HIST 1010 Notes for test 2
HIST 1010 Notes for test 2 History 1010
Popular in World History 1
Popular in History
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Lecture 02.08.16 Axial Age “Axis” – wheel is turning on an axis. Everything revolved around this period AKA classical age Aristotle, Jesus, Moses, etc. What do the arrows on these maps represent? Expansion becoming larger and needing more space Migration Leaving one place and going somewhere else Diffusion ideas expanding outwards Diffusion Language spreading outwards Homo sapiens replaced Neanderthals People adopting new languages Language change More like a conversion (change in life) Not a conquest People communicating about their knowledge and info about their culture God, environment, etc. “Code” that lets you see patterns in their history to find out more info Models Tree model of language Language as people move out, spread out and then small differences in languages come about All from the same tree of language “mother” top of tree, New languages “branches” or daughters Wave Model of sound change Focused on how people change the sounds in their language People develop differences in the way they speak even w/o leaving their group Elite vs. commoner Different classes speak different, use speech to signify different classes Indo European 445 languages Niger Congo 1525 languages Austronesian 1257 languages (Polynesian 1237 of those) Austronesian Origin: Island of Hermosa (Taiwan, off coast of china) 1 Branch went southward into the sea Polynesians went further into the sea Similar grammar, vocabulary, pottery (la pita), similar resource base 1000 years ago to settle the island Developed river canoes Could fit up to 100 people Traditions of navigation Oral traditions (chants) Salt content (to figure out where in the ocean they were) Reed maps (mapped the islands and ocean currents) Stars (look at the stars to see where they were) How do you settle a sea? Settle the islands that you can SEE first and use its resources Go further to find new islands to sustain more people Send leaders/brave heroes Speech communities develop different ways of speaking Austronesian is very tree like Very distinct separate branches Bantu Cameroon 3000 bce move from there to rainforest Cultivate yams using horticulture Trees fall down, they use it for farming. Follow Congo River to sustain themselves 1400 CE develop iron Can now cut down trees themselves Couple more years then reach the Savannas of Africa Meet people who teach them to farm grain Now they spread VERY quickly to grow the grain Come up with different ways to speak Distinguishes them by being different How do you settle a rain forest? Arrived on a river Moved into a natural clearing Population gets bigger, move to other clearing Eventually exhaust the soil from slash and burn Once all the natural clearings are gone, they have to go further to find new clearings They don’t organize a state. It’s just a large district Once it’s filled up, some people must leave Indo Europeans Domesticated horses First developed chariots etc. Rig Veda Hinduism Originated in the Steppe Organized into chiefdoms Smaller then states Gives tribute to the chief he gives it amongst the people Arranged lineages Mixed farmers moving into new areas. Bringing their lifestyle into these new areas Happens during the Assyrian Empire etc. Moved where people already had established states Mesoamerica Indonesian runs into people Bantu runs into smaller tribe like people Austronesian runs into no one Lecture 2.10.16 Last lecture overview: Semitic languages are missing that were settled in southwest Asia East Asia are missing as well Tree model helps us see how people changed and moved over time Wave model helps us see how people communicated through trade etc. Classical Religions and Philosophies Ideology: the way people use ideas to explain the world around them Focuses on religious aspects of axial age Sages: a wise person used to include both philosophers and religious leaders Time frames are being gradually condensed Cosmology: the order of life, the universe, and everything Epicurus Impotent: without power Malevolent: full of malice or hate Is God willing to prevent evil? concept from Epicurus A question many of these religions are struggling to answer Definitions Philosophies are ways to explain things Out of body experiences are common Religion says there is something beyond me that my senses can’t obtain Atheisms Animism: all matter is pervaded by spirit Spirit has no personality or intelligence, everyone is just connected Agnosticism : God might exist Can’t prove or disprove either side Atheism: God doesn’t exist