 Masculinity feminism The distribution of emotional roles between the genders Masculine cultures value competitiveness assertiveness materialism ambition and power Japan Austria Italy Mexico Feminine cultures value relationships quality of life care for the weak Sweden Netherlands Norway Finland 0 Power distance Extent to which people view the unequal distribution of power as acceptable perspective based on the people at the bottom High power distance unequal distribution of power is viewed as acceptable by less powerful members Malaysia Mexico China Egypt Low Power Distance unequal distribution of power is viewed as unacceptable by less powerful members Austria Israel Denmark New Zealand 0 Uncertainty avoidance A society39s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity High Uncertainty avoidance low tolerance for uncertainty prefer rigid structure and don39t like differences in variation structure and order Greece Poland Japan Spain South Korea Low Uncertainty Avoidance high tolerance for uncertainty prefer more flexible structures differences are desirableaccepted Denmark UK USA China 0 Highlow context High context cultures people presume listeners share extensive knowledge in common with them More indirect communications hintimply things etc China France India Spain Russia Italy Low context cultures people tend not to presume that listeners share their beliefs attitudes and values more to the point and direct comm Australia Germany England USA Self Esteem overall value positivenegative we assign to ourselves We compare our perception of ourselves to two standards 0 Ideal self what we want to be 0 Ought self what others want us to be When perception of the self is somehow less than the ideal or ought self it is low self esteem When perception of the self is equal to or greater than the ideal and ought self it is high self esteem Public Self aspects of the self that you and others are aware of Includes everything you openly disclose likes dislikes values Face one s public self or those aspects of the self we show to others When it is used to hide the private self it39s called a mask 0 0 Positive face desire for social approval from other people Negative face desire for autonomy Private Self aspects of the self not known to others parts of yourself that you39re aware of but that you hide from most others These include destructive thoughts impulses and fantasies and disturbing life experiences that don39t fit comfortably with your public self or self concept Self Disclosure revealing private information about yourself to others public hidden blind and unknown areas Interpersonal Process model of intimacy O Relational Intimacy closeness we feel with others is created through self disclosure Intimacy is built through mutual disclosures builds from being superficial Breath the number of different aspects of the self each partner reveals at each layer Depth how deeply one discloses peripheral intermediate and central layers Orientation revealing bits of ourselves to others Focus on peripheral layers Avoid criticism Avoid peripheral layers bc less potential to lead to conflict Exploratory Affective Exchange emergence of an individual39s personality Intermediate information begins to be revealed Affective Stage spontaneous communication Use of personal idioms Stable Exchange efficient communication Establishment of a personal system of communication Perception process of selecting organizing and interpreting information Selection process of focusing our attention on some information 0 Salience of selection relates to audibly and visibly stimulating fashion it is relevant to our own goals it deviates from or violates our expectations Uncertainty o Selective exposure tendency to seek out information that is consistent with ones existing cognitionsbeliefs o Selective attention tendency to attend information that is consistent with ones existing cognitions Organization process of structuring selected information into a coherent mental pattern 0 Categorization process of grouping info that shares similar characteristics 0 Punctuation structuring selected information into a chronological sequence including cause and effect Interpretation process of assigning meaning to selected information Influenced by schemas stereotypes what other people say or do 0 Schemas mental structures that contain information defining characteristics of various concepts as well as how those characteristics are related to each other 0 Stereotypes shared knowledge about some social group including beliefs and theories about the group39s attributes people experience uncertaintyambiguity during social interaction especially during initial interaction Cognitive uncertainty uncertainty about how others will think and feel Behavioral uncertainty uncertainty about how others will act Strategies to reduce uncertainties 0 Passive Strategies Observe others to reduce uncertainty 0 Active Strategies ask a third party about info to reduce uncertainty 0 Interactive strategies communicate and ask the person himherself Uncertainty Reduction Theory Axioms 0 Increased uncertainty increased info seeking 0 Increased verbal comm decreased uncertainty 0 Increased nonverbal comm decreased uncertainty 0 Increased similarity decreased uncertainty 0 Increased uncertainty increased reciprocity o Decreased uncertainty increased liking o Decreased uncertainty increased intimacy Impressions Person impressions mental pictures of who people are and how we feel about them Ways me make impressions gestalts algebraic expressions stereotyping o Gestalts a general sense of a person that39s either positive or negative impression of a person as a whole rather than the sum of the individual parts Formed rapidly More likely to be positive than negative But we place more emphasis on negative info Halo Effect Tendency to positively interpret behaviors of people we39ve formed positive gestalts about Internal attributes for positive behaviors external attributes for negative behaviors Horn Effect tendency to negatively interpret behaviors of people we39ve formed negative gestalts about Internal attributes for negative behaviors External attributions for positive behaviors o Algebraic Impressions an overall impression of a person based on an evaluation of individual parts Modified as new info becomes available More accurate and flexible than gestalts changes over time More cognitive effort and less efficient o Stereotyping Process of depersonalizing someone and viewing them as an embodiment of their respective group stereotype rather than in terms of their individual characteristics In group members tend to be more liked trusted persuasive and more likely to gain compliance Positive in group behaviors tend to be attributed internally whereas positive out group behaviors attributed externally Negative