quiz 4 notes
quiz 4 notes PSY 3150 SEC001
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Jefferson Oakey on Monday March 7, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 3150 SEC001 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Robert L. Durham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Motivation in Psychlogy at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Stress Monday, February 22, 2016 10:50 AM Ted Talk - How to Make Stress your Friend, Kelly McGonigal Kelly McGonigal: How to make stress your friend • Rethinking stress - Video Kelly McGonigal ○ 30,000 adults in the US for 8 years How much stress have you experienced? Is stress detrimental to your health? Increased risk of dying by 43%, only people who believed that stress affected health ○ Can changing how you think about stress make you healthier? Yes Pounding heart prepares you for action □ More oxygen gets to your brain When people view stress is helpful, their blood vessels stay dilated □ Limited Constriction ○ Your body can work for you when you're stressed Change your thought patterns about stress View it as an opportunity, not a detriment ○ Oxytocin Stress makes you social Neurohormone □ Fine tunes your brain's social instincts □ Crave physical contact What is PTSD? (Whiteboard Video) Veterans Health Administration □ Increases empathy □ Stress hormone Motivates you to seek support Tell someone how you feel! Your stress response wants you to reach out to other people ○ Heart has receptors for the oxytocin hormone Helps strengthen against damage When you seek support, you release more of this hormone □ You recover faster from stress ○ You have a built in response for stress resilience ○ When you view your stress response as helpful you create the biology of courage • Class Discussion ○ Make stress meaningful ○ Use it to mediate the work that you do for school ○ Stressful Situations You can identify the source of the stress You can bring an array of weapons to address that What if you can't Identify the source of the stress? PTSD Treatment: Know Your Options □ Anxiety Veterans Health Administration □ A clinical psychologist would tell you that there is something causing the arousal, but you're not allowing yourself to see it because they are too fearsome ○ The grieving process is what you are doing to channel other people PTSD Video • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - Videos ○ Reliving the event ○ Avoidance Staying away from situations that recreate the trauma ○ Feeling guilt, pain, and anguish ○ Sudden rushes of anger, or Hyper-arousal ○ Treatments Cognitive processing theory (CBT) □ Skills to manage the systems □ Change negative thoughts about trauma □ Confront memories EMDR Medications □ Anti-depressants (SSRIs SNRIs) □ Benzodiazepines - DO NOT IMPROVE PTSD, Harmful side affects ○ Other symptoms Chronic pain Substance abuse Depression TBI - Traumatic Brain Injury Insomnia • Class Discussion ○ Prolonged Exposure Therapy Huge dropout rate? □ Yes In order for this to work it has to be set up properly Because of the nature of the providers it is done in group work as opposed to individuals It depends on the therapy setting One on one therapy seems to work better Quiz 4 Page 1 Anxiety, Arousal, and Performance Wednesday, February 24, 2016 10:52 AM Measurement of Anxiety • Hull-Spence Tradition ○ Learned how to be affectivein doing things as a response to stimulus situation ○ Anxiety as a source of motivation A lot morework with people as opposed to rats □ Starving □ Thirst □ The relative contributor to drive We can manipulate arousal through the source of anxiety We can study change through anxiety • Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS) ○ How people differ in the way they view the world ○ Got experts and mimed the MMPI MMPI, 567 item test with opinion statements,true or false ○ Is there a predisposition to be anxious? Pick items from MMPI and format it for our test, is the world threatening or non- threatening? □ 20 true false items to evaluate I'm upset a lot (example) If you take a test and have 10 items, they should correlate □ Shown to be internally consistent □ Has test, retest reliability Look at the behavioral implications of the test Find correlating evaluators □ Does anxiety relate to coping self-efficacy? □ Does stress and anxiety contribute to performance? • Spielberger Trait-State Anxiety Scales ○ Ten years after TMAS ○ Taylor made a mistakes Items like my heart is beating fast, clammyhands, out of breath a lot □ Not direct measures of anxiety □ ANS (AutonomicNervous System) responses ○ Get rid of all the items that are ANS items Put in psychological items Came up with 20 psychological items ○ His scale needs to correlate with Taylor's scale Psychologicalanxiety is a contributor to ANS reactions ○ The difference between trait an state Trait - a relatively consistent anxiety response based on your personality or character State - an environmentalcontributor to anxiety response Unrelated to each other, not correlated □ If the environmentis stressful, you will feel just as anxious as the person who has anxiety in general □ Level of anxiety increases regardless of disposition in a "state" • Beneficial Stress ○ Hull-Spence tradition Person who thinks the world is a threatening place lives in a threatening place □ Developbehaviors to react when they feel threatened or aroused □ Developbehaviors to react when they feel threatened or aroused □ A bunch of sUr and sHr Will have good coping skills A non-threatened person does not