Nothing but what you can see Secularism: separation of religion from politics Treat human institutions as if God has no effect on them Skepticism: cannot trust reason or our senses or anything, so why would we trust “extrasensory” experiences “Skeptics” question everything. To include just regular senses Historicism: history is created by humans only Theistic Religions Pantheism: nature populated by spirits and gods Polytheism: worship of many gods Ex. Niger Congo Henotheism: worship of one god among many Ex. Afrasaans or Judaism Monotheism: belief of only one God exists Can think of it in two ways 1 singular God Many Gods, but each one is only a manifestation from the ONE main God. The African Classical Age Afrasaans Believe that there are many spirits But only pay homage to one God Ex. Early Judaism in early Babylon Mainly clan priests NigerCongo 3 levels Supreme God; no relationship bc he is too far from human experience Territorial spirits: have taken over a piece of landscape etc. also provide healing Ancestral relationship : personal relationship with you, if you don’t listen to them they will ruin your life Khoisan: southern Africa No specific god they are focused on Animism Zoroastrianism: First monotheistic faith Founded by Zoroaster Modern day Iran and old Assyrian empire Believed the world formed between dualistic competition Gave order two things: female and male called Ahura Mazda (order) Ahriman (Chaos) Avesta: holy texts written by Zoroaster Focused on humans being held accountable for their own actions Developed the idea Uncreated Creator When people die some people go to a good place, others do not. Reviving of the dead at the End of the World Judaism Religions that formed in the land of Canaan (Israel) Land of Phoenicia Were pastoral people but then formed their own society Formed special bond with Yahweh and he became jealous so became the sole god Divine laws given through covenant with God Moses is a huge prophet, but tradition stretches back to Abraham People didn’t really want people to join No missionary like thing. Basically have to marry in. Christianity Branch of Judaism Founded by Jesus Claimed to be a messiah prophesied by Jewish prophets Claimed to be the son of God Wrote the Bible written by Jesus and his apostles Became most diffused religion spreading quickly India Indo Europeans came into south Asia Harappa Civilization was falling apart Vedic religions: plural because there were many Polytheistic: focused on Indra god of fire Rig Veda: hymns of worship Came up with reincarnation West Africa a caste is an occupational group (vertical) Castes then become horizontally constructed in India Priests are at the top Brahmanism (in India) Priests control society Want to understand Brahman “ultimate reality” Wrote down laws Included regulations that prevented people from leaving their caste Leads to people being PISSED Reactions to Brahmanism Jainism: confined to south Asia Most influential: mahavira Reaction to the materialism of the Brahman class 5 principles everyone should abide by Nonviolence (even against some plants) Ahimsa Reject lying Satya Not stealing Asteya No sex and body desires Brahmacharya Shouldn’t own anything Aparigrapha All life is sacred Accumulating wealth means you will suffer. People are very envious of others Aestheticism: refusal to take part in like pleasures India Reactions Buddhism: Gautama Siddhartha Moves through trade routes They reject the idea of caste systems Can break it down into 3 jewels Buddha Dharma (his teachings) Sangha (his monks and followers) Understand and know how to get rid of suffering Four noble truths The nature of suffering Its origin Its cessation Way of leading to cessation WHY THEY ARE SUFFERING?? Eightfold path HOW TO LIVE WITHOUT SUFFERING China ideologies are philosophies not religions Confucianism: filial piety (basically agnostic) Piety; if you read your scriptures every day, go to church weekly THIS piety is focusing on relationship, Emperor and subject, husband and wife, lder brother younger brother. Etc. Hierarchy is good until people abuse it. Focused on secular matters Were influenced by how they lived Everyone was basically emperor for a day until they all died. Daoism: Laozi There is a Dao AKA way that avoids conflict Take cues from nature Ex. River is best when it follows the mountain instead of going through the rocks Make basic observations of nature Disengage from political structures Legalism Han Feizi Order for the sake of order If your rulers are right it doesn’t matter, because you just need to listen to them Mozi and Xunzi Argued for universal love and progress and freedom Greek rationalism