Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarabeth Cunningham on Thursday August 7, 2014. The Bundle belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 117 views.
Reviews for Plagues.pdf
These are great! I definitely recommend anyone to follow this notetaker
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/07/14
Plagues The Ecology of Disease 8814 1255AM What does it mean to have a disease A harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism o Infectiousassociated with pathogens which are more often than not microbes living communicable tranferable o Non infectious can be caused by chemicals environmental factors the way we eat 0 Symptoms o Normal healthy non diseased vs diseased o Zoonoses diseases that can be passed from animals to people for example the West Nile Virus Important to understand how diseases are transmitted in order to understand how to manage plagues Picnic 500 pp 147 are showing symptoms Disease vs Pathogen Similar but not the same A disease is the interaction of the host with the pathogen Pneumonia a generic description for severe lung congestion Disease Triangle Dynamic system 0 Host Pathogen Environment Must have all 3 components Shutesbury 1819 Death at a young age life expectancy Differences in Mortality Vaccines Antibiotics Antiseptics Drugs Clean water Refrigeration Pasteurization Education Research 0 Pesticides Tuberculosis Triumph over disease 1962 the virtual elimination of the infectious disease as a significant factor in social life 1990 Pathogens evolve and change Resurgence of Disease Example of a re immerging disease whereas an immerging disease was AIDS Microbial Evolution and Adaptation Living things evolve Microbes evolve quickly Infectious disease never decreased in many parts of the world Most of Africa Parts of S America Parts of Asia Poor countries have a much greater percentage of deaths by infectious disease 6 Diseases 90 Malaria Burden of disease Economic impact is great Leading cause of premature death from infectious disease Malaria O O O O Kills mostly kids A million ppl a year Tropical parts of Africa mostly Also in Asia and parts of s America Incidence how many cases of disease Know things like Malaria is one of the 6 diseases that kill 90 Cholera O O O O Bacterium Water system Toxin Destroy lining of intestine Diarrhea Dehydration Organ Failure Must contain the excrement O O O O 0 One of the most contagious diseases Kills 900000 a year Blinds many more Easily controlled through vaccinations Suppresses the immune system Tuberculosis O O O O 15 million per year Complications with aids People who have aids are much more likely to get TB Incidence 2 million people Pneumonia 0 Acute respiratory infections o ARI AIDS 0 8000 people every 24 hours What are germstypes of Microbes Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa ns Microbes Size Something special Adapt Bacteria Viruses Protozoa Helminthes microscopic worms Fungi 0 Not a lot of human disease 0 Most of plant disease Thus indirectly effect our health Verrrry tiny Protozoans are usually a bit largermore complicated Helminth 0 Usually pretty large but can be microscopic sometimes Most microbes are not germs Not pathogenic Can be quite beneficial 0 Beer A yeast is converting sugars into alcohol 0 Cheeses 0 Bread 0 Mushrooms 0 Break down stuff Living organisms after we have died What is disease and what isn39t disease Disease versus Breaking Down 0 Opposite end of the spectrum When do they eat Pathogens 2 Living organisms Microbes other than pathogens 2 Nonliving We support a huge microbe pop Many are transient 0 Don39t grow or reproduce Most important are resident Commensal 0 One benefits and one isn39t bothered o Lately it seems like it is a mutualistic interaction Protection from disease Parasitic 0 Cause us harm or disease We are super organisms Microbes Up to 10 of our body weight We haven39t really been able to culture them 0 Isolate outside the body Genes 100 times more genes for microbes in us than our own genes Most live in our alimentary system 0 Stomach Jeff Gordon Strain of rats with no microbes in alimentary system Anytime they are in contact 0 Get sick 0 Proves protection theory He can make some rats fat Product Yogurt A healthy yogurt 0 Probiotic O wwwsciencebasedmedicineorq Probiotics website Jury is still out Fecal Transfer Treatment for CDIF Bad micro biota Gums and mouth similar to arterial paque heart disease may be infectious Proporiobacter causes acne Body Odor Underarms and genitals Can be microbial Don39t function until puberty sexual attraction BIG THEME all about food Ecology The scientific study Infectious Disease and Eating infectious disease is merely a disagreeable instance of a The Black Death PP2 Ecology of Disease 8814 1255AM The Plague First Pandemic 0 Justinian s Plague 541750 25100 million people 2 world pop much lower Second Pandemic o Black Death 13471750 killed 75100 million globally Third Pandemic 0 18551959 125 million higher popuation Associated with rodents o Not always rats 0 Sometimes goffers Molds