have good coping skills □ Little sUr, no sHr • Trait anxiety in the classroom ○ Katahn Series of studies using college students □ Freshman got a battery of tests Anxiety test SAT/ACT scores History of classes □ Peer evaluation of classes What kind of professor is x? Behaviors □ Found that people with low trait anxiety sought out more passive teachers, people with high trait anxiety sought out more aggressive teachers Papers □ High A trait people like stress Grades Needs and Motivation Monday, February 29, 2016 10:38 AM Needs and Motivation Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs & Psychetruth, Psychology & The Secret To Happiness, Corrina Rachel Video Notes PsycheTruth • Maslow's Hierarchy of needs ○ People need to take care of themselves physically in order for them to build their psyche ○ Physiology and psychology affect one another ○ Happiness is not a physiological state Just the first step • "Secret to happiness" ○ Self-actualization The deficiency needs are at the bottom of the pyramid/hierarchy We find that most are not as concerned with the deficiency needs as people might think □ Don't care what people think of them □ Spend time alone □ Close personal relationships □ Risk takers Fulfilling the deficiency needs give temporary pleasure, but they are not the answer to long term happiness □ If you focus on those, you will be distracted from-self actualization Work off the top needs in the hierarchy Happiness comes from operating at the top of your needs ○ Self-esteem must be generated within Expressive needs □ Learning new things □ Accomplishing goals □ Taking care of your body ○ Serve other people Self-Esteem • There was a push for a while to push kids self-esteem ○ An attempt to manipulate self-esteem from the outside in ○ The idea was that this would drive competency • Has been misused • It IS necessary ○ Should be driven by self-actualization ○ Should also be driven by self-efficacy Self-Efficacy • Bandura - social cognitive model ○ Self-efficacy Do you have the skills to deal with a certain situation? ○ Confidence to execute in a certain situation Quiz 4 Page 4 Needs and Motivation (Cont.) Wednesday, March 2, 2016 10:48 AM Maslow's Hierarchyof Needs • Two authors who have addressed the issues ○ David McClelland and John Atkinson • David McClelland ○ Motivationin societies ○ An interesting approach ○ Noted that people differ in terms of how they find achievementa satisfying outcome Doing something in order to achieve The process of achieving is rewarding People like to be informed about what they are achieving □ Knowledge of results Situations where the individual is responsible for his or her own actions The Business entrepreneurial has all these needs □ People of this mindset will be driven to this occupation Assuming entrepreneurs drive economicsuccess the level of achievementshould impact the economic growth the of the societiesa generation or two later □ Economicgrowth is a positive function of need for achievement ○ A Different measurement in psychology Projectivetests □ Rorschach tests Ink blots Person had to interpret what the picture showed □ When you see something that has an ambiguous meaning you will project yourself on the picture which aligns with your thinking □ Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Shows a series of ambiguous photographs One makes up a story just prior to the picture being taken You project your personality on the picture □ McClelland went to popular literature of the time to identify the economicstructure of that time Horatio Alger - Industrial revolution ◊ Books about boys who rise from poverty to fortune If the books were concerned with entrepreneurialactivities, the economicstructure was positive. If the books weren't concerned with entrepreneurialactivities, the economicstructure was negative • John Atkinson ○ Two types of people in the world People who are very high in need for achievementand that need for achievementis greater than their fear of failure, nAch>FF People who have a high fear of failure that outweigh their need for achievementFF>nAch ○ Lookedat the groups experimentally Predict how their behaviors are different from each other Both are motivatedto achieve positive affect, positive pleasant outcomes Two measures □ Need for Achievement □ Whether you view the world as an anxious place, Fear of failure Split the measures Incentive Model multiplication □ Score on nAch x P x I = Approach to task behavior nAch - Need for achievement P - Probability I - Incentive □ Score on FF x P x I x Avoidance of Task Behavior Explicit assumption- the incentive value of success is a probability of the function of success Incentive Failure - positivefunction of probability of success Showed that tasks of moderatedifficulty are more pleasant to people who have a high need for achievement than are tasks that are very easy or very hard People who have a high fear of failure will avoid tasks of moderatedifficulty, but will go after tasks that are very hard □ There is no shame in failing something that is very hard Problemswith the incentive model □ The dichotomizing of the two; they are not as clear cut as a table would reflect □ There are correlationsbetween the anxiety measures and the need for achievementmeasures □ What is incentive value actually? □ Does not work nearly as well with Females as it does with Males Horner has shown that there is a tendency in some womento avoid success. ○ Less prevalent today than it used to be Quiz 4 Page 5
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