Week 1-3 Notes (Typed)
Week 1-3 Notes (Typed) Music 170
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Cynthia Bressler on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Music 170 at Kansas State University taught by Dr. Maxwell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 273 views.
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Date Created: 09/15/15
History of Rock amp Roll Notes 19205 Shaped by WWI Horrific devastation o Incongruous combo of modern warfare amp old world strategy I Ex armored vehicles poison gas soldiers on horseback with swords o 10 million soldiers killed 100K Americans 0 Radical art movements arose in reaction to global political upheaval I Ex Literature Dance Music had more edginess to it I Also money in uence people had money to buy arts Emergence of Jazz in America New Style based on large ensembles Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington Glenn Millers Inspired a sense of free spirited attitude strong rhythms jagged melodies big sound 19305 Shaped by stock market crash of 1929 26K businesses failed By 1932 25 jobless rate families into shantytown Depression was both psychological amp economic 19405 Shaped by WWII American soldiers returned in triumph GI bill allowed highest college enrollment ever Boom in birthrate Children in 19505 would have more allowance to spend on Rock amp Roll music Chapter 1 World Before Rock amp Roll World of Mainstream Pop Before 1955 National vs Regional 0 Early post19th American culture was regional I People conditioned by immediate surroundings I Less travel amp access to national world news Popular music was associated with geographic region Emergence of largescale entertainment media 0 Radio was only regional until 1928 0 NBC went Coast to Coastquot with radio in 1928 305 amp 405 were golden age for motion picture Music was an important part of that National exposure caused less distinction among these styles of mainstream pop Up until 1945 records were not played on radio Rise of radio networks in the 19205 Network shows during 305 amp 405 o Soap operasquot sponsored by soap companies Guiding light Superman Lone Ranger Television introduced in the late 19405 Many longrunning radio series moved to TV Tin Pan Alley amp sheet music publishing industry Area in NYC with high concentration of music publishing companies 1St half of 20th century sheet music was way to go to sell music How they made 10005 of songs written by pro songwriters Irving Berlin Cole Porter George amp Ira Gerschwin Ierome Kern Goal was to get as many singers as possible to perform songs more versionsmore royalty money Big Bands 305early 405 Big rhythm section bass brass Led by permanent leaders who were instrumentalist Benny Goodman TommyJimmy Dorsey Glenn Miller Singers were merely featured soloists for variety Bing Crosby Most important pop singer of 305405 Relaxed crooning style generated a string of hit recordings Swinging on a Star 1944 White Christmas 1942 1945 Had successful film acting career The Mills Brothers Tiger Rag Paper Doll You Always Hurt the One You Love Both Mills Brothers amp Andrews Sisters foreshadowed 19505 doowop amp harmonies Frank Sinatra Went from big band singer to solo In uenced as singer to set stage for rock amp roll I ve Got a Crush on Youquot 1948 Big Band era ended at end of 19405 due to financial hardships Too costly an enterprise Tin Pan Alley supplied songs to singers backed by smaller combo bands until 1955 Pop Music in early 19505 Singer is out in front of the music 5010 vocalist with instrumental background Wholesome songs are meant for family audiences children their parents amp grandparents Patti Page How much is that Doggie in the Windowquot 1953 Hit Les Paul amp Mary Ford introduced the solid body electric guitar to their vocal duo style I m Sittin on Top of the Worldquot 1953 Country amp Western Music 2 Distinct regional styles until late 19405 Country music in 1920s1930s southeast 0 Early examples Carter Family Roy Acuff 0 Nashville became center for recording this type of music in late 1940s Started in Appalachia quotWesternquot music in 20s amp 30s California amp SW 0 Connection with Hollywood movies about cowboys 0 Gene Autry was the first of the Singing cowboyquot movie stars Jimmie Rodgers the first country music star He was to country music what Gene Autry was to western music Blue Yodelquot Other country singers imitated his singing style 20s country radio stations 0 Atlanta Ft Worth Nashville Chicago 0 Grand Ole Opry went coasttocoast in 1939 Country Music during WWII Soldiers stationed together shared country music interests Southerners migrated north for factory jobs after war brought music with them AcuffRose publishing company key element in country music growth 0 Signed Hank Williams as songwriter Hank Williams Personification of 1950s country amp western music 0 1St important recording Tin Pan Alley song Lovesick Bluesquot Ioined ranks of Grand Ole Opry in 1949 Relatable lyrics emotional expression common conversational lyrics Your Cheatin Heartquot Cold Cold Heartquot Hey Good Lookin quot OOO Bluegrass music 1St performed in Opry in 1939 Gained popularity in 40s 0 Used as theme music for TV series amp movies Bill Monroe amp His Bluegrass Boys 0 Fiddle banjo mandolin vocal harmonies Blues Beginning of blues 0 Post WWII sheet music by WC Handy sold nationally Memphis Blues St Louis Blues Bessie Smith recording artist 0 Hit Downhearted Bluesquot sold a million copies in 1923 recorded in NY with finest jazz musicians Delta rural Blues 0 Robert Johnson Cross Road Bluesquot 1936 I In uenced rock amp roll