and Diseases Poisons of the past Mary 0 Ergotism throughout history Ergot alkaloids suppressed immunity Claviceps purpurea Structures produced fungal spores o Spores created the infection 0 Infected the rye o Produces sticky and sweet What is behind toxins Eaten by animals fungus cycle in the fungi s interest to keep more rye plants around defensive mechanism Wildly spread mechanism Endophytes an endophyte is inside the plant fungi related to claviceps lives in blades of grass protects grass from grazers nutrients from grass LSD is produced by ergot Not all things that LSD are bad Positive results on depression recently Salem Witch Trials Psychological 0 Mass hysteria 8814 1255 AM Tituba slave from Barbados Property reasons Martha Carrier Cotton Mather Passed judgment Modern Ergotism Contaminated flour St spirit france CIA The Columbian Exchange and Infectious Diseases Small Pox o Vaccination mark 0 US vaccinations for small pox stopped in the 80s 0 Small pox has been eradticated 0 Chicken pox on steroids kind of situation 0 Scars and killing Aztecs o Cortez was able to take over people 0 Small pox wiped out a large section of the Aztecs Pustules Large bumps Spread everywhere Unable to change position Motion was painful Starved to death Pizzaro Captured the incan empire with 167 men Intimidation horses exposed population to small pox and other diseases War Mortality Disparity between estimates 9 million people present before contact 22 afterwards small pox and other diseases Transmission and Bio Warfare Small pox primarily transmitted by airborne droplets Fomites virus on objects such as blankets Jeffery Amherst Other Diseases Virgin soil epidemics Measles Diphtheria Influenza Dyphoid fever Scarlet Fever 0 Chicken pox Whooping cough Leptospiriosis o A bad yellowing of the eyes 0 Bleeding o Bacterium 0 Water supply or soil Mortality Rates E 10 in old pop 30 in new pop NA exceed 90 Decimated societies no one to care for ill Domestic Animals it was hard to domesticate African animals Animals and humans living together Microbes could pass through Irrigation Water borne parasites Livestock and Disease Many major killers of humanity had origins in human hosts Smapox catte cowpox Fu0 pigs and ducks Meases catte Malariabirds Pertussispigs and dogs Coevolution of Pathogens and Hosts Small pox made the jump to ppl 10000 years ago 0 Mummy of ramses V 3000 BC Americas Moved up and down Africa Moved up and down Eurasia Left to right Trade routes were plague routes Resistance 0 with each generation lower mortality rate Developing a Balance Process of periodic epidemics continues until disease becomes endemic in a region Endemic o Constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in a place steady sustained transmission Epidemic 0 High levels of disease at a particular time Mortality 0 Rate of dying Morbidity 0 Rate at which the population is infected Adaptive Immunity 0 An individuals response to a pathogen 0 Generally lasts for a lifetime 0 Adult survivors would be immune Resistance Mortality in European populations where smallpox was endemic about 3 to 10 Genetic resistance selected over generations plus adaptive immunity acquired where disease was endemic Jenner39s Improvement 0 Women who milk cows would sometimes develop cowpox 0 Not lethal 0 Maybe this is related to smallpox 0 Don39t get smallpox Vaccination Jenner produced the vaccine Large scale inoculation Empirical o Jenner made some test 0 Didn39t understand how it worked Eradication Smapox we are the only hosts Vaccine to interrupt infection 1977 last case of smallpox reported Bangladesh In storage in Russia and US The Columbian Exchange Movement of microbes around the world Started in 1493 Continues today Superstition to Science What did people think caused disease Wrath if a good being malice of a bad being Gods or god Curses and spells People who are different jews and gypsies Animals Some idea of transmission Miasma Dieseases like the black plague or cholera 0 bad air 0 stagnant o swampy areas Epidemic influence 0 Rotting veggies o Gases More objective Spontaneous Generation Maggots are gross Things could develop from inanimate matter Aristotle Shakespearean England Blood Generation Theory von Leibig Girolamo Fracastoro 1536 0 minute bodies direct contact carriers air Freidrich Henle 0 Living Parasitic organism Redi experiement New technology Microscope Anthrax Sheep and other grazing animals Sometimes ppl Appear and disappear Wools orders disease skin anthrax bioterror gastric animals were eating soil and getting disease letters in 2001 22 ppl infected 5 died focus on video slides and book Herd Immunity Idea that everybody in a population doesn39t have to be vaccinated for a whole population to not get the disease Influenza The mortality rate for our demographic was 20 times higher than any recorded influenza before Began in the US 3 waves probably started near Kansas spread quickly bcuz of war mobilization 2quot wave 0 that fall o no effort to isolate or quarantine
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'