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Notes PSC 2994

by: Bailey Notetaker

Notes PSC 2994 PSC 2994

Bailey Notetaker

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These notes cover the first half of the semester
Michael Barnett
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Bailey Notetaker on Monday March 7, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSC 2994 at George Washington University taught by Michael Barnett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Humanitarianism in Political Science at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 03/07/16
Humanitarianism: the attempt to relief the suffering of distant strangers  1/14 Humanity o Human, humane, humanity (all have equal moral worth) o Of course it is good…  No Lost Generation, education for Syrian refugee youth o But, perhaps…  Possible to create humanity out of “precarious lives”?  Action as generated by sense of self and sense of other  Phrasing credited to Louis C.K. o When Morals meets Politics  The world we are in right now, where the two come together o Readings: a way of thinking about humanitarianism that we should we concerned about  Intervention into precarious lives, who has a precarious life? How do we know they are vulnerable? What interventions do we do and how?  Laquer: humanitarianism is sometimes driven by some others objective needs, we find that a lot of humanitarianism is about our needs  Whenever we combine our need and helping other people, it gets messy  When we are humanitarian, we signal something about our character “look what a good person I am” a philosophy that emphasizes o Cosmopolitanism vs. the connection between the communitarianism individual and the community  the ideology that all human ethnic groups belong to a single community based on a shared morality o You want people to recognize your humanity or dignity, you have a history to yourself that has helped make you who you are as an individual  1/19: What generates our sense of Humanity? o When is our humanity triggered? o Suffering o Sentimentality  Pictures of suffering  Humanity is tied up with suffering of strangers o Mourning and the dead  Do the dead have rights? o Religious sentiments o Morality and politics  What happens to humanitarianism where there is a mixture of morality and politics?  Politics of a precarious life  Humanitarian government (poss exam Q) move away from idea as government being a complex set of institutions, different kinds of interventions by different actors who are joined to reduce human suffering.  “to manage populations and individuals faced with situations of inequality, contexts of violence and experiences of suffering.” (Fassin p. 5)  “A set of procedures established and actions confucted in order to manage, regulate, and support the existence of human beings.”  Government broadly defined  Support means short and long term development: deisgned to protect and create humanity  Expansion  Ethics of care  Humanitarianism – distant strangers  Ethics of care  Which distant strangers?  Distance: singer vs. Samaritan  Singer o The drowning child (Syrian refugee war) o Humanity and impartiality principles: all lives are of equal worth o The irrelevance of distance “it makes no moral difference whether the person I help is a neighbors child ten yards from me or a Bengali whose name I shall never know, ten thousand miles away.”  1/26: Progress? o Waldren and the Good Samaritan- proximity, what does it mean? Waldren’s analysis to our contemporary obligations o What happened?  Duties?  Positive Duties  Negative Duties  When did this happen?  Change in ethics of care  Something weird happened in late 18 century o Burst of compassion  Reform movements designed to relieve suffering:  Agency and structure/idealism and materialism  Economic change  Social and political change  Religious change  New ideas of reform of responsibility  Moral imagination  Humanitarianism and humanity  Why?  Is it still happening? 1/28  Compassion- dependent variable o Moral imagination expansion  Negative duties  Positive duties  (Anti-slavery) o Agents, actors- ideas (Wilberforce)  Religious groups, Quakers  Government  British military  Social movements o Structures o Which of haskells arguments apply most to today?  Ethics of care o Humanitarianism and an ethics of care  Can we care too much?  When does care become unjustified control? o Paternalism: represents a violation of the principal of freedom o Liberty/freedom: the interference with a person’s liberty of action justified by reasons referring exclusively to the welfare, good, happiness, needs, interests or values of the object of intervention o Defining features of act of paternalism:  Care  Interference  No consent  Mixture of care and control o Conditions for interference (john stuart mill)  Lack of competence  Lack of capabilities 2/14  Vincent Cochetel: I was held hostage for 317 days. Ted talk.  