in group behaviors tend to be attributed externally whereas negative out group behaviors tend to be attributed internally Models of Communication Linear Model flows in one direction from a sender to a receiver with noise interrupting the message in between Interactive Model Expands on linear adds feedback to and from sender and receiver and fields of experience that affect noise and interpretation of the message Transactional Model multidirectional each participant has equal influence on the communication behavior as one another no sender or receiver Extra stuff Needs and Goals of Interpersonal comm include the fulfillment of 0 Physical needs safety needs social needs self esteem needs and self actualization needs Self discrepancy theory suggests that self esteem is determined by how your ideal self compares to your ought self what you want vs what others expect Social penetration theory envisions the self like an onion consisting of many layers 0 Peripheral Layers include basic demographics 0 Intermediate layers include attitudes about less important matters such as music food political preference 0 Central Layers include core or central characteristics like self awareness self concept self esteem personal fears and distinctive personality traits Fundamental attribution error find others behaviors solely related to the kind of person they are 0 There are internal and external attributes Internal personality character etc a nice person External outside influences unrelated to individuals traffic being sick tired Actor observer effect occurs when people blame external attributions for their behavior Sef serving bias means taking credit for success by making an internal attribution Negativity Effect negative information holds greater weight and if more indicative of true character than positive information Improving Your Perceptions of others with perception checking O OOOO Checking punctuation Checking knowledge Checking attributions Checking perceptual influences Checking impressions Comm 107 Notes 73014 509 PM Exam 1 77 30 o Exam 2 721 30 o Final exam 730 40 o True false multiple choice fill in the blank GREEN SCANTRONS around 40 questions each Office hours Monday and Wednesday until 12pm 4115 SSMS Communication process through which people use messages to generate meanings within and across contexts cultures channels and media Interpersonal Communication occurs when people define self or others in terms of their personal identity When we think of others and their unique characteristics Intergroup Communication occurs when people define self or others in terms of their social identity When we think of others based on the groups they belong to Defining the self and others how we define and perceive ourselves or others influences how we communicate with each other 0 The self concept consists of two distinct components Personal Identity idiosyncratic characteristics that make us unique Social Identity refers to ones social group memberships that they define themselves as part of Age gender race religion politics sports teams etc o The self concept is fluid and emergent these two identities work together at any time we can define ourselves and others in terms of personal and social identity or a mixture of both 0 Which aspect of the self concept is salientmentally active determines the extent to which communication is interpersonal or intergroup Interpersonal vs Intergroup Focus of class is high personal identity with high and low social identity See graph in notebook for examples Intergroup comm can lead to misunderstandings and anxiety interpersonal is more likely to be satisfying Many traditional interpersonal contexts are also intergroup o Friendships family romantic relationships etc bc of race age gender etc Principles of Interpersonal Communication IPC Interpersonal Communication is 0 Dynamic constantly changing emergent both parties contribute to meaning No two interactions are the same 0 Purposeful Intentional or goal directed But not always intentional We cannot NOT communicate 2 Types of goals not mutually exclusive Instrumental qoals practical aims changing their mind compliance a favor Identity or self presentation goals the desire to present oneself in a particular way Want to come off a certain way being nice etc Relational qoals building maintaining or terminating bonds with others 0 Typically dyadic 0 Has an impact it influences people39s thoughts emotions behaviors and relationships 0 Consists of verbal and nonverbal signs Something that means something to someone might compliment or contradict eachother 2 Verbal linguistic signs language Nonverbal non linguistic signs anything other than language appearance gesture posture etc Often ambiguous IPC is a stream of information that is open to multiple interpretations Interpretations are shaped by many factors like the characteristics of the sender and the recipient the contexts etc Punctuated from a continuous stream of information we mark a beginning end cause and effect This influences how we interpret information Different people may punctuate the same information differently and thus have different interpretations Conveys both content and relational information Content is the information about the actual meaning of a message Relational is the information about how people view their relationship 2 These often influence how we interpret info Involves adjustment no two people communicate in exactly the same way As a result we adjust our communication to one another either to match or emphasize differences Involves power Power is implicated in all interactions think back to the relational component of messages Influences what people say how they say it when they say it what effect it has and more 2 Many types of power coercive power legitimate power expert power etc Is irreversible Once something is communicated it can39t be taken back Always has an impact whether we want it to or not Interpersonal Competence Ability to communicate appropriately and effectively o Appropriateness degree to which communication adheres to norms and expectations o Effectiveness the degree to which communication accomplishes intended goals Interpersonal Competence is learned and can be improved IPC Myths Good comm solves all problems FALSE Comm is always a good thing more is better FALSE Comm is just common sense FALSE Extra credit opportunity Evaluation of TV sitcoms 45 min 1 o and video game study 30 min 5 o Message production goals procedural records plan message outcome plan alterationadjustment If there is no procedural records goals can affect plans directly Outcome also makes plans if the outcome isn39t what was expected we go back to our plan and alter it for next time procedural record Predictors of plan complexity Existing procedural records This allows us to make more