Lecture Notes and Study Guides
Lecture Notes and Study Guides ART 283
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley Medina on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ART 283 at Central Michigan University taught by Scott De Brestian in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 318 views. For similar materials see Intro to Western Art I in Art at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/15/15
Chapter 2 Ancient Near East The fertile valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Mesopotamia permitted agriculture on a vast scale allowing rapid population growth Con ict over the control of the water supply was one of the factors leading to the formation of centralized states and the world s rst empires the center of political power shifted north to Babylon and later the kingdom of Assyria In the 6th century BC the rising empire of Persia conquered both Babylon and Assyria building an empire stretching from Egypt to India from Uruk alabaster c 32003000 BC 25 from Ur Wood inlaid with shell limestone and lapis lazuli c 26002400 BC 28 sandstone c 23002200 BC 213 Ur mudbrick c 2100 BC 215 from Susa basalt c 1780 BC 218 Dur Sharrukin Khorsabad c 720 BC 220A Lamassu c 720 BC 220 Nineveh modern Kuyunjik Iraq alabaster c 645640 BC 223 Babylon glazed brick c 575 BC 224 processional frieze from Persepolis limestone c 520465 BC 227 1 successive bands or friezes p31 a carved stone slab set up to commemorate a historical event or in some cultures to mark a grave p36 a highly effective way of distinguishing the most important largest gure from those of lesser rank p31 a convention of representation in which part of a gure is shown in pro le and another part of the same gure is shown frontally also called twisted perspective p23 group of wedge shaped signs Marks the beginning of writing p33 high platform p33 building plan that is organized around a central axis that forms a center of symmetry and leads you into the building Typically the most important room will be at the end of the axis opposite from the entrance point colossal limestone monsters ex Winged manheaded bulls p46 very thin slabs of stone that line a wall a curved structural member that spans an opening and is generally composed of wedge shaped blocks voussoirs that transmit the downward pressure laterally p48 re History of Western Art ART 283 Sept 9 Class 4 The Origins of Civilization 0 City States in Mesopotamia The Royal Tombs of Ur Akkad The First Empire Previous Lecture Continued Sun rose right behind the quotheel stonequot during the solstice Stonehenge may have been used as a calendar to track the seasons farmingharvest Location of cremation burials possibly of important gures in the community Healing shrine Middle East Mesopotamia greek Meso land potami river Greek for the land between two riversquot Tigris amp Euphrates Land mass that forms a huge arc from the mountainous border between Turkey amp Syria through Iraq to Iran s Zagros Mountains p32 Mesopotamia was poor in certain aspects Lacking materials like stone and metal Very at more people preferred to live by the mountains People started to live there because they had water and mud Made the landscape very lush There were a lot of animals made good for hunting With some work the land was well suited for farming Had the most fertile land in the ancient world They could trade their food to neighboring cities for other materials gold stone Anything large made from stone was imported because there weren t large stones there If the stones were brought in they are assumed to be important Buildings houses and temples were made of mud brick Bricks were made of mud and straw Buildings were either mud or plaster covered The bricks would start to fall apart after being rained on repeatedly They would have to knock the buildings down break the mud up and build right on top The cities eventually rose up off the ground Mesopotamian Tell manmade hill resulting from building Oldest artifacts are found nearer the bottom of the tell Uruk made by Samarians Large collection of people Had a king and a temple for the godsgoddesses quot quot from Uruk Warka C 3300 3000 BC o 4 12 ft tall 0 Alabaster stone 0 Large stone important imported for temple use 0 4 bands called registers 0 Bottom register is water and plants 0 2nOI register from the bottom are male amp female sheep 0 3rd register are men with baskets or jugs carrying gifts to the goddess 0 4th register is a man giving a large woman an object Depicts a life cycle or a hierarchy 0 Main goddess of Uruk lnanna fertility goddess 0 She makes sure everything runs smoothly crops as long as she receives her tribute Vase shows clear organization unlike Lascaux 0 Human gures are an active participant here 0 Hierarchy More important down to less 0 Way people are living is changing so is the art 0 May also be representing the belief that the land came from under water the book of genesis History of Western Art ART 283 Sept 11 Previous Lecture Continued Mesopotamia was resource poor no metals or stone But they had a lot of water and mud Earliest city is Uruk Land of Sumer Inanna Ur Leonard Woolley British archaeologist best known for his excavations at Ur p32 Discovered royal cemetery 6070 skeletons were found in the tombs PG 1237 quotreconstruction Bodies of servants Evidence that guards were killed by blow to the head Servants may have been okay with dying once the king died because the living conditions while serving were better than possibly starving or being murdered C 2600 BC Peace side and War side Found by Woolley May be a wooden ag but can be sure what it is Wood shells precious stone Lapis Lazuli blue red limestone Stone comes from a mountain in Afghanistan Imported stone gives the impression that this piece is important Shells and stones are stuck to a tarry like substance called bitumen Bitumen is made of hydrocarbons byproduct of oil Serves as a glue 3 rows War side Top row shows prisoners of war nude Important gure is larger hieratic scalehierarchy of proprtions 2nOI row soldiers are stripping down prisoners Bottom row shows men in chariots showing powernobility King leads them to victory Hierarchy top to bottom Peace side Top row shows all the men sitting King is larger They re all wearing skirts There is a man playing a harp The 2nOI amp 3rd row show men bringing tribute to the king Everyone has a role to play The kings here were not absolute rulers Akkad Sargon was a servant to the king Had the king done away with unsure of the details Takes the thrown for himself takes over neighboring cities Akkadian Empire IEII EliIII F3939l Franl F39iZ ll H C 2300 2200 BC Depicts Naramsin after defeating neighboring peoples Shows him in composite pose Wanted to make him look like he has no aws Everyone is looking to him Horned helmet object associated with gods only gods wear horned helmets more hornsmore important Mountains are thought to be the home of the gods A record of this event is etched on the mountain quot Writing is called Cuneiform Latin Earliest tablets had pictographs instead of writing Akkadian Empire only lasted a short period of time 50 years Made arti cial mountains for gods C 2100 BC Mud brick Nanna is the god of Ur God of the moon The top building was for the god only a select number of people were allowed in Wavy texture was used to make the building more intriguing Chapter 1 Prehistoric Art Modern humans emerged around 100000 years ago in Africa and perhaps elsewhere and are rst found in Europe approximately 50000 years ago during a period of extreme glaciation the 39lce Age This period is known as the The rst evidence for artistic production is about 32000 years old and consists of cave paintings and both smallscale and relief sculpture The climate began to warm 12000 years ago resulting in signi cant changes in the way humans procured food The domestication of animals and the development of agriculture belong to the period The adoption of more sedentary lifestyles led to experimentation in architecture Austria limestone c 28000 25000 BC 15 Lascaux cave France paint on limestone c 16000 14000 BC 11 from Lascaux Cave C 16000 14000 BC 112 wall painting from Catak HoyUk Turkey c 5750 BC 116 Salisbury Plain England sandstone and dolerite c 28001500 BC 120 freestanding sculptures p18 Nonrepresentational forms and colors arranged without references to the depiction of an object p5 The style of painted or sculptured representation based on close observation of the natural world that was at the core of the classical tradition p401 wall painting p22 megaiths great stones to designate Neolithic architecture emplying them as megalithic p27 the arrangement of megalithic stone in a circle often surrounded by a ditch p28 construction two upright stones posts support a horizontal beam Iintel p28 joint used to hold pieces together Comprised of a hole and a peg that ts together to make a simple but strong connection l9
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