Lecture 1 History 104.6
Popular in History of Native Americans
Popular in History
This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by bridget berning on Monday September 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to History 104.6 at Illinois State University taught by Linda Clemmons in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see History of Native Americans in History at Illinois State University.
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Lectures notes?? Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!
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Date Created: 09/14/15
History 10406 81815 Think of stereotypical words that describe Native Americans Casinos Reservation Tomahawk Alcoholdrunks They talk to trees 0 Wolves Lower class 0 Brown skinred skin Feather crownmocasins Piercings Tattoos 0 Animal skin TEepees Buffalo 0 Eagle Sacagawea Corn Savages warlike or peaceful All live in south west 0 Closed off from society 0 Appearance Headress Uneducated Not involved in US affairs or history Activists 82015 His 104 Write down things you notice about these sterotypical kids cartoons Chanting songs Dancing around re Teepees Feathers Drums and other made instuments Planes indians not all the indians are planes indians Speak broken engish Smoking drugs All the indians looked the same Peter pan and wendy look different Gender roles more equal in real time Stereotype that they werent equal quothowquot is a Lakota word of greeting but only for one tribe Daffy duck cartoon Lakota pole in the desert Teepees Facepaint headress feathers Guns violence horses riding Drums again usually was a sacrede thing and these cartoons are mocking it gt watch was a sundial gt doorbell was a drum 0 totum pole was in desert wasn t supposed to be there supposed to be in the Northwest 0 Low man on the totum pole is actually the most important because they are holding everyone else up Short ad video Stoic monotone straight face no emotion or laughing 82515 Bering Strait Theory this could be on test 1 The origin of native americans Science versus religion evolution creationism a Scienti c tradition i Bering strait theory during the ice age a land bridge appeared in the Bering Strait Scientists called this quotberingiaquot b They traveled from russia asia and other places to Alaska and other places 12000 15000 years ago c gt ancestors spread south to South America The problems with the Bering Strait theory 2 scienti c problems a never been proven b time frame gt 13000 25000 years ago c DNA evidence what they have found has questioned the origin of them so where are they really from 3 Native american spiritual beliefs a Reject i Origin stories oral history stories werent written down b One example is Navajo DinE i Believed originally lived underground after they were exiled they climbed up to another world ii Then they were exiled again and had to climb to the 3rd world iii Then they were exiled again and had to climb to the 4th world 1 The 4th world is the world we live in right now Politically charged Conspiracy theories 0 50000 year old skeleton south america 0 The Kennewick man possible test term 0 1996 two young men were boating on Columbia River Kennewick WA 0 Found a skull took it to a coronor found a complete skeleton after furthur searching found out it was 9300 years old 0 Oldest and most complete skeleton ever found in the USA 1 Science a quotcaucasoidquot discredited b after some research they decided the bones were ancient but maybe not Native american c Race Of kennewick man d Ethical question should the skeleton be studied at all i 1990 NAGPRA Native american Grave protection and repartation act ii human remainsobjects September 1996 5 native american tribes sued to repatriate skeleton to return it and properly bury it o 8 anthropologistsarcheologists countersued o court case decided in 2004 not an ancestor of present day Native Americans 0 NO repatriation Scientists could still study the bones but only once a year or so CT scan of bones 0 Hunter spear hunter spear point embedded in his hip Several broken bones that didn t heal right obviously He was buried on purpose some sort of ceremony Race Polynesian Today bones are still being studied in class excersize 1 What were some of the ethical issues brought up by the article the buried child was hit by a bulldozer scratched of red ocher glued bones together 2 At the end of the article the author questions Bering strait theory Why DNA evidence shows that they came 10000 years earlier than they thought Paleo Indians vs Paleo Americans 82715 1 Introduction the use of terms a First example is quotprehistoryquot i Lakota winter counts No history Oral history only Lakota winter count o plains One person historian One picture several pictures Winter count 0 read circular not left to right shows a different side by reading circular tribes used symbols or pictures to communicate o storytelling was a very formalized process The elders of the group would start and then pass the stories down 0 Pre contact Pre colombian Second example of problematic words 0 New world old world Americas Europe Third example Uncivilizedbarbaicprimitive Colombia River Trade Network 1 South West irrigation systems a quotPre contactquot systems were better than the new ones built in 1930s 2 Northwest connected entire paci c North West a The Dalles OR b North basketsskinsberries c South obsidian d East buff hides e West whale oil shells f Dalles salmon i Developed protocalls for diplomacy also created their own sign language Fourth example staticnever changing lakota live in South DakotaNebraska Typical plains culture Started in Michigan and Minnesota grew rice had semi perm houses didn t always hunt