Settled in city states and are all fighting over things now Fighting over republics, government, etc. Competition for best way to organize society Emergence of philosophers to explain the world 3 people come forth Socrates ; teacher of Plato; teacher of Aristotle Socrates Always questioning tradition Is this how this really works? Also tries to apply these to the human body Plato Foundation for western philosophy Pure forms or ideals that create everything else Aristotle Everything is a part of a piece of the whole Hippocrates Understanding disease via observation/diagnosis Skeptics Our senses suck at explaining our life Think of splitting a race into perpetual halves Our rationalizations are not always accurate Conflict Organized eventually into schools of thought Sophists emphasis on rhetoric and circular reasoning defend any position Stoicism: nature is the answer to everything. Humans are evil. Just accept misfortune but seek the good in the life Schools spread through the Mediterranean Sea Similar conclusions of the sages Sages are everywhere but develop similar ideas Creation came from nothing Monotheism/divine unity Originally one being that started the world Power of observation Can look around the world and try to understand it Limit… you can’t understand everything Limit of perception and reason Salvation/immortality/perfection SAGES DIDN’T WRITE THINGS DOWN 02.12.16 Greek philosophies Athens, Greece = city states Competing in war/to attract people to their cities Philosophy big deal in Athens Philosophers Plato Aristotle: breaking the world apart into little pieces to understand the whole thing Histocrates: systematize observation As different philosophers develop ideas they develop schools of thought NOT A UNIVERSITY Took skepticism into account (senses are limited) Sophists focused on rhetoric, language is malleable and you can defend it Stoics: nature is morally neutral. Ex. Earthquake happens just pick up and keep going on with life Started to expand schools of thought to other city states. Eastern half of Mediterranean Italy and North Africa Italians are going to really embrace Greek philosophy and incorporate it into their life Chinese philosophers etc. have similar conclusions about reality Philosophies weren’t atheists they were more secular because they focused on people Everywhere in the axial age people are trying to answer those weird questions ONE THING MUST HAVE STARTED IT ALL Monotheism is developed across the board. All communities have decided that this one god loves humans They want to help in some sort of way Power of observation and quantification very insightful answers Limit to what you can see or read These religions can provide salvation, immortality, etc. Why do all the philosophies diffuse now? Economic wealth, people can dedicate their wealth Social problems Brahmans are abusing their power, the sages are providing solutions to these problems. (China, southwest Asia, and India) they developed writing so we go back to them Ideological diffusion in china Ideas are continuing to be passed down through the ages Politics of Conquest Ideologies of coercion and collaboration The states that diffuse these ideas through conquest Stemming from those weird life questions Persian Empire In Iran Cyrus the great Set up military government Tried to create a bureaucracy (built roads had messengers) Roman Empire Mountainous regions of central Italy Only resource is basically warriors trying to kill one another Mauryan Empire River region Ganges Empire Qin Empire 20 years chi quan di Mountainous infertile region Political transitions No blueprint to follow Had to form their own efficient empire Persia was a province then became a very centralized empire Rome started off in the tribes Monarch was raping peoples daughters so they overthrew him They had consuls and a senate. The senate set the rules that the consuls had to follow This forms the republic of Rome Roman emperor says it’s my thing until I die. It’s not just a term in office Asoka moved from warlord monarchy Converted to Buddhism and became a pacifist theocracy Government ruled by religious leaders China Qin absolute despotism Unites the empires in china After he dies they kill his son Divided china up into military provinces Example. How did Rome’s expansion work? They compete with other city states in Italy Axial age empires buy off their subjects Treat the subjects well Jews build their own temples Great Wall of China to protect themselves Rome lets people live how they want to live Everyone becomes roman in Rome. They become federates Paid allegiance to Rome If you were conquered you could become a federate