complex plans Knowledge of our conversational partners Cognitive complexity individual difference factor Degree to which people have highly differentiated constructs for construing other people from very simplistic to highly nuancedcomplex and subtle impressions of others o Cognitive complexity is learned through socialization and it increases with age 0 Increased cognitive complexity increases perspective taking or the ability to take other s perspective Consider their point of view Affects ability to create person centered messaging 0 Increased perspective taking allows people to make more complex plans and person centered messages Summary of message production Information is represented by signs 0 Icons indexes and symbols are all signs We pursue goals during communication that access relevant procedural records if we have them And these records shape plans More complex plans are more likely to result in person centered messages and favorable outcomes Complexity of plans influenced by existing procedural records knowledge about ones partner and cognitive complexity Message production is a ski The Self Our sense of selfwho we are influences our communication and is influenced by our communication messages we make ways we communicate who we communicate with Our self concept is influenced by communication it is not borninherent it is learned through others and communication THE SELF 0 Self Awareness 0 Self Concept 0 Self Esteem Self awareness the capacity for introspection and ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals Ability to step outside of yourself and reflect thoughts feelings and behaviors Not born with self awareness infants don39t have any 0 To test self awareness you can do the mirror test or the rouge test Tests show that self awareness develops around 18 months or older Self Concept one s perception of oneself who we are to ourselves Self concept is the answer to the question who am I o 2 basic components of Self Concept personal identity idiosyncratic aspects of ourselves that make us unique and different from others Social identity our social group memberships gender race religion age school political affiliations sports clubs teams etc 0 These two components personal and social identity vary in salience at any given time Meaning how active they are 0 Sources of the self concept Looking Glass Sef others view of us influence how we view ourselves Social comparisons we make between ourselves and others 2 Upward comparisons are made to people better off than us 2 Downward comparisons made to people that are worse off than us Biological influences topics like race or sex or age Other social influences Family friends culture media etc Personality an individual s characteristic way of thinking feeling and behaving 0 Based on personality traits enduring motives and impulses one possess can be biological social or other influences The Big Five personality traits everyone possesses all five of these to different degrees the variations influence our personality 0 Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism OOOO Openness the degree to which one is willing to consider new ideas o High openness makes people more imaginative creative interested in seeking out new experiences Conscientiousness the degree to which one is organized and persistent in pursuing goals 0 People high in this will be more methodical well organized dutiful dependable Extraversion the degree to which one is interested in interacting regularly with others and actively seeks out interpersonal encounters o People high in this tend to be more outgoing sociable unshy Agreeabeness the degree to which one is trusting friendly and cooperative forgiving etc Neuroticism degree to which one experiences negative thoughts about oneself o People high in this are prone to insecurity and emotional distress Attachment Styles family influences on our self concept Our communication and interaction with our caregivers shape our beliefs regarding the functions rewards and dependability of interpersonal relationships They shape our 0 Attachment anxiety degree to which a person fears rejection by relationship partners 0 Attachment Avoidance degree to which someone desires close personal ties 0 Attachment styles People with low avoidance and anxiety SECURE attachment style comfortable with intimacy seek close others report warm and supportive relationships People with high avoidance and anxiety FEARFUL attachment style fear rejection avoid close relationships unless they guarantee a lack of rejection People with high anxiety and low avoidance PREOCCUPIED attachment style fear rejection constant worrying and demands for attentions difficulty maintaining long term relationships People with high avoidance and low anxiety DISMISSIVE attachment style view close relationships as relatively unimportant prioritize self reliance most likely to engage in casual sexual relationships Culture a learned set of beliefs attitudes values and behaviors shared by a group of people Dimensions of Culture Individuaism coectivism O O The degree to which individuals are integrated into groups Individualistic stress personal achievements and individual rights USA Canada New Zealand Sweden Collectivistic stress groups and group loyalty China Taiwan Pakistan Guatemala Masculinity feminism O O The distribution of emotional roles between the genders Masculine cultures value competitiveness assertiveness materialism ambition and power Japan Austria Italy Mexico Feminine cultures value relationships quality of life care for the weak Sweden Netherlands Norway Finland Power distance 0 Extent to which people view the unequal distribution of power as acceptable perspective based on the people at the bottom High power distance unequal distribution of power is viewed as acceptable by less powerful members Malaysia Mexico China Egypt Low Power Distance unequal distribution of power is viewed as unacceptable by less powerful members Austria Israel Denmark New Zealand Uncertainty avoidance o A society39s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity 0 High Uncertainty avoidance low tolerance for uncertainty prefer rigid structure and don39t like differences in variation structure and order Greece Poland Japan Spain South Korea 0 Low Uncertainty Avoidance high tolerance for uncertainty prefer more flexible structures differences are desirableaccepted Denmark UK USA China Highlow context 0 High context cultures people presume listeners share extensive knowledge in common with them More indirect communications hintimply things etc China France India Spain Russia Italy Low context cultures people tend not to presume that listeners share their beliefs attitudes and values more to the point and direct comm Australia Germany England USA
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