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Chapter 2

by: Ryan Neubauer

Chapter 2 Geography 202

Ryan Neubauer
Evolution of the Earth
James Day

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About this Document

Bundle of Chapter 2...Chapter 3 here pretty guide will be coming up tonight
Evolution of the Earth
James Day
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Ryan Neubauer on Wednesday September 16, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Geography 202 at Illinois State University taught by James Day in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Evolution of the Earth in Geography at Illinois State University.

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Date Created: 09/16/15
ConUnue A Rock Cycle 1 Groups aIgneous b Sedimentary c Metamorphic B Melting of Rocks 1 Generates magmas in a variety of tectonic settings 2 Subduction C Intrusive 1 Slowly cooled with ne grain texture D Extrusive 1 Quickly cooled and has a coarse grain texture E Hot spot 1 Super Volcanoes 2 Yellowstone a 2500 km3 of magma 3 St Helen a 9 km3 of magma F Magma 1 Subduction zones a Subduction oceanic lithosphere b Water driven from plate c Mantle rock melts d Rises up G Igneous Categories 1 Extrusive or volcanic a Rocks formed at the surface from lava or pyroclastic materials 2 Intrusive or plutonic a Rocks formed from magma injected into the crust or formed in place in the crust 3 Plutons a Are intrusive bodies consisting of plutonic rock H Igneous Rock Textures 1 Texture a Size shape and arrangement of crystals grains and other constituents of a rock i Aphanitic iL Phane Uc iii Porphyritic iv Glassy v Vesicular vi Pyroclastic 2 Vesicular texture a Holes vesicles indicates the rock formed as water vapor and other gases became trapped during cooling of lava 3 Pyroclastic or Fragmental a Containing fragments 4 Classifying a b C d f g Texture and Composition are the criteria used to classify most igneous rocks Composition categories are based on silica content Felsic i gt65 silica lowest density light color Intermediate i 5365 silica Ma c i 4552 silica highest density dark color Felsic magmas have higher Na K Al Ma c magmas have higher Ca Fe Mg 5 Classifying Continue a b c d Continental Igneous Arcs Oceanic ManUe l Volcanism 1 Intrusive activity at Mid Ocean Ridges and Oceanic Hot Spots produces ma c oceanic crustal rockslithosphere 2 Subduction leads to partial melting of oceanic lithosphere and sediments with water production intermediate J Magmatic Arc Eruption 1 Rhyolite ConUnue A B C Graded bedding 1 Particle size decrease upward with a bed Mudcracks 1 Formed when ne muds dry out when exposed to air Crossbedding 1 Saltating and rolling grains land on slip face 2 Unstable accumulation builds up 3 Accumulation cascades down to bas advancing the dune Sorting 1 Very poorly sorted 2 Moderately sorted 3 Very well sorted Chemical Sediments 1 Crystallize from water evaporation etc or alteration of older rocks or sediments by chemically active waters a This is how dolomite is formed Evaporites a Form in an environment similar to this if the area were in an arid region with restricted in ow of normal seawater into the lagoon leading to increased salinity and salt deposition Layered Evaporite Depos s i Miocene of Spain Chert Nodules 1 Nodules of microcrystalline quartz Si02 that form when silica replaces components of limestones 2 Can control the way it breaks Silurian 1 Silurian age dolomites in the Thornton Quarry 2 Near Gary Indiana Ooliths 1 Inorganic carbonate particles that form as thin layers of CaCO3 nucleate on some smaller nucleus in the surf zone Biogenic Sediments 1 Chapter 2 Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks A B TIITI 90 of earth s lithosphere is made of Igneous rocks Metamorphic part of the Rock Cycle 1 Heat 2 Pressure 3 Strain Metamorphism usually involves the actions of one or more agents 1 Hydrostatic pressure a Pressure exerted by a uid at equilibrium at a given point within the uid due to the force of gravity Agents of metamorphism 1 Heat a Provides new conditions where different minerals may be stable and increases the rate of chemical reactions 2 Pressure a Lithostatic pressure provides new conditions where different minerals may be stable and forms smaller denser minerals b Differential pressure exerts force more intensely from one direction causing deformation and development of foliation 3 Fluid activity a Enhances metamorphism by increasing the rate of chemical reactions to form new stable minerals by transporting ions in solution Uniform v Differential Garnet Schist 1 New minerals Garnet and micas grew from original and introduced ions in parent rocks foliated texture Plastic ow and intense folding resulting from intense compression and elevated temperature Types of Metamorphism 1 Contact Metamorphism a Heat chemical uids from an igneous body alter rocks next to the magma 2 Regional Metamorphism a Large elongated area or crust affected by tremendous pressure elevated temperatures uid activity occurs at convergent and divergent plate bounda es b Most of metamorphic rocks occur by this metamorphism Kinds of Metamorphic Rock 1 Classi cation and Naming of Metamorphic Rocks is based on mineral composition and texture 2 Two Main textural groups a Foliated Rocks i Slate Phyllite Schist Gneiss b Nonfoliated Rocks i Marble Quartzite Greenstone Formation of Foliation 1 Formation a Random arrangement of elongated minerals before pressure is applied to two sides b Pressuregt Elongated minerals arranged in