Chapter 3 Notes
Chapter 3 Notes 41087 - AST 115 - A
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Monday September 14, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 41087 - AST 115 - A at Missouri State University taught by Robert S Patterson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Basic Astronomy in Physics 2 at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
Astrology Codified by Ptolemy Wrote a set of rules used to interpret a person s fate Not subjected to testing by prediction and further observation aka pseudo science Arguments against Astrology 1 Statistical Millions have the same birth date but not the same fate Cause amp Effect What force can explain the alleged relation 3 Precession Signs of the zodiac were associated with the constellations of the zodiac when natal astrology began Due to 2000 years of precession the signs are in different constellations Heliocentric Theory Reproposed by Copernicus Estabished the correct order of planets from the Sun Panets closer to the sun orbit faster Moon orbits the Earth A planets orbit the Sun counterclockwise thought it was circular orbits Tycho One of the greatest observational astronomers He carefully made nontelescopic measurements of Planets over time Measured parallax of moon comets but failed for stars this is how he realized stars were much farther away Hired Kepler for math help Kepler Was given Tycho s data when he died Spent 25 years in search of the true motion of planet s orbit ellipse Eccentricity 0 Circle less than 1 ellipse 1 parabola Galileo Known for telescopic observations first person to observe and report it Discovering Venus goes through phases This proved that Venus must orbit the Sun Discovering moon has mountains and sun has spots This proved that heavenly bodies were imperfect contrary to greek beliefs Discovering Jupiter has 4 moons Proved that ifJupiter s moons can keep up with Jupiter then Earth s moon can keep up with Earth Discovering there are stars too faint for the eye to see Galileo was convinced that Copernicus heliocentric theory was correct But was forced to recant that statement He remained under house arrest for the rest of his life studying the motion of objects Used the Tower of Pisa experiment to show that acceleration is independent of an objects mass if air resistance is neglected Newton Contributed to many fields optics heat mechanics astronomy etc Coinventer of calculus Pubished results in his book quotThe Principia 3 laws of motion 3 Requirements for Placing a satellite into orbit 1 Earth s gravity 2 Substantial horizontal velocity 17500 mph 3 Substantial altitude 100 miles Light behaves like water waves Wavelength Distance between 2 successive peaks in a wave Frequency Number of peaks passing an observer per second Speed wavelength Frequency Speed of Light C about 300000 kms The Electromagnetic Spectrum from longest shortest Radio Microwave Visible light Red Orange Yellow Blue Violet ROYGBV Ultraviolet Xray Gamma Ray Photons very small packets of energy that light consists of Reflection The direction of travel of a light ray changes by bouncing off a surface Refraction The direction of travel of a light ray changes as it passes from one transparent material into another Dispertion Decomposition of light into its component colors by a prism Wavelength color measured in nm Longest Red shortest Violet Doppler Effect The pitch frequency of a sound wave is affected by the motion of the sound source This also occurs for light The observed wavelength of light is shifted from it s rest value Blueshift Relative approach shorter wavelength Redshift Relative recession longer wavelength Doppler effect can be used to determine radial velocity or lineofsight speed or approach or recession Telescopes Refracting Uses convex lenses Reflecting Uses concave mirrors 4 Types of Reflecting Telescopes Newtonian Prime Focus Makes the brightest image With no secondary mirror to cause light loss or distortion Cassegrai Uses 2 mirrors to reflect light through a hole in the primary mirror Coude Uses 3 mirrors to direct light to a remote focus away from moving parts of the telescope Properties of a Telescope Magnification Makes objects look bigger and seem closer M Focal length of objectivefocal length of eyepiece LightGathering Power The ability to detect faint objects depends on the area of the objective Area dquot2 Resolving Power The ability to see fine detail Depends on diameter quality of optics and status of atmosphere This is why telescopes work better from space Segmentedmirror technique Making a large mirror out of smaller pieces fitted together like floor tiles Astronomical Detection Equipment Photography Spectroscopy View the spectrum of stars Photometry uses light sensitive vacuum that measures star brightness ChargeCoupled Device CCD Does photography spectroscopy and photometry Radio Interferometry Operarting 2 or more radio dishes at one time Must use telescopes in space because other wavelengths don t reach Earth Stars have colors because they are luminous objects Luminous Gets so hot it creates color depending on how hot it is Red least hot Blue most hot Different Types of Spectrum Continuous spectra all colors Absorption line spectra missing a few colors Emission line spectra Shows only the few colors that are missing in the absorption line spectra used to determine chemical makeup Bohr Model of Hydrogen Atom Atom consists of a single proton and one electron Electron can only be in one of certain circular orbits The farther the orbit is from the proton the more energy the electron has
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