Human Biology in Cinema (FULL NOTES)
Human Biology in Cinema (FULL NOTES) 1105
Popular in Human Biology in Cinema
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
SCOM 123,(Nicole Barnes, Communication Group Presentation)
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
ACCT 324 002
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 34 page Bundle was uploaded by annehohler on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 1105 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Robin Taylor in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 183 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Cinema in Biology at Ohio State University.
Reviews for Human Biology in Cinema (FULL NOTES)
No all-nighter needed with these notes...Thank you!!!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/16/15
HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA Sick Around the World PBSFrontline 2008 0 lack of healthcarehow many people are lacking 0 how health is handled in Taiwan 0 the numbers 0 where we rank in health care Interesting note 0 Why don t we let people die We have a compassion that other animals don t have when animals die from car crashes they re left on the road and yet when a human asks to die we say no Movie Notes 0 america health care 0 47 million people without coverage bc it s so expensive 0 why are we different from other countries with similar wealth and development UK etc they re paying less and offering more 0 4th rate power in healthcare 0 37th in the world of quality and fairnessquot 0 Great Britain family 0 national health service too close to socialism O nhs covers everyone and has better health statistics never have to pay a medical bill no fee for anyone 0 con wait time to see a doctor mistakes horror storiesquot 0 gov t owns hospitals 0 95 of people think nhs is goodexcellent who use it 0 no medical bankruptcy brits pay higher taxes to support healthcare 0 elective care hip replacements heart surgery fall short 0 patients choose which hospital to go to 0 average wait list 1800 people gate keepers get bonuses for keeping patients healthy 0 Tokyo Japan 0 capitalist economy second richest country in the world 0 spend half as much on health care than US and cover everyone super healthy 0 go to doctor 3X as often as Americans with no gate keepers they can see whichever doctor they want with no appointment see doctor for 3 minutes on average have much longer hospital stays and more technology set xed prices for literally everything that is the same anywhere in Japan 0 no one can be turned down 00 O 0 HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA longest life expectancy cons 50 of hospitals are in nancial de cit bc they re spending too little on health care it s basically unsustainable will have to increase prices bit by bit Germany working class 0 O O O 0 just like us except the health care basically covers everything market affair by private doctors and hospitals sickness funds monthly family premium more expensive than Japan and UK but about 23 of ours pregnant women pay nothing 15 bucks once every 3 months for everyone else mainly employment doesn t change anything comparison to an American it s top notch choices many cost is a fraction of US quality excellent have to economize enormously to keep up cannot raise prices they re negotiated annually done by states but need to be standard across the board doctors are not paid well took the pro t out of health insurance Taiwan old people 0 O O 23 million poor to rich in 20 years picked what worked in rich countries and made a mosh posh of perfection they follow what works and forge new solutions to what doesn39t pick what the people do well and go beyond that looked at 10 12 countries system that gave equal access to everyone and provoked healthy competition between medical providers tried to correct others mistakes the rich people cannot opt out here poor and rich pay the same like medicare and canada s healthcare no gate keeper no waiting use a smart card with all medical history scanned when they go in for appointment charged automatically no denied claims no issues a bit too Big Brother for US Taiwan is satis ed cons system is under strain spend less than Japan gov t borrows from banks to get what they need to providers Switzerland HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA 0 healthcare reformed successfully changed from one like ours to a better one people think they re exceptional 8 mill people and don t join the union Lamal The Sickness everyone buys insurance the poor is paid for by the government and everyone gets coverage now well accepted everybody is entitled to health carequot America doesn t say that strong incentive to keep costs low ours is 22 there s is 5 0 make 3rd of pro t from unregulated market 0 nobody goes bankrupt 0 many countries do what we don t capitalist countries do impose limits though 0 insurance companies must accept everyone 0 everyone has to buy insurance 0 doctor shospitals have to accept one set price 0 1994 exactly like US so they reformed and got universal health care the same time we tried and failed Sicko Moore 2007 0 Moral America doesn t know what it s doing about healthcare circa 2007 maybe we ve gotten our shit together 0 We were 37th but Cuba was below us and they gave free healthcare 0 Cuba sent more doctors to Africa to help aid in the Ebola outbreak 2014 Ties between US and Cuba have reopened America illegally to Canada young woman what do we know about cervical cancer now 0 Males transmit it 0 You can get it at any age 0 Human papeloma virus HPV is one of the major carriers and is commonly seen 1n women Now a vaccine Gardesil O Esophagus throat cervical anal rectal cancer all possible because of HPV being transmitted by the penis 0 US and New Zealand are the only two countries who advertise medicine to consumers vs doctors 0 Health for pro t uh what HUMAN BIOLOGY IN CINEMA If it s this bad why do we stay 0 America PRIORITIES 0 lack of human decency The Story of Louis Pasteur 1935 0 Father of the GToD o 1822 1895 Hand washing Sevelvice German guy tried to nd why women got