with his guitar style amp accompaniment Urban Blues 0 Blues musicians moved to cities amp formed combos o By early 19505 Chicago was center of electric blues 0 Had more of a dance feel than delta blues ump blues 0 Louis Iordan amp the Tympani 5 GI livequot 1944 Caldonia Boogiequot 45 Choo Choo Ch Boogiequot 1946 0 Dance tempos big band style upbeat style humorous lyrics Blues amp music business cont 0 Black audiences grew in urban area during 19405 which created a market for city radios to create stations blacks liked 0 Now that blues was on the radio teens could listen too Post WWII Independent Record Labels 0 Labels opened specializing in rhythm amp blues I Sun Records Memphis Chess Records Chicago King Records Cincinnati Atlantic Records NYC I Independent labels weren t able to sell nationally only locally Gospel Music In uence 0 Southern blacks learned to sing in church so their harmony ideas and lyrics came from gospel music 0 Ex I Got a Womanquot Ray Charles Chess Records in Chicago 0 Founded 1947 by white blues fans Phil amp Leonard Chess 0 Low budget facilities and equipment 0 Specialized in solo singers backed by small electric bands Muddy Waters John Lee Hooker Bo Diddley Little Walter Atlantic Records Black Pop 0 Founded 1948 by Ahmet Ertegun ampu Herb Abranson o Focused on a more polished singer out front with controlled amp structured arrangements Ruth Brown Big Joe Turner Clyde McPhatter Ray Charles DooWop Urban Vocal Music 0 Couldn t afford instruments so acapella became their harmony o Doowop nonsense syllables in vocal arrangement 0 Ex Shboomquot 1954 In the Still of the Nightquot 1956 Chapter 2 Rock amp Roll Explosion 1st Wave of Rock amp Roll Performers included blacks amp whites o Fats Domino Little Richard Chuck Berry Elvis Ierry Lee Lewis Bill Haley Buddy Holly Post War America 0 Golden Age 19551960 0 Older generations viewed as rock amp roll threat I Believed to encourage unacceptable moral practices that were associated with black culture 0 Middleclass teens listened to this music in large numbers Rise of Youth Culture in 1950s 0 Previous gens assimilated into their parents culture after HS 0 Post WWII white middleclass teens were given fewer standards to comply with Movies appeared with a rebellious theme 0 The Wild One Marlon Brando Rebel without a Cause Iames Dean 1955 o Blackboard Iungle 1955 about delinquent teen 1St movie without rock amp roll Rock Around the Clock 0 By 1955 rhythm amp blues was being called rock amp roll Bill Haley amp His Comets 0 Originally disc jockey playing in countryswing band named the Saddleman o In 1954 band signed with major label Decca 0 Released Shake Rattle amp Rollquot amp Rock Around the Clock in 1954quot Radio amp Records 0 Alan Freed amp the rise of the disc jockey o Discjockeys received gifts in exchange for playing records 0 Indie independent labels worked at getting records into jukeboxes Elvis Presley 0 1St artist to have hits on all 3 charts repeatedly 0 1st rock amp roll artist to gain interest amp investment of major label RCA 0 When signed to RCA in 1955 the company started the actions that brought rock amp roll into pop mainstream Elvis at Sun Records the Hillbilly Catquot 0 Owner Sam Phelps started Memphis Recording Service in 1950 o Specialized in recording black musicians amp singers BB King Howlin Wolf Elvis gets signed by RCA 0 Heartbreak Hotelquot 1956 I pop number one country amp western 1 rhythm amp blues 5 I started television appearance amp move deals 0 lune 5th Milton Berle Show Elvis does controversial performance to Hound Dogquot sexuality new upbeat tempo no guitar risqu dance moves O 0 Sept 9th 1956 Ed Sullivan Show I Elvis appears on season premiere first television performance since Hound Dog debacle TV only showed him from waist up I Biggest star in America by now Paid 50K for 3 appearances on show Major shifts in Elvis s Image I Drafted into the army in 1958 I Returned from Germany singing with a softer more pop feel Parents now accepted him as well as his music Post 60s Elvis was more crooning love songs geared towards family audiences Crossovers amp Charts 0 O 0 During 1St half of 20th century music business became very large amp organized Magazines were on stands with music trades amp trends Billboard Cashbox Charts had 3 categories pop rhythm amp blues country amp western Crossovers are hits that appear on one chart amp then one of the other two Covers White artists would cover controversial black artists songs with a bit of a twist to words or the style to make more sales to the white family oriented audience I Ex Tutti Frutti originally sung by black artist Little Richard but covered by Pat Boone with less sexuality and became a huge hit By 1954 25 of rhythm amp blues hits were crossovers By 1958 it was 94 Black artist began to crossover in 1955 O Fats Domino Antoine Domino from New Orleans Ain t it a Shamequot hits blues 1 amp pop 10 From 19551963 Domino had 37 top 40 singles Little Richard I Most amboyant 1950s performer Had a wild performance style manic singing piano pounding strong rhythm leg on piano I First to wear makeup on stage I Had super suggestive lyrics Chuck Berry 0 O O 0 Not threatening to families like Richard more clean fun Lyrics were directed specifically at teen listeners to adults seemed clean but had underlying sexual tones teens picked up Enormous in uence on rock amp roll especially his guitar style Maybelline Johnny B Goodequot 0 Johnny Cash 0 Became a major figure in the country amp western scene during the 60s Folsom Prison Bluesquot Walk the Linequot
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