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PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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Date Created: 08/11/14
STUDY GUIDE THE CONTESTED ORIGINS OF AN ATLANTIC WORLD 1607 1776 LECTURE 1 THE ATLANTIC WORLD IN THE 17 CENTURY What were the consequences of the massive circulation of people and goods in the North Atlantic A Sir Francis Drake 1540 s 1596 Pirate voyager slave trader Spanish treasure hunter Queen Elizabeth I knighted him and sent to fight the Spanish in South America 1577 First Englishman to circumnavigate the world renowned seaman of Elizabethan Era heroic figure Wealthy looted treasures like gold and silver Defeated the Spanish Armada second in command in British Navy 0 Personifies idealistic notions of Britain heroic liberty expansion B Queen Elizabeth I explanation for venturing out to do good in the world guided by moral compass C Europe has a self proclaimed hierarchical position in the world Significance of William Blake39s D But living standards in other parts of the world were similar to that of Europe China wealthiest in 150039s ships Africa Mali Empire capital city is Timbuktu Aztecs Mexico City Tenochtitlan largest developed city 25 million population Europe Peasant wedding httpenwikipediaorgwikiThe Peasant Wedding similar lives SO most nations had the resources to explore Why Europeans E They HAVE to migrate problems at home Land is scarce supply overpopulation in cities demand wage wars for control over resources no freedom of religion Reformation especially for England which is a tiny island Queen Elizabeth ENCOURAGES people such as Drake to venture out to the world to supply britain s resources not self sufficient F ATLANTIC WORLD HUGE MARKETPLACE GOODS AND PEOPLE l Exchange of Energy l Slave trade most significant group of migrants to NA are Africans Geography Caribbean vs NA NA was an afterthought winds 1607 Caribbean was the most resourceful place with crops like sugar cocoa tobacco coffee and was exploited much earlier 1500 s Ethnicity Most British settle down in the Caribbean NOT NA Spread of diseases Syphilis smallpox New colonies develop and old civilizations such Aztecs die out to 900000 people Auxiliary services such as banking insurance ship building develop LECTURE 2 COMMERCE AND CULTURE How did the native peoples and Europeans deal with each other A Natives were the most powerful diplomats traders decision makers and are not savages Natives WELCOME Europeans They dealt with each other through interests commerce negotiations B Interests and alliances Military Partnerships Hernan Cortes 1485 1547 Spanish explorer who conquered the Aztec Empire in Mexico Only 600 men to fight 25 million Aztecs How Small pox alliance with natives Significance t is mutually beneficial for natives and Europeans to cooperate and defeat a common enemy Military interests Natives hate the Aztecs whom they see as war ike and so embraces the Catholic ideals of the Spaniards Spain get ahead of Britain on the world map by conquering as much land as possible Commerce Trade partnerships Natives are curious to see what treasures the British hold and will trade with them interested in technology clothes Europeans in turn need their help with surviving in this new unexplored terrain leather boots bow and arrow fur trapping gold silver Negotiation Cortes common purpose shows that natives were powerful enough to negotiate Ope chan canough He whose Soul is White Luis de Velasco 1554 1646 Native who travels to Spain converts to Catholicism well travelled sophisticated man Diplomatically negotiates trade deals with Europeans outstanding politician Four Mohawk Kings in England invited by the crown Significance We cannot stereotype Natives presence of negotiation Hybridity HYBRID WORLD Hybrid community children lifestyle customs religion La Malinche Marina Cortes s mistress is a native Mexican perfect example of hybridity Her family messengers spread good ideals of Cortes La Malinche in turn uses her position to support her Mexican community The Dream of Mainche by Antonio Ruiz She is the support base for the entire Mexican community a new Mexico rising out of her httpphiiesugger assignment4bbogspotcom2009O3dream of mainchehtm Great League of the Iroquois httpenwikipediaorgwikiIroquois clashes frequently with Europeans Most powerful VITAL for Europeans to ally with them in order to succeed important factor in NA colony39s decision making full of interests negotiation Beaver Wars httpwwwohiohistorycentraorgwBeaver Wars early 17 century Main players in the fur trade tobacco alcohol