sick and died after giving birth 0 in childbed fever females were exposed to bacterial infections E coli feces at childbirth small pimples on the skin bacteria on skin 0 overarching disease that was from blood infected Lister Listerine associated with where this comes from 0 introduced and maintained antiseptic conditions to hospitals 0 Didn t get the Nobel because the Nobel didn t eXist yet 0 Means of protection in body naturally primary before impeachment i e triggering of immune system 0 largest greatest protective barrier skin outer skin gut don t go to anyone unreliable for a tattoo 0 mucus membranes mouth nose 0 cilia microscopic hairs that line lungs mucusal membranes nasal passage stomach works with mucus O ushing urination 0 acid gut extremely acidic doesn t completely work food poisoning 0 natural ora of bacteria micro biome growing virtually everywhere HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA 500 species of bacteria in the gut one produces vitamin K and another breaks down food 0 gtltgt ltgtltlAlnti biotics kill the good bacteria making acid environments basic and yeah not good women get yeast infections from taking anti biotics NOSOCOMIAL 0 Hospital acquired diseases 0 super bacteriaquot come from people only killing the weaker bacteria in their bodies and leaving the stronger bacteria not taking all required antibiotics those spreading the stronger ones and allowing those to get stronger aha evolution MRCA now VRCA is the newest super bacteria 13 of the classroom is carrying MRCA on their skin super resistant to what s on your skin naturally can kill you if it gets through your skin 1950 s anti biotics discovered Diseases Infectious 6 Word De nition of Science 0 the unbiased interpretation of representative data I gathering data is not science 0 Philosophy 0 diseases manifest as an interaction among host pathogen social environment and vectors how it spreads susceptibility very old or very young sick drug user education access to medication denial cultural belief system leads to primate eating that leads to poaching I biological aversion 0 Most human pathogens are bacteria 0 cause about 12 of all human disease but most are benign or helpful 0 Viruses source of new emergent diseases HUMAN BIOLOGY IN CINEMA 0 Top science journals 0 Nature UK 0 Science US 0 Top medicine journals 0 JAMA Journal of American Medical Association Frozen poop pills made the cut here 0 Emerging diseases 0 34 of new human diseases originate in other animals hanta Virus mice aVian u Virus birds CSARS China outbreak gtk u pandemic of 1918 thought to be from birds killed 20 to 40 million people worldwide 0 APPEAR SUDDENLY H1N1 O swine u from pigs 0 is reassortant of genes from swine bird and human u viruses 0 HIV comes from SIV 0 HIV Human Immunode ciency Virus 0 SIV Simian Immunode ciency Virus Jumped from other primates to humans Not harmful to original primates Resides in genome 0 Transmission of HIV 0 Multiple transmissions High rate of mutation in the Virus taking hold Urbanization contributed seX trade continued the transmission AMPLIFIER using the same needle for vaccinations Heterosexual seX remains main mode of transmission discovered in US in 1981 0 From HIV to AIDS 0 as with any pathogen HIV the pathogen may be present without AIDs the Virus 0 Immune System 0 suppressed if you have HIV 0 Innate nonspeci c cellularchemical OOOO HUMAN BIOLOGY 1N CINEMA leukocytes 5 kinds neutrophils bacterialsentinels count in ammation cytokines fever natural killer cells in ammation and fever 100 are natural helpful fever of 105 is borderline dead 107 is lethal 0 Acquired speci c lymph system responds to invaders lymphocytes the other WBC cellular kill the infected cells humoral antibodies oat around to identify invaders complement protein that kills memory B and T cells remember invader Pneumocystis carnii 0 now called Pneumocystis jirovci o EVERYWHERE IN THE ENVIRONMENT opportunistic virus Discoveries 0 Robert Koch 1843 1910 rules of transmission 0 identi ed pathogens for anthraX TB cholera won Nobel in Medicine or Physiology in 1905 for isolating and identifying TB Koch s Postulates for establishing pathogen transmission 0 1 Must be found in all cases of diseases 0 2 Must be isolated and grown in pure culture 0 3 Must be able to reproduce disease in uninfected host 0 4 Must be isolated from newly infected host 0 con ict between viruses and postulates O viruses cannot be replicated grown in a culture need a living host body And the Band Played On 1993 AIDs Movie starts in 1981 HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA 0 Look for Congo and HIV in the movie 0 Is a predominately heterosexual disease 0 thought to be a gay disease because it was rst found and spread in a gay community 0 Listen for T cell count comment in the movie too Post watching The people s reactions to the unknown even just seen with Pasteur and this movie scientists with resources wanting the claim to fame while those who wanted to save people genuinely were denied resources people so scared they don t change their habits 0 could this happen again with a new disease would all of this repeat itself it takes so long to talk about it not everything is presentedpublished 0 Women have become more susceptible to AIDs because of micro tearing in the vagina exposing blood to semen which carries the virus Humans Being Humans K carrying capacity 3 cultural revolutions l 2 MYA nomads hunted gathered made tools divided labor lived communally together 2 10000 years ago development of agrarian system farms and cities 3 200 years ago Industrial Revolution machinery for work 1850 s population boomed and it s only going upward now into 7 billion 0 Caracas Venezuela people living on top of each other on a mountaintop Cabrini Green Chicago 0 high level slums of Chicago Population doubles in 200 years 1650 1850 Now has double in 45 years 1930 1975 And again doubled in the last 40 years to 6 billion 0 next doubling will be under 40 years What s the caring capacity of Earth Humans behaving naturally Next war over water HUMAN BIOLOGY IN CINEMA Quiz Questions Answers according to the chic