Animal Reproduction and Development
Animal Reproduction and Development Bio 160 Sec 5-7
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This 28 page Bundle was uploaded by Maria Vann on Monday March 7, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 160 Sec 5-7 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Bill Konieczki in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Animal Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Animal Reproduction and Development • Chapter 7 • Pages 134 – 143 • Chapter 8 • Pages 155 – 157, 163 – 164, 168 – 169, 179 - 182 • Chapter 9 • Pages 184 - 195 Animal Reproduction pages 134 - 143 • Asexual – one organism produces genetically identical copies (clones) • Advantage: many offspring in a short period of time, allows for rapid colonization of new habitats • Disadvantage: no genetic variety – little chance for adaptation in a crowded or changing environment Animal Reproduction • Sexual – generally involves two parents that produce haploid gametes (Meiosis) • Fertilization produces a ZYGOTE that is a genetically unique individual • Disadvantages: logistics, requires more energy, fewer offspring, more care • Advantages: greater genetic variety, better chance for adaptation Asexual Reproduction • Binary Fission - (mitosis) bacteria, protozoa • Sometimes involves multiple fission (nucleus divides many times – THEN cytoplasm divides • Budding - new individual is an outgrowth of parent – sponges and hydroids Asexual reproduction • Gemmulation - specialized cells clump together, surrounded by spicules (skeletal structures) and tough spongin coat – • Cells become dormant, survives cold season – (freshwater sponges) • Fragmentation – pieces of adult break off, regenerate into new adults Sexual Reproduction • Bisexual – two separate parents (all vertebrates & many invertebrates) • Dioecious – separate sexes • Monoecious – one organism with both sets of reproductive organs; (hermaphrodites), many worms, barnacles Sexual Reproduction • Hermaphrodites ; some self-fertilize (rare) • Most use two individuals – exchange sperm (many types of parasites) • Maximum reproduction • Some are sequential hermaphrodites . . . (wrasse fish ,f-mand clownfish, m-f) (Nemo’s ‘dad’) Parthenogenesis • Development of an embryo from an UN-fertilized egg; some worms, insects, lizards and crustaceans • Ameiotic – egg formed by mitosis (clones) • Meiotic – egg formed by meiosis, (several variations) • Egg/diploid # restored by anaphase failure, or fusion of two gametes Honey bee method: drone (1N male), worker, queen (both 2N females) • Whiptail lizard – egg becomes 4N – then meiosis occurs – 2N females Embryonic Development pages 155-157, 163-164, 168-169, 179-195 • Blastula ; after fertilization, zygote divides repeatedly (mitosis) until a hollow ball of 100’s of cells is formed • Blastula same size as egg cell – cells now ‘normal’ sized • Occurs in ALL multicellular animals • No additional development in sponges Development • Gastrula ; one area of blastula folds inward, • Jellyfish, sea anemones, creating a second layer of coral, flatworms cells (forms a ‘gut’) Development • Most animal groups develop a third layer of cells, (Mesoderm) and form a COELOM, a body cavity surrounded by mesoderm . . . Different types of tissue arise from each of the three cell layers: see table 8-27, page 179, in your text. (You should know this table for next exam !!) Figure 8-27, page 179 Development Development of the animal embryo now controlled by genes; Induction – chemical signals from one group of cells tells neighboring Cell migration – some cells cells to differentiate into move into developing areas a specific tissue . . . following chemical trails secreted by cells in that area, (like a limb) Development Apoptosis – programmed cell death. Proteins in cell, when activated, kill the cell, and tell the adjacent cell to digest the remains . . . Final word on genes • As the zygote develops, special sets of genes, (called Homeotic or HOX genes) turn ‘on’ and turn ‘off’ other genes . . . • (they do this by producing proteins that bind to other genes – activating or blocking those genes) Final word on genes • As the zygote develops, special sets of genes, (called HOX genes) turn ‘on’ and turn ‘off’ other genes . . . proteins that bind to other genes – activating or blocking those genes) • This triggers the development of appropriate structures in correct places, (legs, eyes, etc) at the correct time. • These genes are similar in all animal groups Body Plans, Tissues, pages 184-195 • Symmetry: ‘design’ of an animals body • Spherical – any plane passing through the center of the body results in mirror images • Radiolarians; some other Protozoa; rare in multicellular animals Body Plans • Radial – a plane through the longitudinal axis will produce two equal halves • All Cnidarians (hydra, jellyfish, sea anemones & coral) • All Ctenophora (comb jellies) Bilateral Symmetry • All bilaterally symmetrical animals have mirror-image right and left sides . . . • Cephalization (development of a head), found in most bi- laterally symmetrical animals • Anterior – front or head • Posterior – tail or end • Dorsal – upper or back • Ventral – bottom or belly Body Plans • Sea Stars radial as adults, but Bilateralas larvae, (left and right halves) • Most animals, including humans, are bilateral Tissues (4) (study of tissues = Histology) • 1 - Epithelial; sheet of cells that covers an external or internal surface • Simple – one layer of cells, (invertebrates) • Stratified – many layers of cells, (vertebrates) Tissues (study of tissues = Histology) 2 - Connective; bind and support tissues Loose: anchors blood vessels, nerves and organs, (collagen and elastic fibers) Tissues (study of tissues = Histology) 2 - Connective; bind and support tissues Loose: anchors blood vessels, nerves and organs, (collagen and elastic fibers) Dense: tendons, ligaments and fasciae Specialized: blood, lymph, fat, cartilage and bone Tissues (study of tissues = Histology) Specialized: blood, lymph, fat (adipose), cartilage and bone Tissues (study of tissues = Histology) 3 - Muscular; 3 types Skeletal – very long cells, multinucleated, usually under voluntary control Cardiac – shorter, one nucleus, connected by intercalated discs Smooth – no striations, long and tapered, one nucleus, involuntary Tissues (study of tissues = Histology) 4 - Nervous; Reception of stimuli Transmission of impulses Assignment; skim Chapter 35 • Immunity – tons of information, so just get a general idea – I’ll sort out the details . . .
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