Epi Chapter 7
Epi Chapter 7 HCMG 3701
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Bahja Benford on Monday March 7, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HCMG 3701 at Clayton State University taught by Michael E. Dalmat in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Intro to Epidemiology in Nursing and Health Sciences at Clayton State University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Epidemiology Chapter 7: The Policy Arena I. Introduction -Moist noteworthy (and overlooked) area/use of epidemiology is using epi methods towards policy area-which is a growing concern for epidemiologists. - They have the knowledge (and skills) needed to get the data they need- as far as policy development is concerned. What do they do? - Research - Expert witness in a group (recs) - Testify before Congress - Advocate (for new policy) What is a policy? - Plan or course of action, intended to influence decisions, actions, or other matters. - Some can eventually become laws. Health Policy: related to the health arena (food, water, air related) - NOT LAW. Linked with the development of them. Policy Cycle: can be @ any level- state, federal, national. Most important: WHAT ARE YOU TRYING TO ACHIEVE? (Policy definition) Adopt procedures- safety and health of a community. Protection from health hazards. - If the cycle doesn’t work, you have to start all over again. Groups Involved With H.P. Policy Actors: get the policy rolling from the ground up. Stakeholders: affected by the policy decision Special Interest Groups: specific cause (can include lobbyists) Example Policy Implementation: smoke free bars (state and individual/county) - First adopted in Cali. - Are not state laws! - Cannot smoke @ Fed. Facilities Risk: Likelihood of experiencing an adverse effect. Risk assessment: odds of someone getting injured, etc. Risk v. Benefit: decision analysis Steps in R.A: 1. Hazard ID: NOEL, LOEL 2. Dose-response assessment: 3. Exposure assessment 4. Risk characterization: all 3 in 1. Risk Management: specific actions. Control exposure in specific settings Screening for Disease Questions: Who should be screened? What conditions should be screened? Which circumstances should they be used in? What age should it begin with? Mass v Selective Screening Screening Test Desirable Qualities - Needs to be important - High cost benefit rate - Sufficiently prevalent - Effective treatment available - Reliability (consistent) and Validity (true measurement) - Test can be invalid and reliable but not valid and unreliable - Inv & Reliable: bathroom scale incorrect weight Positive Predictive Value: A/A+B x 100% Negative Predictive Value: D/C+D x 100% FN (false negative) is worse because the results are negative, but they have the disease. 80% or higher= GOOD RESULTS
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