wheat due to strategic geographic location in between tribes and Europeans Iroquois killed off most of the deer and beaver s on their own land they then exploit the rich hunting lands of the neighboring Ohio Valley tribes bloodiest wars Significance trade interests become apparent they fight other tribes rare to continue trading with the Europeans Mourning Wars Human resources are most scarce cannot afford to fight Replace people who died with people from other tribes new clothes identity and assimilate into their own tribe King Philip39s War Metacom s Rebellion 167576 Natives worried that there are too many Europeans overly dependent on them for goods less negotiating powers since fur trade dried up Overthrow Europeans deadliest wars ast fourteen months and destroyed 12 frontier towns Almost wins but loses just miles from Boston Mohawk tribe attacks them after conversing with the governor of NY who convinces them that an attack on Boston will dry up trade for the Mohawks as well Significance Natives don39t want to ally with the Europeans power of both Native fractions Europeans recognize that Natives are the real players and decision makers individual tribal trade interests LECTURE 3 LABOUR AND POWER BEFORE 1760 How did a handful of families dominate Eastern North America in the eighteenth century 1 in 5 people at the time were African American Slaves make up 60 of SC population majority So how did the whites maintain so much control without resorting to military means Why didn39t slaves rebel The great Patriarchs the right as the whitemae figure of the household and therefore the ability to govern Set up Households dominated by patriarchs independent vs dependent white gentry vs black labor vertical society upper vs lower The Plantation 1825 httpwwwmetmuseumorgtoahworks of art632013 Households Production Reproduction Sociaization William Byrd II 1674 1744 diary Both dresses and acts the part Stockings gloves indicate you are gentry ike and do not perform field labor wigs show status in society Control order over himself 9 therefore ability to govern the barbaric slaves Behavioral traits walk talk eat and dance my dance control over body I kept within limits of submission control over emotions home in Westover is built in Georgian Architecture style symmetrical But loses control sexuay Jenny and this frustrates him White men become sef procaimed leaders of society The Copley Family 177677 httpwwwngagovcontentngawebCollectionart obiect page46098htm Seating positions reflect expected place in the households John Adams 1735 1826 Intellect lawyer Represented as a patriarch of the time BUT one of the Founding Fathers supported the Revolution 239 US President Significance the American Revolution went against the core foundations of a patriarchal society Thomas Jefferson All men are created equal VERY radical at the time Interests Slavery in NA vs Caribbean Europeans new crops new jobs slaves needed to sow seasonal crops such as tobacco and wheat more PROFITABLE to treat and allow them to reproduce and increase future labor than to work them to death like in the Caribbean and ship in new slaves household jobs like blacksmiths maids Saves most slaves in NA at the time were from the Caribbean Conditions in NA were much better negotiates controls deals some leeway given not limited to economic value Black Gold Entire hybrid communities are allowed to develop Gullah Community 1790 Creole language clothes customs food accepted more into society and therefore less strife rebellions Only 5 of slaves were bought to NA yet 35 of all slaves between Canada and Argentina ended up in NA BUT still worked to death in some cases Rice Plantation 1900 Legitimacy of the British Empire Strong trade military Navy defeated Armada the Victory battle ship offers protection Personal sovereignty to the king loyal Africans Natives Coonias all are proud to be a part of the empire or nation not necessarily territorial as it is about people with common ideas uniting everyone is happy to be under the wing of the BE and does not rebel LECTURE 4 BORDERLANDS AND EMPIRES Why was there a balance of power in eastern North America in the early eighteenth century and how and why did this perfect balance suddenly break down Peace 9 Prosperity 9 Pride Rule Britannia 9 Hubris 9 Expansion9 war GOOD TIMES The Great Peace 1701 1754 longest peace in the US Borderland world Significance allows the colonies to flourish consolidate themselves NA Empire gt Colonists depend on the Empire to save protect them from Natives French The politics of negotiation httpfirstpeoplesofcanadacomfp treatiesfp