Week 2 and 3
Week 2 and 3 RLST 3000-010
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Rachel Dyer on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Bundle belongs to RLST 3000-010 at University of Colorado taught by Sam Boyd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Christian Traditions in Religious Studies at University of Colorado.
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So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future
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Date Created: 09/15/15
CHRISTIANITY Jewish Backgrounds v So in some sense this one is obvious yes Jesus was Jewish of course then Jewish Backgrounds to the New Testament are going to be important 0 Beyond this basic statement though understanding the beginning and development ofJudaism during this time is incredibly important oz 1 Understand how the authors of the New Testament used the Hebrew Bible 0 When Paul in 1 Corinthians 10 talks about a rock that followed the Israelites in the wilderness which refers to a story in Exodus 17 and Numbers 20 this is called quotmidrashquot oz 2 Understand some of the stories and sources cited in the New Testament that do not appear in the Hebrew Bible or in Greco Roma literature but were a part of literature from a period called Second Temple Judaism think dead sea scrolls 0 THE MENTIONS OF JANNES AND JAMBRES IN 2 TIMOTHY 38 as the magicians who opposed Moses Jannes and Jambres are not where mentioned in the Old Testament or the Hebrew Bible oz 3 Understand terms used by New Testament authors such as quotworks of the lawquot in Paul 0 Works of the law like circumcision and Sabbath In the Beginning oz quotJudaismquot as a religion has a surprising starting point Its not in Genesis think more EzraNehemiah o in fact there were big differences oz Okay so is there a date 0 Well kind of 539 BCE marks in many ways the beginnings ofJudaism The inhabitants ofJudah that were taken off into exile that were later allowed to return and build their temple 0 722 Assyrians conquered Israel 0 586 BCE Babylonians conquered Judah and destroyed Jerusalem o 539 BCE Cyrus Josephus the Roman era Jewish historian quotSo the Jews prepared for the work to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem and the Temple that is the name they are all called from the day that they came up from Babylon which is taken from the tribe ofJudah Josephus also gives us muvh more information during the time of the New Testament that would otherwise beost ln Acts 53536 two toherJesus like gures are said to have risen up According to Acts Theudus rose up and then Judas rose up 0 According to Josephus the order us reverse it was Judas and then Theudus Josephus had some very disputed references to Jesus and John the Baptist oz Scholars used to call the period between the Hebrew Bible and the NT the intertestemental period 0 The implications 0 The problems O O O 1 Not everyone believes in two testaments 2 Turns out that this literature and period is very signi cant Some of the books in the Hebrew Bible thought to have been written earlier were actually likely compiled during this period think Daniel Ecclesiastes and 12 Chronicles The manner in which the NT authors interpret the Hebrew Bible is Very similar to many interpretations found in the Dead Sea Scrolls Language in Early Christina texts in the NT is also found in documents from the Dead Sea Scrolls oz Second Temple Judaism O Scholars prefer to call it Second temple Judaism instead of Second Literature Because a new temple was built which stood unto 70 CE but it was sacked This historical delineation is interesting Second Temple exists approximately from 520 BCE to 70 CE Paul the only Pharisee whose writing we possess wrote his letters between around 5253 CE according to Christianity tradition Paul was killed later Major events in ST 167 BCE the Maccabean revolt begins 164 BCE and continued for years in outlying areas The recovery ofJerusalem is the basis of the story of Chanukah The Maccabeas in the region until about 63 BCE at which point Rome came to power 0 Between this time many of the Maccabean rukers who at some point declared themselves prests and kings which is a major offense as they were only supposed to be from the line of Aaron 0 At some point in the 2nCI century CE many jewish community got fed up and made new sects and got sectarianism Essenes A desert dwelling people who renounce worldly goods the community rule and initiation rites 0 Take your worldly goods and shared it with the community 0 Rituals might have including water puri cation called mikva baths looks like baptism Things have been excavated near where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found 0 They had much more extensive sense of authoritative religious texts o No free will only fate or divine determinism is operative in the world oz Sadducees 0 We do not know much about this group 0 Their name probably comes from a Hebrew word that means upright 0 They are the opposites of the Essenes oz Pharisees 0 Name refers ro rhose who separate 0 They believe in the combination of free will and divine fate 0 They had a very similar authoritative book like early Christians O They had very similar concepts of justice and the resurrection of the dead The only writings we have from Pharisees is Paul himself which makes the tie to Christianity much stronger They have a bad name in Christianity but they are very similar Early Christianity in many was a Jewish sect oz Second Temple Judaism and early Christianity O 0000 In fact early Christians in many ways could be considered a sect ofJudaism In fact early Christianity was considered a sect ofJudaism y the Roman empire until around 150 CE The parting of the ways debate to some people it was not until much later with the writing of the Talmud EX Jesus teaching in Matthew 19 about divorce he falls on one side of a preexisting debate Rabbi Shammai made it very hard to get