buffalo An example of Precontact Society Cahokia term A Short timeline a Notes about the images 1st grand plaza 2nOI no grass little houses built mounds like the pyramids creek river Monks mound trees grass hill 0 Artists rendition of what Cahokia might have looked like houses teepees color tall teepees shacks look somewhat sturdy dirt road trading village wood henge circle thing of wooden sticks sticking up from ground Looks like a bad fence Artifacts found at Cahokia little smoke pipes made out of clay Maybe shaped stones or shark teeth 0 Animal teeth maybe spearheads AD 700 small settlements established in Cahokia area AD 800 small settlements began planting corn AD 900 corn became major eld crop 0 So the communities grew AD 1000 quotGolden agequot of Cahokia 20000 population 0 covered 6 sq miles houses arranged in rows built around plazas 0 quotGrand plaza of Cahokiaquot 40 acres Built 120 mounds 50 million cubic feet of Earth moved to construct the mounds 5 million man hours to construct 1 mound monks mound 100 feet tall 1000 feet long 800 feet wide wood henges they think they were used for calanders built 2 walls around Cahokia vast agricultural elds 0 organized politicalsocial structure powerful chiefs AD 1200 population slowly began to decline in Cahokia Theones 1 Climate change 2 Pressure from outside enemies 3 Exhausted the resources in the region this was the most popular and likely theory AD 1300 Cahokia abandoned replaced with small indian villages 1600 French explorers thought the mounds were built by Vikings 0 Issues today 0 Skeletal remains found in mounds Should they be excavated or left in Peace Nagpra 1990 Native American Grave repriation act Dickson mounds o Excavated in 1920s left open for visitors they saw Native skeletons 0 quotopen grave sitequot Native Americans protested this said it was disrespectful Some recommended it should be closed 0 Then local residents protests Native activists protested on the mound Tried to rebury the skeletons on their own a compromise was reached noninvasive study had to be completed then the site would be closed 0 Then they were reburied 0 Money for museum highlight Native life in the region His 104 9115 Issues with contact the colombian exchange 1 Native american population numbers at contact a We cant know for sure the exact number of them Ideology each era has given different estimates 19th century population estimates were very low 0 primitive uncivilized the stereotypes 21St century ideology o liberals said that the population was high 0 conservatives said that the population was low 0 Critical of arrival of Europeans 0 Led to halocaust or genocide for Native americans Liberals thought 112 million Maybe Conservative put the population numbers low so they wouldn t have to explain about the halocaust or genocide Population numbers US gt 5 15 million 19th century 250000 2015 2 million the largest tribes chereokee and navajo 2 The colombian exchange in general a First topic what did Europeans bring to the americas i Historian alfred Crosby 1972 ii exchange between Europe and americas of people food plants animals and ideas 10 What did Europeans bring to Americas Diseases small pox and in uenza Animals horses sheep goats cows pigs chickens 0 Horses were very important They brought rats by accident because the rats were on the ships Also they brought cats honeybees cockroaches Technology guns gunpowder tradegoods Crops wheat barley oats fruits sugar cane o Dandelions brought over within the seeds also something else that a lot of people are allergic to Native language was changed after europe came over Sioux plains Called themselves DakotaLakota meant friendally They moved south encountered Ojibwe enemies Dakota quotNadousuquot enemyadder They couldn t understand quotNadouesuquot so they shortened it to Sioux B Second topic what did the americas give to Europe Crops corn beans squash tobacco cotton potato tomato Wealth gold silver furs Medicines quinine gt used against malaria and was used in precontact times 0 Also novacain 11 Diseases syphilis still being discussed 0 Language gt caribou racoon bayou typography something 0 Massachusetts chicago North dakota south dakota 3 The most important part of the colombian exchange disease a Virgin soil epidemics term i Small pox measles in uenza b Europe some people developed a natural immunity 0 Native american had NO immunity gt this is where quotvirgin soilquot comes from o The people had no immunity Death rates 50 95 amount of people that will die to the diseases small pox lasted very long 1500 late 19th century 0 small pox rst broke out in Hispaniola present day Haiti and Dominican Republic 1516 spanish sailor arrived sick He didn t mean to spread it Infected by person to person contact or bedding Once infected 810 incubation period 0 People tried to run away from small pox they ended up spreading it more 12 13 High fever 104 aches vomiting rash lled with liquid Rash was the worst The consequences of Virgin Soil Epidemics 1 population 1055 90 95 ebola was 40 in comparison There wasis no cure for small pox gt Mexico before contact 25 million 0 100 years later 13 million 0 most of decline came from diseases 1492 1800 1837 1840 gt north america 74 decline 0 brought by steam boat Epidemics today 0 Survivors of disease were immune forever 0 variolation 1022 AD lady blew a ground up scab into peoples noses 23 people died from that England milkmaids cowpox 1796 quotvaccinequot quotvacaquot means cow in latin 1800 gt 100000 people were vaccinated US 1949 AfricaIndia 1967 World Health organization 1977 last known small pox in Somalia 1980 world declared free of small pox 1972 no more small pox vaccinations Alaska 197080s Alaskan pipeline encountered