what of pregnancies in the us are unplanned E 50 swelling in the lymph nodes is an indication of infection they re located in E all the above main lymph activity spleen neck groin armpits RCT what is each person s actual chance of being in the treatment group dental cavities C 50 relevant to the cdc and the who what is msm C men who have seX with men KNOW CARRYING CAPACITY KNOW IMPORTANCE OF HANDWASHING Germ Theory of Disease germ pathogen 0 pathogen starts diseasequot 0 microorganism that causes disease gt bacterium prokaryote virus fungus protist prion these are the things that are going to kill us our biggest foes constant battle to try to control them or kill them or conquer them o EVOLUTION reason we can never outwit these pathogens none of this was known in Pasteur s time gtWmost famous protist malaria gt kprions discovered in last 20 25 years literally just a little bit of protein that can t be killed found in brain and nerves of cattle sheep pig ie livestock 0 rst microscope 1590 0 van Leeuwenhoek 1632 1723 described bacteria 0 Darwin 1808 1882 Origin of Species 1859 0 Mendel 1822 1884 genes 0 Pasteur HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA Industries 0 Beer 0 Wine 0 Milkgt lt 0 Silk Cattle 0 Medicine gtkpasteurization named after Pasteur Vaccines 0 no matter how much evidence is given about vaccines people won t change their minds about it the only thing that ll convince you is if you die or your kids die without the vaccination discovered Anthrax bacterium found in most livestock spread by contact with animal products anthrax is usually fatal even just by inhalation bioterrorism weapon 0 long before germs were understood the process of vaccination existed vacca cow I made to get rid of smallpox eradicated in 1977 I How it s person to person transmission crude attempts to vaccinate in the beginning take puss from rst victims and jam it into their own arms inoculate yourself with a small amount to protect yourself from it attenuated weakened or dead viruses knowledge dairymaids who got cowpox DIDN T get smallpox cowpox mild form of smallpox I Edward Jenner 1796 injected healthy boy with cowpox then weeks later with smallpox to see if it d be an effective vaccine 0 gtkNOBODY KNEW ABOUT STERILIZATIONgtlt I polio why does it keep popping up people aren t getting vaccinated Debunker of Spontaneous Generation Pasteur O theory that life can arise from inanimate objects you leave raw meat out for ve days and suddenly maggots will appearquot 0 RCTs HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA O randomized control trials if you don t have a control group you have nothing to compare anything to testing the effectiveness of anything D needed variation and genetic variety randomization control group and experimental group independent variables and dependent variables I never use testimonials to prove how effective a treatment is Nosocomial Prokaryotes TB Cholera Syphilis Lyme disease Anthrax Stomach ulcers Legionnaire s disease Escherichia coli E coli natural part of our mammal gut ora Plague Gonorrhea Strep infection UTI 0 females are more prone because of location of stuff Herd immunity 95 vaccinatedimmune group of people Autism Addiction No one knows what causes autism but we can pinpoint exactly what causes addiction 0 addiction the individual gt maybe we shouldn t be nding a cure for autism but nd new ways to interact and help those with autism and make autism a normal thing and not something to make fun of every autistic individual is different Lorenzo s Oil 1992 DNA Everything has chromosomes HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA Careotypes a photo of chromosomes from a cell about to undergo replication 0 humans 46 chromosomes 0 Y slot seX determining region 0 if there s an XY with barely a Y it would be a female by default 0 we are by default females but the Y chromosome is a seX deciding chromosome 0 Turner Syndrome Turner s Female females that are short barrel chested have webbing in the neck either normal or not hyper feminine syndrome many manifestations that are correlated with a single problem 0 disease single manifestation All DNA is made up of hydrogen bonds codes for amino acids humans have only 20 amino acids 0 we are so simple rst base acids second base acids and third base acids when you combine them you get 64 combinations in which we have 20 A T C G it is never ambiguous the same code will never code for two different things one thing can have two different codes but one code will only code for one thing it s not a redundant system unlike kidneys which are redundant having redundance possibilities for mistakes 0 a protein is made of amino acids in a string if you have 20 amino acids to work from and you have a string that s 136 beads long 0 20Al36 the string of beads begin to take it s 3D shape secondary structure once it s strung completely due to electrical attraction and repulsion 0 primary structure 0 secondary structure 0 tertiary structure 0 quaternary structure representation of 2 for each 23 to make 46 one from mom one from dad gtkpay attention to the conversation with the doctor Sperm carries either X OR Y Egg has ONLY X father determines the seX of the children HUMAN BIOLOGY TN CINEMA stem cells can be anything you want them to be epithelial surface cells that hold dna on the skin and surface of your gut how you can be identi ed from your vomit genome da chromosomes as a group alels individual speci c genes located in the locus what gives you your traits freckles etc both chromosomes having recessive traits means that trait won t show up traits are often polygenic skin color involves at least 3 different genes eye color is also polygenic traits can also be codominant blood types are codominant so that the paired traits lead to 0 a o a 0 b o b 0 a b ab 0 o o o 0 universal donor 0 0 universal receiver ab achondroplasia condition 0 where either egg or sperm has a defective gene on chromosome 4 with one amino aside gone awry that fucks with bone development 0 protein missing for bone growth 0 IT S A SPONTANEOUS MUTATION X RAYS INDUCE MUTATIONS Moral of the story