a divorce Then the other was much more liberal Halakhic as an adjective refers to anything legal Halakhah is the noun referring to legal orjudicial concepts Aggadic is an adjective to describe the narrative Midrash afrom the drsh meaning to search Speci c midrash refers to a particular body of literature namely rebbinc commentary General any type of interpretive technique that the rabbies use in Midrash Jesus uses Genesis to answer Deuteronomy is classic midrashic technique Classic rabbinic skill In many ways Jesus seems to t with the sages and prophets of the time Development of the NT quotI m What is the earliest manuscript of the NT 0 P52 P MEANING PAPYRUS o It contains verses from the book ofJohn chapter 18 E When is P52 dated o It is debated The earliest is 120 CE this is very early We don t know if the book ofJohn was written by John John was the last apostle to die so if that is true then this was written right after his death The fragment is very small without more context it gets tricky 0 There have been recent reports of an earlier manuscript of the book of Mark However the only people who have it are not letting anyone in scholarly circles see it In What about the growth and development of the NT generally 0 What do we know and how do we know it First evidence of the list of books that s telling us what we read as Christians is the Muratorion Canon 0 180 CE at the earliest but some people date it as 400 CE 0 What books are recorded in the MC Not all the NT 0 Only 23 letters ofJohn 0 Revelation is mentioned but as a book along with the Apocalypse of Peter that some will not allow it to be read in church 0 2227 books are listed so 5 are missing 0 Also some books not contained in the NT are included in the MC the Apocalypse of Pere and the Shepherd of Hermas 0 Some writers considered the Shepherd of Hermas to be part of the authoritative Scripture quoting it with equal authority as other books 0 The most important thinker in this regard is Tertuian rst person to use the term New Testament to refer to the books Tertuian was also the rst person to use the term Trinity and the rst Christian in Latin 0 An early Church historian in the 4th Century CE is Eusbias a court historian for Constantine Names three categories of books considered authoritative 1 The ones that everyone likes homologoumena Gospels Acts and Letters 0 2 The disputed antilegomena o 3 The spurious notha the Acts of Paul NOT the same acts the Sherpherd of Hermas and the Apocalypse of Peter and Revelation and the book of Hebrews o The rst time we see the books in a list that we recognize comes in Athanius Easter Letter He lists the books in the Jewish Order 0 Also added the book of Baruch And claimed that while some books were good they are not part of the canon The Shepherd of Hermas o The Christian Bible varied sometimes regarding the order of books and the books in the Canon Manuscripts well into the Middle Ages have additional books as part of the canon for certain Christian communities 0 Different versions of Christianity have different numbers of books The Ethiopian Orthodox church have 88 books The Protestant cannon has 66 books in the Hebrew Bible and the NT In Why did a canon develop at all 0 Marcions Marcion was an early Christian leader wo came to reject all of the books in the HB under the Platonic belief that an ecil god called the demiurge created esh and that is the god who is in the HB this is the bad god Marcion formulated the belief and a canon that consisted in a version of Luke that was much shorter it might have been around before him or he might have shortened it to t his belief And there were the letters believed to have been written by Paul 0 Marcion had a major in uence and is sometimes called gnostic along with another major group of Christians 0 Marcion was not actually a gnostic at all though parts of their beliefs overlapped o Marcion s insistence on a smaller srt of authoritative books and rejection of others led to his excommunication from the church in 144 CE According to some Marcion s in uence also led early Christians to de ne the canon In other words because Marcion s list was deemed harmful to the religion and unacceptable it got church leaders to begin to wonder which books should be accepted as part of an authoritative set of books 0 If your view on people is that the esh is evil how do you read of Genesis lt ips it it makes the snake the good god and the god who tells you not to eat the apple the bad god Were the books associated with an apostle Was it widely disseminated Was it in accordance with the developing doctrine Was it catholic in accordance with all Christians We have seen that the book of Hebrews was for a 0000 long time not considered canonical yet it eventually an argument was made that Paul wrote it Paul did not actually write the book but enough people were convinced Is What happened to all the other books 0 Many were still read and regarded highly by early Christians but did not make it in 0 There were other books that were considered more dangerous 0 Those labeled gnostic were written about by early Christians such as lranaeus and Tertullian Many of those writings were lost untol Nag Hammadi 0 Two nomads were traveling rumored to have been coming back from a ght and they camped to spend the night and started digging their camp and hit something 0 They discovered a sealed jar buried in the ground In the sealed jar were 12 codices with about 52 works in them 0 Most of which we label as gnostic problematic o Platos Republic was also in the jar This jar was probably hidden because of the political environment of the time o This discovery opened up the world of lost varieties of Christianity from their own perspective I Constantine and the Council of Nicea o This had nothing to do with what books got in and what didn t get in nothing to do with the Bible quotIs This process was very complicated
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