treaties earyaianceshtm political relationship The Covenant Chain amp Great League of Peace and Power 1600 s Series of treaties between English colonies and Iroquois concerning state of NY and Iroquois Confederacy Land Covenant Contract promise relationship exchanging gifts alliances Chain series of obligations must be renewed Covered matters of trade settlements and resolved small sparks of violence BUT still Europeans tried to assert dominancy in an environment which fostered equality refereed to each other as brother but expected the Iroquois to call them father The chain later broke down when the colonies could not agree by themselves and they decided to ignore the Covenant and take a more active role dealing with the Confederacy as a sovereign nation Penn39s Treaty with the Indians by Benjamin West httpenwikipediaorgwikiPenn39s Treaty with the Indians Shows William Penn signing a peace treaty with a native tribe leader on equal ground no weapons represents peaceful negotiation They cultivate a positive relationship with each other as both recognize each other s importance Borderland world co existence agree to disagree Andrew Montour 1772 French native descent multiple languages negotiator interpreter middleman between cultures Represents mixing of cultures negotiations the kind of people that were important before the US was created Walking Purchase 1737 httpwwwbritannicacomEBcheckedtopic634678Walking Purchase Pennsylvania colony swindles land from Delaware Indians The Indians choose to consult Andrew Montour to negotiate chooses not to fight In everyone s interests to maintain balance of power Prosperity People are proud to be part of the British Empire Sovereignty to the King Population growth doubled every two decades between 1700 to 1780 life expectancy double that of Europe Immigrants Largest and best developed cities in the Empire Boston Philadelphia Independence Hall PA shows colonial prosperity Consumerism market for European goods people are wealthy in NA Ethnically diverse 20 African Americans Scots rish languages in NYC Londoners SHOCKED by sudden transformation ironic development Rule Britannica 1740 pride Britain rules the waves we will never ever be slaves War of Jenkins s Ear 17391748 British Empire Army and Colonials such as young George Washington who volunteer to fight for the British Empire VS Spanish to take total control over the Caribbean British WIN and capture Peurto Bello Significance Creates pride Legitimacy in the Empire colonials on the other side of the world fight British War British hubris leads to the breakdown ofthe BOP Siege of Louisburg Fort 1745 Nova Scotia Canada interior of NA Amateur militia composed of colonial volunteers to capture French land British colonials WIN as French surrender expect recognition and honor instead King George returns land to French King Louis XV that39s the TOWN Significance British hubris does not ask for consent colonials excluded from decision making treated as inferiors withdrawal symptoms begin colonials feel they can manage themselves better birth right Transformation from love to hate relationship from legitimacy loyal to King to dissatisfaction LECTURE 5 THE CONQUEST OF NORTH AMERICA Why did the British emerge in the middle of the 18quot Century as the most powerful people in eastern Northern America BOP suddenly WAR on a GLOBAL scale 1 British hubris colonials ready to expand and capture the interior Ohio Country clashes with French who are already there 2 British are the most populous ethnicity three generations backed by a strong Empire 3 The French and Indian War 1754 1763 httpmiitaryhistoryaboutcomodfrenchindianwartpfrench and indian warhtm httpvideoaboutcomeuropeanhistoryOverview The French ndian Warhtm First Global war most fighting over Ohio River Valley Quebec Pittburgh Louisbourg British recognize importance of Natives Ally with French in first half where they win Fort Necessity Braddocks and Fort Henry 1757 Neutral in 1758 British shower them with presents to gain favor especially after the first two disastrous campaigns in Forks of Ohio They later support the British whom they see as more powerful and useful for trade in terms of good quality goods British finally capture Forks in Forbes s Conquest Fort Necessity 1754 fight for Ohio River Valley httpmilitaryhistoryaboutcomodbattleswars16011800pfortnecessityhtm Braddock s Campaign 1755 Led by General Edward Braddock GW s mentor wears his sash to capture Fort Duquesne Sow progress through woods unused to battle style in NA Loses disastrously to the French who are backed by Indians Braddock is killed 800 British