or a slave Rome becomes the first slave society where the majority of economy revolves around slave Sharing roman culture by Greeks speaking Greek People are paying their taxes and letting them enjoy their local culture Asoka’s piety Genuine conversion to Buddhism Visited the site where Buddha was and became inspired Enforced pacifism on his people just wants them to be vitreous Avoid certain religious practices and force people to leave their life of religion behind Military soldiers still want to conquer people 02.15.2016 Frontiers on Land and Sea Review of conquest: Axial age empires embraced ideologies to solve problems to integrate people into one empire Worked on infrastructure to help move the military more efficiently Roads and communication was promoted along the road to diffuse their life Before Christianity Rome was organized by the republicanism Cult of Jupiter is the way the people joined the republic (similar to oath to US when moving here) Infrastructures helped them to enhance commerce to circulate the goods along long distances Able to do this through the large states Major trade routes Eurasian Silk roads Because silk became the most valuable product Went all the way across central Eurasia China Parthia Monsoon winds of the Indian Ocean Need protection money from the raiders Silk Roads China tries to generate commerce by expanding its territory Key city: dun huang Western most outpost Located along the silk routes to help protect merchants Desert scouts they have to hire to get through the desert Advantage: On the silk roads they can leave and come whenever they want Disadvantage: They need protection and empires are charging merchants to go through their land Indian Ocean Monsoon winds (trade winds) Seasonal (6 months out of the year counterclockwise) Other 6 months they go clockwise When they go counter, they can go Asia to African ports very quickly. But then you are stuck there for months These states because they are limited by the monsoon winds, cannot regulate trade Silk roads have tariffs and taxes On the ocean if someone doesn’t want to pay a tariff they just go to the next one Pirates are another problem that emerges because the states can’t control them BIG DIFFERENCE: can control it on land, but can’t control the sea They depend on the wind. They cannot travel against the wind Differences Commerce during the axial age focuses on luxury goods Gems, silk, spices etc. Ships have an advantage bc the wind is pushing the heavy ship Can bring lots of stuff Land routes focuses on the small luxury goods that are light China wants silver and gold and it becomes the currency Rome is going to be collecting all the silver and gold and sending it to china 02.17.2016 Alternatives to empires Need to figure out new ways to organize society Christianity outlives the roman state Axial age Eurasia Rome 300 Bce – 476 Ce Persia 550 Bce – 334 Bce Parthia 272 Bce 244 Ce Mauryan Empire 268 220 BCE Gupta Empire 240 550 CE Win 221 207 BCE Han China 206 BCE 220 CE What came after the axial age? Post imperial Gupta Empire and stuff don’t really go anywhere so not logical Early medieval Medieval meaning middle (meaning Middle Ages) focused on Europe doesn’t really apply to the other areas Evangelization era Missionaries and saints are spreading their religions and spreading multitude of religions but this leaves out the Americas Islamic age Really focuses on Islamic world so it leaves everybody Dark ages Post classical area People looked back at what people did in the axial age Looked back on empires and said we should be like that 3001000 CE is the post classical area Axial age empires Focused on landed empires Ones close to each other Limited to being mobile on the seas/oceans Land transport is much more flexible They need more land and want to control more land to fund armies and economy Are engaging in commerce but it isn’t the primary focus REALLY focused on military conquer land, take over peasants and take the luxuries Couldn’t control trade Didn’t develop many projectile weapons besides bows and arrows Thus no sea trade bc they only had arrows Can control a port but if people don’t like it they leave Limits of Landed empires (challenges) Overextension Focused on military so it needs to be able to reach anywhere in the empire ASAP The further away you go the more complex you need to make your roads etc. Continuity Problem is succession. How do you choose new leaders? Diversity Why did Persia fall? Structural factors Different leaders of different regions Satraps Made laws, however there was competition among the satraps Weak promotion of state ideology People should live how they