native Alaskans not protected against measles Virgin soil epidemic 7 death rate History 104 Sept 3rOI Native American Encounter the Spanish and French 1 The Spanish in America a Background information Two reasons they went there 1 Gold Wealth also silver and money 2 God Christianize L cathoHc West indiescubamexicocentral america south america BrazH 14 Spanish sent explorers into US looking for Gold and wealth gt they didn t nd any gold or people to christianize formed small mission settlements o in south westflorida st Augustine Florida 1565 0 1st mission in NM 1581 0 Santa Fe founded as spanish mission in 1609 0 American mission settlements 0 conversion to catholicism 0 live in nearby settlements unmarried women lived in the mission supposed to attend mass everyday forbid native religious ceremonies punished if they continued to worship their own religion 0 physical punishment whipped labor done by native americans Why do Native americans want to move there 0 1 disease their community was wiped out o 2 protectionmilitary defeat couldn t grow their own food 0 3 some natives wanted to use the missionaries priests taught Native americans to read and write overtcovert resistance 0 covert means hidden 0 ex work slowly in elds breaking tools overt means open spanish know they are resisting 15 Pueblo Rebellion of 1680 0 background 0 1 culturalreligious oppression o 2 labor gt the spanish made Pueblos work really hard 0 3 Died gt from disease and forced labor 100000 Pueblo before spanish 1680 17000 just before rebellion o 4 Reprisals 1675 47 religious leaders were put on trial at Santa Fe 0 all found guilty of quotwitchcraftquot 3 hung 44 were whipped and hurt in other physical ways Rebellion led by Pope he was one of the 47 he went to prison and was released pope coordinated across New Mexico 0 Pueblo were located all over Taos Pueblo NM pope sent out runners with knotted strings o of knots told community when they were going to rebeL caught had to change the date at the last minute they sent out new strings destroyed the missions killed 21 out of 33 priests at the mission 0 2350 spanish settlers 375 died in the ght 0 the rest ed back to Mexico 16 Importance gt the rebellion was successful for the Peublo spanish left after the rebellion to Mexico 0 stayed away for 12 years 0 1692 Spanish return 0 1696 Pueblo under spanish control again 0 But things were slightly better Worst abuses did not happen again II The French Background info French in Canada upper mid west North East mississippi river 0 wanted to convert north americans to catholisicm and they wanted Gold 0 wanted to create a trade empire fur trade lndians would hunt the furs for the French 0 Indians would get something in return Quebec montreal initially french were stationary indians traveled to them 0 Then they switched that around B The fur trade Coureurs du bois Based in quebecmontreal 0 lled up canoes with fur followed long circuits traveled 1200 miles for some trips stopping in multiple indian villages these guys were single young white male adventurers 0 most never returned to France 17 either died or just never went back and raised self up socially 0 that was their goal 0 attempted to form a partnership with Indians gt they were nice to them if there was problems they attempted to use diplomacy to x them Adopted some indian attributes dressed like them 0 Learned their language traveled in indian canoes Wore mocasins gt they were critizised for becoming quottoo indianquot Married indian women women who were high up in the society Metis gt means mixed lndian mothers french coureur du bois fathers o grew up between 2 cultures some went on Adventures also and were good traders Problems in the Fur Trade 18 1 French used violence to get what they wanted 0 early 18th c used violence 2 Coureur du bois spread disease through all the vMages 3 Alcohol some became addicted 4 North American women exploited 5 Metis caught between 2 worlds not accepted by either They went both ways in both communities 6 Over hunting nite products killed animals for fur then they had no food 0 Maybe an essay question comparing and contrasting French and Spanish in this context C Jesuit Missionaries Catholic quotBlack robesquot nickname because they wore those traveled to Indian villages 0 would preach there convert small number of North Americans in the villages o as they returned convert more and more Wanted them to move into catholic villages 0 large population black robes not very successful but somewhat successful to Metis His 104 Sept 8th Native americans and the English 1 Introduction a Latecomers century after spanish 1st arrived i Spanish gt laborconversion to christianity ii French gt fur conversion to christianity iii English gt land conversion to christianity 1 Farming wars 19 Problems 1Landoss 2 Livestock diseases caught by indigenous animals 3 Politics factions 4 Warfare a Small scale gt became large scale b Seasonal gt became continuos c Ritual quotcoutning coupquot i Became actual killing The Chesapeake Colonies maryland virginia Jamestown ll Jamestown and Indians Opechancanough Jamestown 1607 Powhatan confederacy o 30tnbes 0 20000 people at rst english were not a threat 0 very few of them there at rst 0 English seen as inept swamp death 80 threat 0 number of colonists increased 20 21 tobacco gt John Rolfe 0 land 1622 indians rebelled for 1st time Powhatan39s brother led this 0 opechancanough possible test term was the brother 0 killed 347 settlers caused people to ee away 20 years violence back and forth 1644 opech 500 colonists o opech was killed indians eventually lost 16071646 ceded lands to English Pocahontas known for saving the life ofJohn Smith
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