Human rights and humanitarianism o What are human rights?  The purpose of human rights is to articulate, codify, and enforce those rights that individuals possess because of their humanity, with the goal of helping individuals live a life that is flourishing and full.  What are those rights?  What is the source of these rights?  Natural law vs. positive law  Birds of a feather?  Humanity  Cosmopolitanism o Positive and negative duties o Positive and negative rights  History  Differences?   Humanitarianism  Human rights  Purpose It’s about saving lives, Survival, wants to save wants to save a few the world and many people lives  Principles Neutrality, impartiality, No sort of neutrality, independence impartial to relationship of human rights,  Politics Helps anyone that comes Deeply involved in to the door, aid agencies system, wants to bring don’t want to mess around justice, w politics  Education/training Used to just show up, but Law school, legal field, now need technical human rights courses degree. Training is in the are taught there field or masters programs  Skills Aid workers never name Naming and shaming, and shame, would get we have rights, evicted. someone has violated them. You can shame them publically.  Justificatory Discourse Justify themselves in Will talk about justice language of need and rights. Lots of justice talk. 2/9 and 2/11 Humanitarianism vs. human rights  Differences o Ambitions? o Ethics? o Sovereignty o Relationship to Global Power- imperialism. Colonialism, Westernization? o Humanitarian Governance and Paternalism  Expansion of humanitarianism o What are the drivers? o Security: New and old wars  Growing Normative Order o Human rights o Sovereignty o Development o Liberal Peace/Paternalism o Needs vs. rights  Operating Principles  Needs-based  Rights-based humanitarianism humanitarianism  Engage political  Eschew political  Advocate public policy authorities confrontation   Neutrality  Avoid taking sides  Take sides of selected victims  Impartiality  Deliver aid using  Skew balance of proportionality and resource allocation nondiscrimination  Consent  Pursue as sin qua non  Override sovereignty if necessary  Technology o Awareness (CNN effect) o Response time  Growing Role of States o Politics o Military o Money o Control o Politicization  Humanitarianism’s Dilemmas o Why worry? o Why worry now?  Politics  Goal expansion  Accountability  Rwanda o Bad outcomes  Risk the life of the rescuer  Endanger the person to be assisted  Moral hazard- provide succor to perpetrators  Threaten integrity of rescuer- dirty hands o Moral Dilemmas  Definition: when two competing moral imperatives conflict  NGO Dilemmas  Life  Broad values  Justice  Staff safety o Good intentions, Bad outcomes  Refugee camps  Contribution to war economy  Legitimacy  Population control ▯ 2/16 Why worry now?  Politics  Goal expansion- its now about rights, women’s empowerment  Accountability  Rwanda- through unintended acts we don’t know if we did more harm than good o Neutrality doesn’t make sense in Rwanda because of the genocide ▯ Bad Outcomes  Risk the life of the rescuer  Endanger the person to be assisted  Moral hazard – an insurance scheme that allows people to engage in bad practices. provide succor to perpetrators  Threaten integrity of rescuer – dirty hands o If you get anything done you are going to have to have dirty hands (Michael Walzer) ▯ Moral Dilemmas  Definition: when two competing moral imperatives conflict  NGO dilemmas o Life o Broad values o Justice o Staff safety ▯ Good intentions, Bad outcomes  Terry article- you may help prolong war or suffering  Flip side of this: you may help put the fires out  Refugee camps- most of these camps get militarized, great place for recruitment  Contribution to war economy o In most cases impoverished areas, most of the aid orgs come in with more money than all of the people have ever seen o A lot of their resources get stolen o Don’t know who they are hiring, people turn into rebels at night  Legitimacy o Accidentally give legitimacy to rebels, war lords, bandits o You have to talk to the people with the guns, and by doing that you are recognizing they are powerful individuals o This gives them more political power than they had  Population control o The humanitarian world needs to bring populations under control through accidental ethnic cleansing o Bosnia for example, they were moving the Bosnians to a different area which helped the Serbians goal ▯ Do NGOs see these conflicts?  Terry says it is not obvious to NGOs  Political bias  Ranking different principles  Do those who suffer the effects have voice?  Organizational interests  Emotional stress  Culture of Justification o Human instinct to rationalize  Technocratic orientation o This is a profession ▯ Moral Responsibility  Causal vs. role responsibility o Causal- is that something you caused? Were you responsible? o Role- certain individuals by virtue of the roles they occupy have a responsibility to act o UN has a responsibility to protect  Ignorance vs. could have known o Ignorance is used as an excuse, but if you don’t know why should you be held responsible for your actions? o In care of Rwandan genocide: people at the UN said they didn’t know how had the situation was, but the question here is could you have known?  