vs 30 opponents killed or injured Significance Eye opener for arrogant hubris British Importance of negotiation alliances with Natives alliance is vital for success War spreads on a global scale Forbes s Conquest 1758 British finally capture Forks of Ohio Learnt from past mistakes negotiates slow draws treaties builds in roads French abandon the area no fight one ofthe most peaceful land captures Pittsburgh named after British PM Pitt so welcome Shows what can be achieved by peaceful manipulative means instead of open meadow wars Siege ofLouisbourg Town 1758 The victory at Louisbourg opened the way for the British to campaign up the St Lawrence River with the goal of taking Quebec Battle of Quebec 1759 year of Miracles httpmilitaryhistoryaboutcomodfrenchindianwarpquebec1759htm James Wolfe vs Montcalm Quickest victory 20 minutes but costs both sides people their best leaders Win by manipulation to cross Lawrence River surprise early morning and effective attack techniques Captures Quebec Battle of Quiberon Bay 1760 Royal Navy block trade supply paths of French into Canada Starves during winter surrenders to British British manipulative techniques make them increasingly powerful no real fighting Treaty of Paris 1763 httpanswersyahoocomquestionindexqid20111030013017AAw56uW Ends the French ndian War British win most land by careful negotiation later no fights they have weakened opponents by now Canada and French colonies Florida from Spanish certain Caribbean islands ceded to British British now own all of NA dominant power In 1763 the British Empire is a global empire Pontiac s Rebellion 1763 httpmilitaryhistoryaboutcomodbattleswars16011800pPontiacs Rebelion An Overviewhtm What goes wrong British win with the help of natives But now hubris takes over again feel too powerful since they are the only dominant power in this region of the world mistreat Indians break trade ties reduce sale of gunpowder eliminates ritual gifts changes rules of the Empire 9 increasingly excludes them Indians Rebel Ottawa leader Pontiac together with several tribes aims to re capture British Forts nearly succeeds British worry repeals previous Amherst policies and returns to the old rules of the Empire formal peace treaty with Johnson at Fort Niagara in July 1766 New British Empire dilemma Trade off Protecting the Indians VS satisfying coonias Having recognized the inevitable conflict that would emerge between colonial expansion and the Native Americans London issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 which prohibited settlers from moving over the Appalachian Mountains and created a large Indian Reserve This action was poorly received by those in the colonies and was the first of many laws issued by Parliament that would lead to the American Revolution LECTURE 6 THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION Why did some Americans become so alienated from the British Empire that they chose to defy the authority of the King British Americans were the most loyal group of people to the King What happened for this to change Aftermath of the French Indian War 1 Proclamation of Independence 1963 Returns land captured by colonials Significance British hubris acting without consent Angers Militia who sacrificed their lives to win this hard earned land Colonies feel cheated of their own birth right by someone miles away rebels Stamp Act 1765 httpwwwushistoryorgus9basp Tax imposed on colonies to defray the cost British knows America is wealthier Cost itself was small but Americans argue that sovereignty exists through negotiation consent Communities choose representatives and form Congress passes the Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress Americans boycott British goods Britain loses most important market for their goods huge revenue losses Media and protest burn Hutchinson39s house Significance British hubris change from relative sef rue to direct influence over the colonies overnight Brings out all the issues in the open Americans and Brits realize their economic and human power boycott Unites the colonies Congress the colonies shall NOT be emancipated 3 Treated as unequa s or Slaves within the British Empire George Washington powerful Virginian patriarch and master of household treated as a bottom ranked soldier in the British army not recognized increasingly frustrated and dissatisfied British Expedition April 1775 Thomas Gage 2000 men British fleet go to Lexington to quell the colonial rebels Colonial Militia fights against the King39s Army Huge losses to the British Empire disaster Significance British hubris big head First time