want to Persians said we believe in Zoroastrianism but you don’t have to So they aren’t one unified group People are expanding the population Continuous expansion needed to sustain the military Roman Decline and collapse Had a huge size but there were tons of land that was really vulnerable Lots of tribes and chiefdoms living on this side of the border If you kill the elite of one chiefdom you have to go kill the next one Hostile relationship with Parthian and Sasanian empires Having expensive battles on both sides (north, and east) Militarization of society Romans have to dedicate 16 years of their life to the Roman Empire military Julius Caesar knew people wanted to kill him so he just brought the military with him into Rome Augustus decided it was too expensive to continue conquering people so they stopped expanding Rhine river border of the empire Diversity Most people were roman citizens People who were conquered just became slaves There is also subjects Among the citizens we have rulers and peasants Affects women and poor people who don’t have the ability to move up in the ranks Constantine makes Christianity the religion of the Roman Empire Major problem: how to integrate migrants Starts in eastern Asia on northern border of Han china Pastoralists and tillers have different efficiencies of energy Tillers can create more people over time as opposed to pastoralist What we see is that the pastoralists have mastered their environment and can manipulate it They become much more populated They start expanding and pushing people out of the steppe lands they run into everybody The Huns: group of pastoralists on horses and went across the land and tried to attack Germanic tribes and Rome Rome bribes them and they leave Germanic tribes now want into the borders of Rome Visigoths, AngloSaxons, Ostrogoth’s, Burgundians, franks, and vandals try to come in Everyone is pushed by war hunger plague and cold Instead of fighting German warlords, they pay them to take care of them from the migrants In 376 they let in 200,000 Visigoths into their borders. But then they left them to starve. They had no sort of status and start to cause problems Then in 410 they sack Rome Germanic tribes are gaining the trust of people because they are defending people Rome Brings everyone in and then moves its capital to Constantinople 323 CE Eastern Rome becomes Byzantium But they want the whole empire back Justinian reasserts Roman authority gets the allegiance of everyone back Persuades people to follow him Takes back lots of Rome until his reign ends Difference in east and west Mediterranean West they spoke Latin East they spoke Greek because of (Alex the great) Romans never forced anyone to change Rome’s legacy Laws, Christianity, war strategies Imperial China Strengths Roughly circular empire very developed roads and canal system so they can move Affective and assimilate pastoralist warriors they learn Chinese and become farmers Strong internal economy (two river systems) add other regions, lots of exchange Lots of luxury goods coming in No empires to compete with Weaknesses Succession is weird Guy picks his favorite wife, and then they pick a kid to be next leader This is Harem politics Feuding imperial factions/reliance on eunuchs Eunuch is a man who is castrated Eunuchs have resentment to government and warlords bc the government really isn’t doing anything Aristocrats own everything and are pissed because they don’t get enough credit Collapse of Han Dynasty Succession crisis leads to civil war among the various factions Results in a warring states period Divided society into 21 social statuses Problem of diversity Discontent expression in rebellions by Daoist’s They aren’t violent or involved in politics so it had to be pretty bad for them to be involved Merchants are a parasite on society to them. So they can’t help either Still in line with warring states because no one can bring back an empire Sui recovery Bring Buddhist religion into the system Yangdi Reinstates Confucianism Overextended military Try’s to expend borders into Korea and doesn’t work at all and tries to eliminate political rivals Tang Consolidation Taizhong most effective reformer 02.19.2016 Catalysts for conversion Review 3 challenges the empires faced as they tried to expand their territory Teotihuacan: central Mexico (highlands) Once people abandoned one area they went there There wasn’t a lot of natural resources So they took it from others and demanded tribute from the people Some places were conquered (Northern Mexico) Doing things similarly to Rome and China, militarization Overextending themselves Succession Problems Start building walls