creating spawn is a serious gamble gt kcan a mutation be bene cial either deleterious delete or neutral or enormously bene cial 0 evolution by natural selection everybody was lactose intolerant 40000 years ago but then there was a mutation 10000 years ago from the egregarian age of handling livestock including cows and beginning to drink milk dominant and recessive traits hetero and homozygotes traits alleles are different in hetero alleles are the same in homo HUMAN BIOLOGY 1N CINEMA recessive disorders 0 albinism cystic brosis galactosemia phenylketonuria sickle cell disease 0 tay sachs disease dominant disorders 0 achondroplasia alzheimer s disease early 0 huntington s disease classic age is 50 0 like parkinson s but worse 0 hypercholesterolemia silent carriers those who have recessive genes for mutations and disorders that if mating with another silent carrier of a rare trait can create a mutation in offspring why PUNENT SQUARES male genes B b two dominants 14 chance normal dominant recessive 14 silent carrier dominant recessive 14 silent carrier two recessives 14 chance will be af icted right side female genes B b spontaneous abortion self correcting mechanisms of the female body when there s something wrong with the enzyme GET TESTED BEFORE MAKIN BABIES Kleinfelter syndrome XXY individuals DiGeorge syndrome 0 chromosome 22q11 deletion 0 most common disorder caused by missing chromosome region 0 one in 4000 live births 22q and you center children39s 0 symptoms HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA bluish skin breathing issues spasms delayed growth and development failure to gain weight genes affect behavior 0 William s behavior 0 literally trusting everyone no social fear 0 chronically happy and loved anyone 0 but like literally no fear in people 1 genomes are unique to species 2 every individual has a genome 3 base pairs are unique to the individual 4 for multicellular individuals every cell has the same dna blood doesn t carry dna but the epitherials carry out from the vein barriers and shit and come out with the blood orphan disease 4 sisters in the lm michaela with lorenzo carrier with two healthy girls carrier with no children diedre nonracial with healthy boy is it possible to have a carrier with a healthy boy the only one who can be a silent carrier in females hm females are often silent carriers of X related diseases life is a crapshoot and we re the result of a lucky crapshoot XALD orphan disease there are so few people manifesting the disease that there s no money in trying to nd a cure for it so no one tries to nd a cure eurisic acid natural eXperiment in the lm discussion about going upstairshospice why the father says no be aware of who you re sympathizing with HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA Cancer 0 cancer itself isn t transferable save for HPV being transferable and becoming cervical cancer 0 ependymoma cancer 0 super rare cancer 0 tumors on brain stem requires chemo that enhances cancer growth bc radiation can only affect cancer cells in a certain stage of growth 0 Metastasis when cancer moves to different places in the body 0 example cervical cancer that goes away and comes back as throat cancer 0 soy contains estrogen avoidance by someone with breast cancer 0 brca l and brca 2 breast cancer 0 brca l mutated gene likelihood goes up enormously when you have this gene by 60 brca 2 mutated gene having 1 and 2 jumps chance of breast cancer to 80 men carry the possibility as well 0 can be tested to see if one carries one or both mutated genes 0 mastectomy surgery to remove breast both breasts double mastectomy prophylactic surgery preventive surgery 0 prophylactics prevention tooth brushes condoms 0 cancer when cells reproduce endlessly not normal hijacking of a normal system of dopamine deliverance 0 normal cells reproduce 50 60 times normally then stop 0 HeLa Henrietta Lacks cells 0 cancer cells that have been growing since 1981 and then haven t stopped since 0 chemo affects gusto systems stomach cells are affected by chemo bc of how rapidly those cells develop and thus is susceptible to the chemo 0 why people vomit and can t eat during chemo O stomach cancer most common cancer 0 of cells to make a tumor to kill a person just 1 cell is needed just one to go wrong because then it ll endlessly multiply O and we have trillion of cells so why don t we have cancer all the time everywhere OOO HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA Apoptosis natural cell suicide 0 a cell that is aware of it s wonkiness and undergoes spontaneous death why we don t all have cancer P53 protein mutation if it goes unrecognized turns into cancer usually 0 test for breast cancer mammogram OR self check 0 mammograms more false positives than anything but can detect it 0 rst do a biopsy 0 2 types of breast cancer ductal and lobial angiogenesis cells creating their own feeding system 0 age is the greatest association to cancer 0 tobacco is a carcinogen can produce cancer 0 hospice O 6 months 0 anyone can go in if they have 6 months or less to live waiting for the very very end like 1 week to live 0 quiet and peaceful 0 death is eerily not talked about in hospitals 0 pancreatic cancer 0 discovered late cos there s nothing going on O dismiss it as just stomach irritation from something they ate 0 no symptoms really 0 misdiagnosed by the individual same for ovarian cancer 0 brain cancer 0 different kind of cell 0 hochkins lymphoma the lesser of two evils 0 agent orange and lung cancer mutation ras 30 of non inherited cancers coside with this over 100 different types of cancers 200 different types of cells in body quotimmortality in cell culture HeLa normal cells respond to contact inhibition cancer cells don t have that response cells need sub straight with which to grow cancer cells do not transformation when cells undergo mutations can be caused from external mutagens X rays chemical carcinogens smoking cervical cancer caused by HPV Wit Cancer and Treatments HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA half of cancers are diagnosed after age 50 age correlates with cancer slightly who