colonials actively fought against the king39s troops Establishes growing division Thomas Jefferson July 1775 On the necessity of taking up arms Significance Illustrates coonia s justification to fight against the British Empire and to defy the King39s authorhy QUICK SUMMARY OF PAST 6 LECTURES3 WHAT CREATED AMERICA 1 America was not important Atlantic World time used to grow wheat most immigrants are slaves 2 Great Peace early 17quot Century peace negotiation allows the colonies to flourish SUDDEN change Independence Hall most immigrants change over time 3 Natives interests powerful VITAL to ally to build America deciding factor in colonial territorial wars against the French 4 British Hubris colonials resist power to the point of revolution French ndian War 2 points aftermath War that made America Ironic developments people who fought on behalf of King are now fighting against George Washington 5 Great Awakening practice model new society republican ideologies equal in the eyes of God Thomas Jefferson in AR All men are created equal 13 random colonies to One nation under God MID TERMS HOW DID AMERICANS ORGANIZE THEMSELVES AFTER THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION THEMES 3sosgt gtIltw4gts 2 Balance of Power Power to the people or government Liberty VS Power Impulse can people govern themselves Resisting political parties in govt debate Andrew people govern effectively Extreme democratic version Shays gabriels where people fail to govern effectively and a strong govt is needed Constitution vague gives both power Bill of Rights govt limited in press Establishing authority power of the strong central Washington Administration Sedition Alien acts Extreme Federal WAY too much govt power The Whigs vs Jackson same debate where do public vs private interests begin and end Jackson39s letter quotes Organization Debate tension Political parties ideologies biggest debate is on the issue of Balance of Power Constitution Loose vs strong interpretations constitution gives power to BOTH the people and the government o Change over time SHORT NOTE 1 War first time they organized recognize America as a nation state first army colonies UNITE against British first constitution AR battles fought and victories show increasing organization military alliances Revolutionary wars Treaty of Paris 2 Federal Republic filter impuse national constitution first strong central government power to the govt amp people democratic constitution BUT people39s power is filtered as they are impulsive creating another empire British govt model taxing hay s Rebellion President Government structure 3 Authority in the new government Balance of power Actually Power to the people Democracy or display of Government Power Patriot King painting Funding debt tax French and Haiti Revolutions Whiskey Rebellion lay Treaty Overall STRONG central govt debt and taxing banks military and where people have power but it is filtered 4 Resisting Opposition establishing power to the people or how did people organize to protect themselves from this strong government political parties in govt tension debate opposition ideals results of democratic ideals spreading among certain groups of people fault vague ideals Constitution misinterpretations BOOK Media opposition Antfederal Club House of Representatives Jefferson39s Inauguration Address 1801 and Principles Methodists Gabriel39s Rebellion 5 Reading and Writing print media unitesdivides Connects Republic of Strangers equality in knowledge helping people govern themselves by reducing impulses sympathy in books American ideal unites and women39s novels unites women VS women blacks forever divided by society establishes border to not cross Postal Act 1792 Liberty and Knowledge Washington39s biography BBB Mary Wollstonecraft 6 Andrew and Rachel Jackson People who give into all passions and can govern themselves true American extreme Democratic ideals Jacksonian Era does it EFFECTIVELY Early life Duels Scar Rake quotArchitect of his own fortune WAR in 1812 7 Balancing Power and Liberty Public vs private interests two opposing views on same debate on extent of government power but Jackson emerges the winner of this debateeections The Whigs American System VS Jacksonian Democrats Maysville Veto Bank of the US LETTER quotes Dartmouth Charles River Bridge 8 The Political Economies Early nineteenth century America is BOOM Energy great change but why does it develop differently in North and South Railroads steamboats Time North Corn Factories Wage rate Family Farms small towns South Cotton is Kingl
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