around the major city (shows division among all the groups) Many ideologies they used were adopted by the Mayans Look at how the elites run the states People are making decisions on how they think they should run the states Buddhist expansions Adopt it half heartedly It never becomes the state religion Korea and Japan do adopt it as state religion Christianity It’s a useful ideology for helping the King show he is a servant of God on earth Can displace the local priests and focus on this ONE God This allows the state rulers to ally with other Christian states Helps strengthen relationships with Rome Islam Exception to the rule Why didn’t they accept Christianity? Japan Inspired by Chinese language and writing Developed their own characters and gave them their own meaning Gets this through Korea (lots of influence from China) Accepts Confucianism except for the King is also divine Shinto: local pantheist religion Buddhism gets mixed in too. Ethiopia North east Africa Capital: Axum Built a port called adulis Allows them to expand their influence across and into the ocean Axum is an agricultural state When they adopted Christianity the king gets to be more special Trade starts to dry up when the King dies They have to retreat back and focus on themselves internally After they convert to Christianity they focus on building churches Helps assert the Kings authority Muslims ARE THE EXCEPTION Mohammed founded Islam from Arabia Arabs were spread of everything but mostly polytheistic Muhammed went into the dessert and accepted the idea of monotheistic God Rejected the polytheistic ideas Also rejected the concepts of Jesus and the Jews Ideas Also rejects EMPRIE. They are not a secular state separated from the God Caliphates have a union of religious authorities Modifying religions to themselves Civilization Islamic: Umma Christianity: Christendom Buddhists: (no word, but idea that there is one thing they are striving towards) Where are these religions? Islamic world is in the middle Christianity on the west Buddhism on the east Core beliefs Buddhism Gautama Siddhartha He achieved enlightenment and you can too You have to follow his teachings though Attach yourself to a leader Christianity Son of God is the leader and Savior of the world Jesus is important There is no path you can take without him there Islam No god but Allah Mohammed is his prophet Cause of Suffering Buddhism Suffering is caused by desire Leave behind desires and you won’t suffer Christianity Sin: Disobedience to God Or it’s a natural consequence of being a human But you should strive to be more like god Muslims Disobedience to God Submission to God = Islam Sacred Texts Buddhism The triptaka: various Sutras Most famous Lotus sutras Christianity The Bible Old and new testaments Islam Quran Realizations of prophet Mohamed he received through an angel Also think the bible is a sacred text but Christians have corrupted it Basic practices Buddhists 8 fold path that leads them away from desires Meditation etc. Attach yourself to a spiritual leader Christianity Baptism: how you become a Christian Communion: how you reinforce it Islam 5 pillars or major practices Must say that there is no God but Allah and boom you are a Muslim Shahada (witness) salat (communal prayer) zakat (alms) sawm (fasting) hajj (pilgrimage) Clergy Buddhism Sangha Monks Christianity Priests Monks: not a part of society Islam No formal clergy Imam – prayer leader Alim (sg) ulama (plural) – scholars of the religious practices Major traditions in Buddhism Theravada Originally Indian Idea borrowing from India thinks about reincarnation Want to be enlightened and reach nirvana Mahayana Can become enlightened in a lifetime if you have a good leader Aim is to become enlightened so that you can help others Korea was juggling multiple religions They are trying to figure out how to make it work for themselves and their traditions Buddhism is for regulating yourself Confucianism is for regulating the state Is this Syncretism? – blending or synchronizing of beliefs of practices of 2 religions NO ITS NOT. Confucianism is not a religion, and they are considering them 2 separate ideas Christianity Started in Rome Jesus of Nazareth He gets crucified His apostles start traveling and converting people First was really lowly people slaves etc. Becomes some higher up people Constantine As he is approaching this battle he sees a vision of a cross He worshipped the Christian God as the “host” lord of armies He then funneled money to Christians Had a high profile member of their society Roman emperor makes it the religion in 395 CE Start to construct monasteries Explain the discrepancies