Coercion and diminished judgment or responsibility (mitigation) o Fair percentage of those who had blood on their hands had no choice o Coercion made it impossible for you to fulfill your responsibility to preserve life in case of Rwanda o A lot of things become mitigating circumstances  Capacity o Not fair to blame if someone doesn’t have capacity to do something ▯ What should NGOs do to Mitigate these dilemmas?  Fiona Terry: make impartiality a meta principle o Aid should go to those in need and if you cannot monitor who the money goes to then get out  Tom Weiss: accept the political responsibility David Reiff: do relief and only relief Humanitarian Intervention  In this course is the using military force to protect human rights  Sovereignty and intervention o After cold war there becomes a responsibility to citizens o And if the responsibility isn’t fulfilled, then you can intervene  A new consensus? o In the last 10 years has this become the new consensus? ▯ HI in historical perspective  Sovereignty: within the European states system  European states system-south  Most Eur. States progressively adopted rather than common understandings of human rights to which their citizens were entitled. Classical Liberal understandings  This convergence led to the internationalization of certain human rights claims; the expectation that states were expected to provid minimal level of security and subsistence for their populations0 and these states that were best positioned to do so were liberal states/ civilized and uncivilized  Intervention, paternalism, colonialism, and trying to develop legitimate states 2/18  After WWII o “Keep your laws off my body” o Instrumental use of humanitarian intervention  Factors contributing to a new norm of intervention o Communication and technology o Changing norms of sovereignty  Theoretical perspectives o Pluralism/realism: nonintervention state interests, international order o Solidarism: Walzer and Shock to the conscience o Interference: state or peoples?  Responsibility to protect  Objective definition o Large scale loss of life, actual or anticipated, with genocide intent or not, which is the product of either deliberate state action, or state neglect or inability to act, or a failed state situations; or o Large scale “ethnic cleansing” actual or anticipated, regardless of how carried out 2/23 Gender and Protection- Dr. A. Swaine  Gender o Roles, values, norms, ‘appropriate’ behaviors o Sexuality and sexual behavior o Access to and control of resources o Division of labor and responsibilities (inside and outside the home) o Socio-economic, legal and political status  What is gender? o Identity- identity construction, sense of self, structures relationships between and within genders o A political issue- fundamental beliefs, construction of power and power hierarchies o Socially organizing principle- how we relate, privileges, obstacles, freedoms, organizes our systems of power o Ideology- structured ideas of beliefs and ideals o Analytical category- a lens to view power differentials 2/25/2016  Precautionary Principles o Right intention: primary purpose is to halt suffering. Best assured through multilateral operations o Last resort: all other options must have been exhausted o Proportionality: scale, intensity, duration, and conduct must be proportional and follow the rules of war o Reasonable prospect: must believe that there is a reasonable chance of success and that the intervention will not make things worse. o Right actors: not just anyone can get involved  If they are there because of humanity… will they stick it out? o Maybe they are prepared to do something if relatively easy, cheap, and doesn’t risk their truths o This is not altruism- people expect something from their activities o Want neutral peace keepers, but as level of difficulty goes up, its harder to get qualified peace keepers to go in because the risks are higher  Issues and concerns o Need we be concerned with motives? Can good outcomes come from bad motives? o Need to act quickly before the bloodletting speeds up but that might mean intervening at a lower threshold o Who intervenes? o Collective action o Coercive diplomacy? o Responsibility to rebuild: does prevention and rebuilding mean unlimited expansion of international orgs? o Selectively: can we ever get around this?  The future of R2P o Libya  Did it meet the criteria?  Did it give humanitarianism a bad name? why should ICRC worry?  Was it a setback to R2P? Midterm readings: Fassin, Haskell, Orwell, Waldron, Carpenter “No lost generation”


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