Anatomy& Physiology week 1 & 2
Anatomy& Physiology week 1 & 2 BCSI-21010-011-201580
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Monday September 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BCSI-21010-011-201580 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Greg Tinkler in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
week 1 92 Anatomy amp Physiology Chapter 1 Form amp Function anatomy form structure physiology function Complexity 1 8 NFDF rbSDN atoms molecules organelles cells ssue organs organ systems organism Homeostasis amp Negative feedback homeostasis regulation negative feedback cycle that maintains homeostasisbring back variable to original state reduces stimulus 0 example regulating temp positive feedbackampifies stimulus 0 example child birth feedback loops body does this to control and maintain things such as temperature ion balances 02002 pH levels 0 body fluctuates and ranges 0 receptors monitor amp regulate dynamic equilibrium balance during the body s fluctuation stimulus change receptor detects change inputinfo gt control center output info from control center to effector response response reaction to maintain homeostasis Gradients and Flow 0 gradient difference in concentration 0 matter and energy usually flow from HIGH to LOW 0 temperature thermal 0 energy concentration 0 chemical concentration 0 charge electrical httpanatomvandphvsioloovicomhomeostasispositiveneoativefeedbackmechanisms My 0 elements made up of 1 kind of atom 0 atoms consist of o protons positive charge in nucleus 0 electrons negative charge in orbital o neutrons no charge in nucleus atomic protons in nucleus atomic mass protons neutrons isotopes same protons diff neutrons 0 example diff forms of carbon I C12 6 protons 6 neutrons 6 electrons I C13 6 protons 7 neutrons 6 electrons I C14 6 protons 8 neutron 6 electrons o electrons stay in different energy levels 0 lowest energy is close to nucleus 0 larger energy levels far away from nucleus 0 space between energy levels orbitals diff shapes s p d f g 0 how electrons fill 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 53 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 73 5f httpwwwdummiescomhowtocontentchemistryconceptsenergyleveIsandorbitals html Energy levels 0 release energy moves in o absorbs energy far out 0 example H and He I opposite ends on the periodic table I full amp stable orbital I not reactive Octet rule 0 want 8 0 want most stable configuration 0 elements take or give away electrons for configuration of closest noble gas 0 noble gases already have stable configuration Valence electron o electron linked to an atom that can form chemical bond 0 electrons in outermost shell 0 gain or lost in reaction 0 orbitals how electrons orbit around the nucleus 0 1290 elements found in living organisms in significant amounts 0 organic molecules Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen o CHON 963 of body weight 0 some trace elements are found in small qualities still significant 0 ionic bonds taking 0 covalent bonds sharing 99 Chemical reactions 0 formation or destruction of bonds chem reactions 0 atoms move from molecule to molecule without changing or identity of atoms 0 reactant initial molecule 0 product result after reaction 0 transfer of electrons from atom to atom during a reaction retaining energy oxidationlosing an electron reduction gaining an electron OILRIG Oxidation ls Losing Reduction ls Gaining nonpolar covalent bond equally shared electrons polar covalent bond electrons unequally shared between nonpolar and ionic o ionic bond bond due to attraction of oppositely charged atoms Bohr Model 0 Electrons orbit the nucleus in specific size and energy orbitals 0 lowest energy is closest to middle httpchemistryaboutcomodatomicstructureabohr model htm Ball and Stick Model 0 visual of molecule where atoms balls sticks bonds Space filling 0 3D model of atoms Adhesion o h20 molecules adhere to polar molecules through hydrogen bonds Cohesion 0 water molecules adhere to each other through hydrogen bonding pH Value o O acidic o 7 water o 14 basic Buffers 0 pH of the solution resists small additions of a strong acid or base 0 usually has a weak acid and its conjugate base httpwwwchempurdueedugchelphowtosolveitEquilibriumBuffershtm LAB 93 gross anatomy the structure visible to the naked eye anatomical position standing up fonNard palms fonNard feet slightly apart superior above inferior below anterior front forward posterior back behind medial towards midline lateral away from midline center dorsal back side ventral front side proximal towards center distal away from out deep inside median sagittal splits into left and right frontal plane divides posterior and anterior sections transversecross section divides superior and inferior LAB 910 Th Microscope quotC Q 6 I ocular lens power x objective lens resolution ability to distinguish two close objects as separate higher magnification more light in objective lens higher resolution ocular lens rotating nosepiece arm stage mechanical stage condenserknob coarse adjustment knob fine adjustment knob objective lenses condenser iris diaphragm lever stage controls substage light light control base Cell Anatomy a nucleus control center contains DNA 0 plasma membraneacts as protective barrier separating cell from environment made of phospholipids and globular proteins 0 cytoplasm water like environment inside of a cell between nucleus and plasma membrane 0 organelles machine like small cells that carry out functions 0 ribosome made of RNA and protein site of protein synthesis 0 Endoplasmic Reticulum membranous tubes that I rough ER has ribosomes provide storage area amp transport of proteins I smooth ER steroid and lipid synthesis happen here golgi apparatus flattened sacs with round ends packs proteins and lysosomal enzymes lysosomes sacs with digestive enzyme digest worn out organelles and foreign substances suicide sacs because they could destroy whole cell if ruptured o peroxisomes membrane sacs with oxidase enzymes that detoxify found in kidney and liver mitochondria double membrane wall powerhouse of cell because it produces ATP centrioles cylindrical bodies close to the nucleus direct spindle during cell division form base of cilia o cytoskeleton cellular support intracellular transport cell structure and shape Division 0 cells life 2 stages 0 interphase longer period of growth 0 cell division reproduction by self dividing o mitosis division of copied dnaidentical to mom to 2 nuclei daughters 0 prophase chromatindna condenses and duplicates o metaphase centromeres align at equator o anaphaseshortest phase centromeres split 0 telophasechromosomes uncoil result 2 nuclei 0 meiosis nuclear division in organs that reproduce 4 nuclei that are not identical to mother 0 cytokinesis cytoplasm divides when mitosis is finished 911 Building Blocks monomers small molecules polymers multiple monomers linked dehydration synthesis loss of water to form longer chain monomers gt polymers hydrolysis water breaks polymers into monomers hydrophilic absorbs or dissolves water hydrophobic hates repels water a major macromoleculesmostly polymers o carbohydrates 0 nucleic acids 0 proteins 0 lipids Carbohydrates o CH20n n 5 or 6 o monosaccharides simple sugars 0 di 2 monosaccharides o polymers starch glycogen etc o structural examples I cellulose cell walls in plants I chitin fungi exoskeleton I function store energy Nucleic Acids o nucleotide polymers 0 DNA code of protein blueprint for genes I 2 strands 0 RNA links DNA to proteins I one strand I mRNA I tRNA I rRNA o monomer nucleotide o polymer nucleic acid structure nitrogenous base AGCT and U 0 DNA I Adenosine I Guanine I Cytosine I Thymine 0 RNA I Uracil phosphate group sugar nitrogenous base nitrogenous base ring structure 0 1 ring pyrimidine o 2 rings purine phosphorous connects 3 prime carbon to 5 prime carbon 0 this happening again and again creates a backbone nucleotides linking sugar and phosphate groups are polymerized o polymerized make monomer gt polymer chemical nature of a nucleotide determined from nitrogen bases Proteins o monomer amino acids 0 functions amino acid or peptide 0 enzymes 0 suppon 0 transport 0 motion 0 regulation 0 Amino acid structure 0 contains I NH2 amino end I COOH carboxylic end I middle carbon I side groups R o R methyl groups 3 methyl groups long chains of carbon etc CHO gt carbs CHON gt amino acids CHONP gt nucleotides
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