is allowed to subject themselves to this treatment 0 Lorenzo s parents subjected Lorenzo O Vivian subjected herself hospice signals the end 0 which is why so many people deter from it when it maybe could ve helped cautionary tales use them to inform others in how to proceed with their life Supersize Me Nutrition diet what an organism naturally cats 0 diet is not a thing you go on to lose weight catholic in diet wide ranging 0 not naturally carnivores or vegetarians we re omnivores quality of diet is measured by O nutrients variety 0 calories suf cient nutrients 0 about 40 you need 0 macronutrients lipids carbohydrates proteins ber 0 micronutrients vitamins and minerals biggest form of protein and lipids in third world countries beans and lintels and rice 0 rice and beans hella nuts are a great source of protein and lipids like really great 20 necessary amino acids 10 nonessential amino acids that you create 10 essential amino acids from diet vitamins organic minerals nonorganic pika appetite for a food that isn t a food that actually can equip the body with a nutrient it clay is a big one goiter lack of iodine thyroid in ates like crazy normally are at areas far from the sea are subject to goiter HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA 0 why not in a landlocked place like Ohio table salt is iodized lack of vitamin A affects eyesight affects keeping the eyes moist corneal problems dryness vulnerable to infection and blindness lack of vitamin B blindness de ciency to the optic nerve spina bi da also 0 1998 B9 pholic acid added to cereal and white our in 1999 also added to our pasta and cornmeal O Spina bi da reduced 50 vitamin B6 sleep appetite and moods helps make red blood cells 0 in uences cognitive abilities and immune function 0 meal sh poultry legumes soy tofu products potatoes non citrus fruits bananas watermelons etc 0 many people don t get enough vitamin D calciferol helps maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus which strenghten bones helps form teeth and bones 0 101 Sunny D39 0 we process it ourselves forti ed milk forti ed cereals fatty sh 0 many people don t get enough body uses sunlight to make vitamin D but sunlight insuf cient in north iron helps muscle cells ferry oxygen throughout the body needed for chemical reactions and making amino acids collagen neurotransmitters and hormones 0 red meat poultry eggs fruits green vegetables forti ed bread and grain products 0 many women of childbearing age don t get enough iron is a huge part of prenatal medications O and women entering the military calories 0 we have too many 0 empty calories food that contributes only energy sugar 0 soda pop is an example 0 it s a unit of energy 1 cc by 1 degree celsius asertane kind of sugar 0 if you can t process phenylalanine asertane will seriously f you up doctors can identify 54 metabolic problems 29 thev can identifv the dav vou re born and manage knowing the source of the problem 25 they can39t 0 can suffer severe problems and death if not cared for and noticed and recognized HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA 0 states vary in the number of tests and what they re willing to test of these 29 because of monnneeeyyyy when shopping at a grocery store 0 shop the perimeter because all the processed stuff is in the inside aisles 0 don t shop hungry cos you ll overspend how many calories does it take to make gain a pound 3500 calories how many calories does it take to maintain a pound ON NEXT QUIZ 2 guys in 1919 said Yes this does matter said Harris and Benedict because hospitals need it to 1 maintain a healthy weight 2 determine a healthy weight when disease disrupts weight gain or loss HARRISBENEDICT FOR BEE FORMERLY BMR Cornell BMI What is a healthy weight determined by BMI obesity type 2 diabetes 0 cardiovascular diseases 0 high blood pressure type 2 diabetes 0 can cause diabetic ulcer wounds from poor circulation from way too much glucose not allowing good circulation and can t be felt because of nerve damage will everyone be the same with BMI metabolism rate 0 muscles demand more energy to maintain themselves and burn more energy than fat 0 BMI s are indicators of body fat FDA food and drug administration USDA us department of agriculture food pyramid has become a food tenttrough which is now the food plate hella Michael Pollan s 3 rules of eating 1 eat food mostly plants not too much 2 don t eat an ingredient your grandmother wouldn t recognize 3 limit ingredients in processed foods to 5 HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA reason we can eat all this food the ngered line of the intestine 0 ngers on ngers hella Quiz Q A 0 things that standout O professionalism patients more prepared to talk about hospice and end of life than the doctors were blown away by professionalism in hospice changed ending of his father s life frustrated by the sunshine nature of the doctor and hopeful nature when he s just done trying in frontline who appeared to be more prepared to talk about end of life care and hospice the patients what s their understanding of their disease something palliative caretakers ask patients what is the difference between hospice and palliative care hospice is endof life care and there are no extraordinary measures just pain management palliative care not terminal given best treatment and pain management and everything that can make your life as good as it can be what has been found from palliative care people live longer shown through RCTs 25 year old patient s palliative team consisted of oncologist psychiatrist and pharmacist what was the Ganges tradition take 3 spoonfuls of the river before putting the ashes in and he got garidias protus that s shed in the wild and humans don t live with it very well at all and why we purify water how many functions does the liver have 500 men can39t carry ald only women can base pair is minimal for disease occurance l in 2 men get cancer melanoma most common in women in 20s correltaion of autism with fathers age depression and smoking relationship I Am Joe s Liver 127 Hours Healthy Body Under Attack HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA 0 the body has 11 organ systems 0 integumentary nervous muscular skeletal circulatory endocrine lymphatic respiratory digestive urinary reproductive OOOOOOOOO each muscle only has one function to contract 0 a healthy body under assault Backpacker s rules of 3 3 minutes Without air 0 3 days Without water 0 3 weeks Without food WFR rule WFR is a medical responder to anyone in the Wilderness Who can t get to a hospital and responds With consent 0 if you come upon an emergency you don t just do something you stand there 0 CCC check call care 0 Without WFR you have ASR acute stress response mistaken as shock 0 going into shock is actually the response to a lot of blood loss so ASR lightheaded adrenaline ah WFR BREATHE O a simple act of physics With the diaphragm diaphragm is one of the only muscles that doesn t attacl cross a joint to movein moving in some way doesn t take an energy just physics Respiratory Tract l nose 2 pharynX 3 larynX HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA 4 trachea 5 brochusi 6 lungs alveoli single layer of cells surrounded by blood vessels epiglottis 0 where the mouth joins with the throat 0 right behind it is the esophagus 0 food tube and air tube are literally right next to each other it s easy to get food going down the wrong pipe causing choking is there an evolutionary reason for them being so close trachea windpipe 0 covered with mucus moved by cilia O cilia is killed by smoking circulatory Pump 0 uid 0 vessels gt kblood 55 plasma of which 92 is water arteries thick walls high pressure heart 0 concurring blood away from heart via pressure of the heart 40 80 beats a minute 0 blowouts in arteries aneurysm you just fall to the ground and it s really fatal a slow leak of an aneurysm in the aorta peaceful sleep death veins thinner walls low pressure moved by adjacent muscle contractions valves 0 varicose veins spider veins painful O removed by vein stripping 0 have valves little piece of tissue bags semilunar that ll with blood when blood comes back so blood can t come back in the vein vericose veins don t have working valves 0 if you hit the curadin artery it s the best way to kill someone femoral artery if it gets nipped on thigh you re done 0 both of these lead to very quick bleedout tourniquets are dangerous bc they shut down blood ow therefore also oxygen ow to that limb only have a few hours until the limb muscles are done and have to be cut off pulmonary circuit 1 heart 2 lungs 3 heart 1 collects 02 releases C02 HUMAN BIOLOGY IN CINEMA systemic circuit 1 heart 2 bodyhead 3 heart 1 delivers 02 collects C02 heart can enlarge with exercise in a very healthy way athletes have very low heart ratesminute blood is blue if it s deoxygenated tens of thousands of miles of capillaries in the body really intricate the vascular tree 0 heart 0 elastic arteries 0 muscular arteries 0 arterioles KNOW THE HEART 0 inferior and superior vena cava very big vein coming back to the heart all of the blood that has been in the body that is now deoxygenated comes back to the heart and dumps into the right atrium then it goes through a set of valves called the tricuspid valve be there are three of them and they re just little aps of tissue work like umbrellas when the right ventricle expands the aps will open back up held from going too far by heartstrings to stop blood from going back up blood then goes into the pulmonary artery the muscles of the heart are very different from one side to another then it jumps into the left atrium and it s now oxygenated and this thing is so muscular man left side got swoll because of how much it contracts when it does contract it forces all blood out of the artery and some will go up to the head or down to the rest of the body on the left side of the bicuspid valve cos it has two valves 0 left vs right I based on the right and left sides of the animal not the observer always the rule of looking at a specimen 0 right is blue left is red I blue no oxygen red oxygen I left is more muscular than right and it s obvious 0 there are semilunar valves in the heart 0 heart murmurs where heart valves fail and bring blood back to where it s not supposed to be 0 systolic heart beatscontracts diastolic HUMAN BIOLOGY IN CINEMA pig hearts are so close to human hearts have been used to replace hearts in people and people who get a pig heart have to consent to not reproducing 0 only women have to consent does the father s heart matter when the heart pumps the rst organ to get blood would bethe heart duh aorta heart attack pipe heart attack coronary artery is blocked by plaque or embolism 0 loss of blood supply to heart muscle no such thing as heart cancer because the cells don t reproduce if a muscle dies in the heart it s dead that s it a fetus can t oxygenize its blood all the blood comes from and is oxygenated by the mother 0 by the foramen ovale allows blood to bypass the R atrium so the baby can get the oxygenated blood it needs 0 as soon as the baby pops out the foramen ovale clamps shut and lungs come into operation with rst cry and the heart is operating at a hundred percent I life begins and ends with a gulp of air lymphatic system 0 collects and returns tissue uid to blood 0 important to the immune system 0 2 kidneys produces urine 0 2 ureters transport urine to bladder bladder stores urine 0 urethra transports urine to the outside 0 kidney pain back pain dehydration kidney infections nephritis bladder infections cystitis urethra infections urethritis women get UTIs easier because of closeness of everything kidney transplants 97 successful with relative s kidney 90 successful with any kidney you can live without a kidney with dialysis with countercurrent exchange requires no energy brain 0 needs water needs air 0 brain is parceled out into different parts lobes and cortexes and shit HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA phantom pain is a thing quot 127 Hours Extreme of DehydrationTemperatures hypothermia lack of warmth blood leaves the limbs to warm the core causes shivering which causes energy without food damaging skin turns blue clammy pale skin 