New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Animal Reproduction and Development

by: Maria Vann

Animal Reproduction and Development Bio 160 Sec 5-7

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point > Biology > Bio 160 Sec 5-7 > Animal Reproduction and Development
Maria Vann
GPA 3.5

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes will cover sexual and asexual reproduction, embryonic development, development controlled by genes, body plans and tissues. These will be on the next lecture exam.
Animal Biology
Dr. Bill Konieczki
75 ?




Popular in Animal Biology

Popular in Biology

This 28 page Bundle was uploaded by Maria Vann on Monday March 7, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 160 Sec 5-7 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Bill Konieczki in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Animal Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.

Similar to Bio 160 Sec 5-7 at UWSP


Reviews for Animal Reproduction and Development


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/07/16
Animal Reproduction and Development • Chapter 7 • Pages 134 – 143 • Chapter 8 • Pages 155 – 157, 163 – 164, 168 – 169, 179 - 182 • Chapter 9 • Pages 184 - 195 Animal Reproduction pages 134 - 143 • Asexual – one organism produces genetically identical copies (clones) • Advantage: many offspring in a short period of time, allows for rapid colonization of new habitats • Disadvantage: no genetic variety – little chance for adaptation in a crowded or changing environment Animal Reproduction • Sexual – generally involves two parents that produce haploid gametes (Meiosis) • Fertilization produces a ZYGOTE that is a genetically unique individual • Disadvantages: logistics, requires more energy, fewer offspring, more care • Advantages: greater genetic variety, better chance for adaptation Asexual Reproduction • Binary Fission - (mitosis) bacteria, protozoa • Sometimes involves multiple fission (nucleus divides many times – THEN cytoplasm divides • Budding - new individual is an outgrowth of parent – sponges and hydroids Asexual reproduction • Gemmulation - specialized cells clump together, surrounded by spicules (skeletal structures) and tough spongin coat – • Cells become dormant, survives cold season – (freshwater sponges) • Fragmentation – pieces of adult break off, regenerate into new adults Sexual Reproduction • Bisexual – two separate parents (all vertebrates & many invertebrates) • Dioecious – separate sexes • Monoecious – one organism with both sets of reproductive organs; (hermaphrodites), many worms, barnacles Sexual Reproduction • Hermaphrodites ; some self-fertilize (rare) • Most use two individuals – exchange sperm (many types of parasites) • Maximum reproduction • Some are sequential hermaphrodites . . . (wrasse fish ,f-mand clownfish, m-f) (Nemo’s ‘dad’) Parthenogenesis • Development of an embryo from an UN-fertilized egg; some worms, insects, lizards and crustaceans • Ameiotic – egg formed by mitosis (clones) • Meiotic – egg formed by meiosis, (several variations) • Egg/diploid # restored by anaphase failure, or fusion of two gametes Honey bee method: drone (1N male), worker, queen (both 2N females) • Whiptail lizard – egg becomes 4N – then meiosis occurs – 2N females Embryonic Development pages 155-157, 163-164, 168-169, 179-195 • Blastula ; after fertilization, zygote divides repeatedly (mitosis) until a hollow ball of 100’s of cells is formed • Blastula same size as egg cell – cells now ‘normal’ sized • Occurs in ALL multicellular animals • No additional development in sponges Development • Gastrula ; one area of blastula folds inward, • Jellyfish, sea anemones, creating a second layer of coral, flatworms cells (forms a ‘gut’) Development • Most animal groups develop a third layer of cells, (Mesoderm) and form a COELOM, a body cavity surrounded by mesoderm . . . Different types of tissue arise from each of the three cell layers: see table 8-27, page 179, in your text. (You should know this table for next exam !!) Figure 8-27, page 179 Development Development of the animal embryo now controlled by genes; Induction – chemical signals from one group of cells tells neighboring Cell migration – some cells cells to differentiate into move into developing areas a specific tissue . . . following chemical trails secreted by cells in that area, (like a limb) Development Apoptosis – programmed cell death. Proteins in cell, when activated, kill the cell, and tell the adjacent cell to digest the remains . . . Final word on genes • As the zygote develops, special sets of genes, (called Homeotic or HOX genes) turn ‘on’ and turn ‘off’ other genes . . . • (they do this by producing proteins that bind to other genes – activating or blocking those genes) Final word on genes • As the zygote develops, special sets of genes, (called HOX genes) turn ‘on’ and turn ‘off’ other genes . . . proteins that bind to other genes – activating or blocking those genes) • This triggers the development of appropriate structures in correct places, (legs, eyes, etc) at the correct time. • These genes are similar in all animal groups Body Plans, Tissues, pages 184-195 • Symmetry: ‘design’ of an animals body • Spherical – any plane passing through the center of the body results in mirror images • Radiolarians; some other Protozoa; rare in multicellular animals Body Plans • Radial – a plane through the longitudinal axis will produce two equal halves • All Cnidarians (hydra, jellyfish, sea anemones & coral) • All Ctenophora (comb jellies) Bilateral Symmetry • All bilaterally symmetrical animals have mirror-image right and left sides . . . • Cephalization (development of a head), found in most bi- laterally symmetrical animals • Anterior – front or head • Posterior – tail or end • Dorsal – upper or back • Ventral – bottom or belly Body Plans • Sea Stars radial as adults, but Bilateralas larvae, (left and right halves) • Most animals, including humans, are bilateral Tissues (4) (study of tissues = Histology) • 1 - Epithelial; sheet of cells that covers an external or internal surface • Simple – one layer of cells, (invertebrates) • Stratified – many layers of cells, (vertebrates) Tissues (study of tissues = Histology) 2 - Connective; bind and support tissues Loose: anchors blood vessels, nerves and organs, (collagen and elastic fibers) Tissues (study of tissues = Histology) 2 - Connective; bind and support tissues Loose: anchors blood vessels, nerves and organs, (collagen and elastic fibers) Dense: tendons, ligaments and fasciae Specialized: blood, lymph, fat, cartilage and bone Tissues (study of tissues = Histology) Specialized: blood, lymph, fat (adipose), cartilage and bone Tissues (study of tissues = Histology) 3 - Muscular; 3 types Skeletal – very long cells, multinucleated, usually under voluntary control Cardiac – shorter, one nucleus, connected by intercalated discs Smooth – no striations, long and tapered, one nucleus, involuntary Tissues (study of tissues = Histology) 4 - Nervous; Reception of stimuli Transmission of impulses Assignment; skim Chapter 35 • Immunity – tons of information, so just get a general idea – I’ll sort out the details . . .


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.