a parallel fashion as a result of pressure applied to two sidesltPressure 2 When rocks are subjected to differential pressure the minerals typically rearrange or grow parallel to each other Schistosity 1 Foliation of high grade metamorphic rocks where platy mineral grains micasetc are aligned Nonfoliated metamorphic Rocks 1 Marble a Made of calcite or dolomite from limestone or doostone 2 Quartzite a Made of quartz from quartz sandstone 3 Greenstone a Made of green ma c Igneous rocks 4 Hornfels a Made from contact metamorphism Sedimentary Rocks 1 Rocks formed by lithi cation 2 Sediments originate when mechanical and chemical breaks rocks down into smaller particles and into solution 3 a Removes sediment from its source area and carries it elsewhere Running water glaciers wind and waves transport sediment 4 a Involves settling of particles out of water and air and chemical and biological extraction of minerals from solution ConUnue A Sedimentary part of the rock cycle 1 Weathering a Physical change i Breaking of the parent material b Chemical change i Altering the parent material into something else Transportation DepoQUon Sediments Lithi cation a Compaction b Cementation 6 Sedimentary rocks B Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks 1 Sediments accumulate at the surface and later are lithi ed consolidated to form sedimentary rocks 2 Most common feature of sedimentary rocks is bedding or strati cation 3 Each bed or stratum has upper and lower bedding surfaces bedding planes 4 Stratigraphy a The branch of geology concerned with the order and relative position of strata and their relationship to the geological time scale C Sedimentary Rocks 1 Sedimentary rocks form by the lithi cation of sediment 2 In the rock cycle sediment originates when mechanical and chemical weathering breaks rocks down into smaller particles and into solution 3 Transport removes sediment from its source area and carries it elsewhere a Running water b Glaciers c Wind d Waves 4 Deposition a lnvolves settling of particles out of water and air and chemical and biological extraction of minerals from solution b Often involves settling of particles out of transporting uids D Lithi cation 1 Turning loose sediment into rock through compaction and cementation U39lhUUN 2 Lithi cation occurs by burial when additional sediment accumulates on top a Compaction i That reduces the amount of pre space between particles because of the weight of overlying sediment b Cementation i lnvolves the precipitation of minerals within pores that binds sediment together E Sediments 1 Detrital or Clastic Sediments a Composed of rock and mineral fragments or detritus derived from weathering and erosion of crustal rocks and soils i Gravel iL Sand iii Silt iv Clay particles 2 Inorganic Chemical Sediments a Form by precipitation of minerals from ions dissolved in lake or seawater 3 Biochemical Sediments a Composed of the mineralized remains of skeletons of plants or animals i Carbonate skeletons CaCO3 ii Siliceous Skeletons Si02 Phosphatic Skeletons CaPO4 iii Plant debris coals etc 4 Clastic Sediments a Particles consist of weathered mineral and rock fragments b Transport by water wind and ice tends to separate by size i Gravel H Sand iii Silt iv Clay particles c Shales and sandstones are the most important Chapter 2 Earth Materials A What is a mineral 1 Naturally occurring 2 Inorganic Material 3 Crystalline Solid de nite crystal structure unique to a given mineral 4 De nite chemical composition or Makeup may vary within know limits a Native Elements 1 Gold 2 Silver 3 Copper 4 Coal 5 Sulfur Matter and its Composition 1 Matter a Is anything that has mass and occupies space exist as solids liquids and gases consist of atoms of elements 2 Element a A chemical substance that cannot be chemically decomposed into simpler Atoms 1 Atoms are the smallest units of matter that retain the characteristics of the element a Protons b Neutrons c Electrons 2 Atomic number the nuber of protons 3 Atomic mass number Bonding and compounds 1 Bonding a The process whereby atoms join to other atoms 2 Compound a A substance resulting from the bonding of two or more elements b Covalent bonds i Strong c Ionic bonds L Mewum d Hydrogen bonds i Weak 3 Ice is a compound made up of hydrogen and oxygen H20 4 Most minerals are Compounds F Minerals the building blocks of rocks 1 A mineral s composition is shown by a chemical formula an shorthand way of indicating how many atoms of different kinds it contains 2 Quartz a 1 silicon atom for every 2 oxygen atoms b Si02 c Glass 3 Gypsum a Between walls b Physic c CaSO4 H20 4 Feldspar consist of 1 potassium 1 aluminum and 3 silicon for every 8 oxygen atoms a KAISi308 G Crystalline solids 1 Minerals are crystalline solids with atoms arranged in a speci c 3d framework 2 If given enough room to grow freely minerals form perfect crystals with planar surfaces called crystal faces sharp corners straight edges H Major Mineral Families 1 Native Elements a Minerals composed of a single element gold Au copper Cu diamond C graphite C sulfur S Silicates a SiO4 is basic building block make up most of the crust and mantle 3 Oxides a Minerals formed when metals oxidize and combine with oxygen ions 4 Chlorides a Metal cations bond with chlorine Cl Halite NaCD 5 Sul des a Form when metals bond with sulfur PbSGalena FeS pyrite 6 Sulfates a Form when the sulfate ion SO4 bonds with metals CaSO4H20 Gypsum 7 Carbonates a Carbonate ion C02 bonds with metals CaCo3 Calcite N


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