0 If you fall in cold water get out strip to nothing and rst roll around in snow which is less cold then you wrap them and progressively get them warmer Then you sit and wait and you slowly warm 0 If you nd someone warm them slowly put a warm body next to them strip both bodies and go into a sleeping bag to warm them progressively hyperthermia overexcess of warmth blood leaves core to not overheat it and goes back to limbsextremities skin turns red 0 same thing as heat stroke but different from dehydration 0 rst thing to do when you become hyperthermic sweating to cool down because sweat evaporates off the body surrounded by moving air putting alcohol on surface of skin will cool you down faster because it evaporates quicker makes you feel warmer but cools you down faster makes blood go to limbs decreasing core temperature vasodilation and once blood goes to limbs it cools water cools it more than air on surface of skin why it feels good to swim in hot temperatures second you become dehydrated sweating stops third you look very red with very dry skin and very hot skin so if you see this to cool them you would pour cold water all over them and get them in front of a fan strip them down if you could in this case temperature shock isn t an issue it s an issue going cold to hot not hot to cold 0 all of these thermal regulations are controlled by hypothalamus tachycardia having a faster heart rate than usual even in resting because of dehydration the blood thickens because of lack of water so the heart has to work faster to pump out to the body he didn t bleed out after the amputation because 0 thick blood from lack of water 0 tourniquet HUMAN BIOLOGY IN CINEMA 0 sleep deprivation O basically loopy and drunk and just no bueno 0 the rock crushing his hand 0 an appendage can go without blood for a couple of hours hand becomes like warm butter and a hissing sound as his hand was decomposing his hand is blue rotten meat kinda showed that with the ies swarming around gangrene spreading 0 ulna radius humerus femur sternum pelvic girdle backbone tibia bula patella clavicle pubic symphasis joining of pelvis bone where your feet slip while biking and you hit that spot that s super painful part of the pelvic girdle females girdle is bigger because of childbirth narrow one is male how many bones are in the body 206 gtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltgtlltbrain to know 0 nerves of the brain 0 base of brain optic olfactory trigeminal largest facial nerve severed trigeminal to cure facial twitching it covers the entire face excluding jaw basically the lling inside the frame of a face cerebellum motor features pineal gland sleeeeeeeeeeeeeeep damage to it can cause you to not sleep and therefore die corpus callosum connects both sides of the brain cut to treat seizures auditory nerve simple physics with vibration ringing in the ears damage to cochlea Sexual Selection 10 Things I Hate About You 0 the evolution of sex 0 sex the process of combining genes to create new individuals began with bacteria conjugation one individual would send DNA to another bacteria are really slutty conjugation one way transfer transformation DNA picked up from environment transduction phages that infect bacteria reproduce by binary ssion they can pick up DNA store it and use it when they want to reproduce when they re HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA ready with the DNA they want to reproduce with helicobacter pylori ulcers discovered by Barry Marshal O with sex comes trade offs sexual reproduction V asexual reproduction most recent onslaught of tradeoff HIV 0 syngamy joining of sperm and egg undergoes evolution journal of theoretical biology 2005 it appears that several lineages independently progressed from isogamy same to anisogamy different to oogamy big egg to internal fertilization general selective pressures at work Have major impact on form and behavior of familiar organisms including differences between male and female 0 isogametes no obvious male or female fungus are isogametes spores and pheromones and i like you O anisogametes protozoan protist cause of malaria O oogamy an enormous egg with a tiny little sperm sea urchins manifest this now sperms are not nutritious literally just DNA Eggs however are super nutritious 0 internal fertilization birds avian reptiles male and females have cloaca and to reproduce they kiss cloacas mammals do this so do pinecones yes there are male and female pinecones 0 who makes the biggest contribution to reproduction I females 0 a lot of these reproductive strategies are passed down 0 always an evolutionary arms race between females and males 0 gravid pregnant 0 add gestation process by which you maintain an embryo and prepare 0 and lactation and suckling O the female morphs to accommodate the body female choosy male nonchoosy 0 female choosiness has exerted a pressure on males 0 for example peacocks males are the ones with ashy traits but ashy traits seem maladaptive handicap trait if he can overcome it i e peacock feathers then it proves they re the cream of the crop HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA sexual selection is a selective pressure from social environment rather than physical environment gt what traits attract a choosy female 0 females have about 400 eggs by the time of childrearing age provisioning BLING costs something 0 protection size strength 0 good home 0 resources 0 good food 0 contribute to rearing offspring if that s the way the mammal rolls not all do 0 good genes 0 women don t need BLING because they have the eggs yo List of Selection 1 arti cial selection 2 artifactual selection 3 natural selection 4 sexual selection 1 Darwin introduced to term in one of his books dogs are small because they have achondroplasia harems manifest sexual di intrasexual competition within one sex establish dominance male who wins gets all the women and loser is shoved to the margins claim territory intersexual interaction between the sexes how do males signal BLING to females by color being handicapped size matters subtle behaviors matter family guy when males interact with children sacri cial nuptial gift 0 praying mantis while in the act of sharing DNA the female mantis will eat the male starting with his head lek manifested locations for nding mates gt what traits attract a non choosy male 0 a pulse 0 healthy 0 fertile HUMAN BIOLOGY IN CINEMA willing SPERM ARE CHEAP O reproductive receptivity estrus in mammals emit some kind of signal audio visual smell to the male HUMAN INTERACTIONS manifest 9 months of gestation 0 can suckle offspring for up to 4 years Human BLING Females intersexual and intrasexual O strength physical both genders respond to physical strength shoulders relative to waist today intelligence gets you far even without buff 0 money money money 0 humans and the handicap principle saying a lot more than one thinks sagging pants 0 females advertise receptivity hmm butts pink and juicy brands on the butt baboon inspiration I estrus is hidden even to the female herself which is why they advertise all the time during ovulation men see women as more symmetrical blush and pupils dilate humans manipulate signals bc they can gtkWGuys are the guessers girls are the knowers 0 what do women want if you love me you know what I wantquot Dishonest signal manipulative cosmetics 0 larger eyes 0 high heels 0 males cue on body ratio 0 the bad boyquot Honest trait 0 symmetry O outer eyes pupils inner eyes cheekbones nostrils jawbone lips Secondary Traits Male HUMAN BIOLOGY lN CINEMA O scruff 0 body hair 0 Female 0 no hair 0 petite Sex and Gender 0 sex identi ed by what s between your legs 0 M o F O Ambiguous 0 gender identi ed by what s in your head 0 DO NOT ALWAYS LINE UP FF OR MM o M o F O androgynous both or neither 0 sexual orientation person with whom you mate with mate choice 0 can be asexual inability for genitalia to develop fully more common than sistic fibrosis and something else put together without testosterone the male becomes female sexually dimorphic nucleus SDN different in males in females hypothalamas effected by testosterone 0 plastic changeable 0 sex was plastic 0 gender is not plastic unchangeable transexual changing your sex not gender even though testes had been removed at 2 the brain was already set 9 month gestation pregnancy rst 3 months are crucial for neural development 0 why females shouldn t drink especially in the rst 3 months HUMAN BIOLOGY IN CINEMA in biology you don t ask why Final Exam Practice 0 sexual selection competing vs cooperation 0 male cooperation among dolphins 0 cancer takes only one bad cell 0 cancer cell grows and grows seemingly Henrietta Lacks s cell HeLa 0 how are cancer cellstumors maintained grown in the body angiogenesis handicap principle demonstrates strength of a male 0 natural selection vs sexual selection counterintuitive 0 point mutation it takes only one letter in a DNA strand going wrong to cause a syndrome Lorenzo s Oil 0 spontaneous generation and Pasteur debunked spontaneous generation and known as the Father of Germ Theory of Disease 0 gender dimorphic differences in the brain that could lead to different genders in the sexually dimorphic nucleus is the name of the structure larger in males than females 0 how blood ows through the heart semi lunar valve and tri and bi cuspit valves 0 semi lunar valves are not only in the heart veins lymphatic system 0 basic bones femur tibia bula scapula shoulder blade 0 rules of 3 13 calories per pound to maintain a single pound just 13 calories 0 to gain a pound eat 3500 calories 0 predisposition to addictionalcoholism O 3 labs around the world converged on a genetic recognition that you can be addicted to smoking the test was for nicotine really so not a direct correlation to smoking 0 how what we think is shock isn t actually shock shock is de ned by blood loss 0 acute stress response is not the same thing as shock but always mistaken 0 age is the greatest association withpredictor of cancer 0 70 of cancers are completely unpredictable 0 12 males and 13 females will have some form of cancer in their life 0 herd immunity 95 of population need to be vaccinated palliative care vs hospice care 0 palliative care on average added 3 months to life 0 US health care ranking 37th HUMAN BIOLOGY TN CINEMA what is new on the scene as far as restoring a healthy bacterial ecosystem fecal transplants in the form of poop pills 6 word de nition of science the unbiased interpretation of representative data the golden standard RCT randomized control trial and basket tests have surpassed RCTs as an emerging standard 0 basket tests don t have a control bc it would be unethical mainly with diseases 0 valuable bc they target speci c mutations and approved if they re highly successful and the time to run them is much shorter results come quickly ulcers and hpilorrai barry marshall discovered this and got a nobel prize carrying capacity is known as K hypothermia and hyperthermia and blood ow 0 umbles of hyperthermia mumbles stumbles grumbles smart card in Taiwan cell suicideapoptosis antibiotics and birth control cancel out brca l and brca 2 and breast cancer chances 60 with brca l and 80 chance with both Y chromosome is smaller than X and only determines if an offspring is male or female 0 you can be an XY or XYY or XYYYYYYYYYY and still be a normal male what extra chromosomes can you have and not have a mutation Y 70 of new human diseases or emerging diseases come from animals 0 ebola is associated with bats patient zero was a boy eating a bat family guy and female choosiness addiction and dopamine in the brain natural vs unnatural things in our systems Temple Grandin O 2 or 3 questions about Temple 0 she wanted to stop the cow s uncomfortableness intersexual and intrasexual relationships wildlife rescuer don t jump into something wrong assess the situation rst don t just do something stand there lack of folic acid to delay the formation of spina bi da Michael Pollen s eating rules 0 the 3 rules 0 SHOP AT WHOLE FOODS schizophrenia is treatable is caught before a certain pointearly enough recognize all the acronyms from atbpo EPC MSM WSW CDC WHO RCT HUMAN BIOLOGY IN CINEMA
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'