using roman and Greek philosophies Traditions Catholic (western) Orthodox (eastern) They have disagreements about what they believe How does the trinity connect each other? What was Christ like while he was on Earth? Catholics Holy Ghost comes from Father and the Son Orthodox Son and Holy Ghost come from the FATHER Nestorians When Christ came to earth he left his divinity in heaven Coptic’s/monohysites He was fully god when he was here on earth Origins of Islam Divide themselves differently Mohammed saw a vision from angel Gabriel and was told to recite the words Then started to share the words and formed a community They were persecuted for these teachings He took a hijra to medina To mediate this situation Persecution from Mecca resumes and then they reach a struggle Major traditions was over who should succeed the prophet Mohammed Kharaji Said caliph should be the most righteous Would say people weren’t Muslim and would kill them if they didn’t believe this Sunni Caliph should be chosen by consensus The greatest majority should help decide Only the influential tribe leaders Shi’a Caliph should be a righteous descendant of Mohammad’s lineage Ali Sufi Mystical esoteric schools in Islam Found in all three branches Focused on people forming a relationship with god 02.22.16 Catalysts for Conversion Review Islam is not focused on doctrine or enlightenment Focused on who is the rightful successor to Mohammad’s Mohammad is the LAST prophet Instead a caliph will arise Muslim World map How do these world religions expand or diffuse so quickly? Hinduism didn’t really leave Asia Bantu didn’t leave Africa Native American religions stayed with them THEY WERE MORE FLEXIBLE Willing to reinterpret the local gods for the new religion Christianity Adopted the local territorial gods as saints of the church Can be seen through the catholic or orthodox churches A saint is someone who has dedicated their life to god Buddhists Come to a new place and a great historical or religious figure, then is a Buddha They reached enlightenment and then died Seen as a channel where you can access God So praying to a saint helps god answer your prayers Muslim “Jinn” AKA a genie One of the kind of beings God created Beings of fire. They pervade the natural world The jinn are also worshipping Allah Muslims cannot pray through a jinn Hajj to Mecca In the middle of Mecca there is a big black building It used to be a shrine to lots of gods But he reinterpreted it as Abraham made it for their sole God The throw stones against the pillar (it represents Satan) These traditions predated Islam They also reinterpret sacred places Makes people they conquer more comfortable Why are they successful Jewish god was a god FOR JUST the Jews Interested in them and wanted to help them Jews weren’t really concerned with him in the rest of the world Christianity started preaching to NON JEWS You don’t have to adopt our religion and develop different skills Appeals to ALL people Anyone can join Islam starts as religion of Arabs Originally Arabs aren’t really happy, but then welcome the new ethnic groups Sponsorship of powerful elites Sacred texts Important for these religions, holds them together Limits the debates and conversations people can have about the religion Had an uncompromising attitude to the other religions Claim special access to Gods truth You have to discard your old beliefs and adopt these new ones NEW SECTION!!! Caliphates and Kingdoms in a fractured continent Regional religions are occupying more than the empires did Once powerful people are interested in the religion They start funneling money into them Setting up new education institutions They want more bishops, etc. There’s an effect where people see the people that are successful are in a religion Therefore you should join the religion too Issues in china China is still dedicated to Confucianism People that work for the state are confucists Buddhists are separate from confucists Buddhists provide political legitimacy but never get to run the state Patronage is what sets all of this in motion Once a ruler converts it prompts everyone else to convert People can interpret these religions differently in one area War Islamic empire Jihad: war as religious duty Go to attack the sussianans (want to expand) These organizations are weaker Charlemagne’s Conquering most of Europe Trying to bring Christianity to Europe Uses this as an excuse to conquer and attack places for political conquest Making a larger empire Caliphates of Islam The first caliphs are regarded as the Rashidun “Rightly guided caliphates” They have the best in mind 632634 CE Abu Bakr 634 – 644 CE Umar 644 – 656 ‘Uthman After ‘Uthman is killed we run into problems Appointed relatives to positions Muawiya governor of Syria was worried he would lose his position Didn’t see it as him starting a civil war Starts a crisis of succession 656 662 CE Ali Muslim war of succession Kharaj desert Ali after he agrees to armistice with Muawiya Take it as a sign of a lack of faithfulness He should just go to battle God will take care of it Kharakite assassinates Ali while he prays Ali’s son now take over Fight Muawiya and lose the battle and die Ummayyads Consolidate their rule but still have expanded into Spain and Persia Arabs are the best, everyone else should be subservient to us Arab Muslims have more privileges the nonarab Muslims They are hardly literate and can’t really run anything Depend on the Zoroastrians They need them to run the government (write laws, collect taxes, etc.) But there is a barrier, you can’t be a Persian and have an influential position Abbasid Caliphate Emerges in 750 750 940 CE Ally with the Persians Conquer the Ummay caliphate Legitimate their rule by saying they are related to Mohammed’s clan Start to ease restrictions on the nonArabs More fluidity and ability to rise in society Ummayyads stay in Spain because everywhere else gets taken from them Fatimid Caliphate Rule North Africa 9001200 CE Begin as Shi’a state conquered Egypt in 969 CE Rely on Berber support for their military Constantly competing with the Abbasids Almoravids 10401147 The “moors” Come from the Western Sahara desert Focus on teachings of their Sufi saints Don’t fight with your clans, trust in the religion and society Conquer everything and unites everything as a state Berbers Eventually move northward into morocco and into Spain Islamic patronage Split into lots of caliphates After 940 the caliph loses all of his political authority Turks come in and invade and set up lots of independent states Creates a state system But all have a marginal allegiance to the basic caliph People come to him for blessings But he has no control over anything Origins of Europe Germanic tribes took over various elites and people paid them to protect them Eventually gained political control of all these areas 751 CE the French area is very small But Charlemagne expands it outwards to the right Unites all the areas into one big area Bulgars Russians and Bulgars are most crucial The steppe landers didn’t have a chance to take Europe bc of the bulgars Christendom Military expansion into new areas Britain, Spain, Eastern Europe Charlemagne Reigned from 800814 Got his kingdom from his father Lots of different states competing for Italy The pope was the religious leader of Italy (obviously) Crowned him (Charlemagne) the emperor of Rome Then becomes HOLY Roman Empire His grandsons divided the kingdom France, Germany, kingdom in between Otto claims title of Holy Roman Empire And gets it to transfer to his successors Smaller kingdoms France Phillip II Augustus “unifies” France England Wales, Scotland Lots of people fighting about to find the new leader 02.24.16 Contiunning last lecture Expansion of states Caliphates Empires Made islam more popular European states Charlemagne Frankish kings (Germanic tribes) Father and grandfather had been expanding it eastward Appoints Pope Leo III shows he supports Christianity Starts Holy Roman empire Didn’t set up a successful succession Grandsons split up his kingdom France, and other 2 become holy roman empire in Germany basically Acquires Italy through a marriage Over different territories that aren’t connected Kind of weird Smaller Kingdoms Different language groups settling in England etc. All orignigaly settled by the kelts Anglo Saxons are there Normans invade and take over the area Reconquest of spain Between christianis and elmoradiva caliphate in spain Seen as enemies of islam Final wave Bulgars and rus people Rus eventually become Russians Defense of Europe against steppe landers Europe due to its competition with steppe landers feels undersiege Western Europe People are noticing they are a part of larger society Trade Help diffuse this religious identity Buddhism uses the silk roads very effectively Islam moving across the sahara desert Muslims of north Africa are trading with jennejeno Theres also Ghana on the edge of the desert Ghana is a set up as a trading post/helpful site Islam is going through the indian ocean via the monsoon winds If everyone belongs to the same religion, more likely to trade etc. Indian ocean is greater then an Islamic sea Islamic world Abbasid caliphate is encouraging them to go get things and bring them back to where they are Not ony common laws, but there is a single Islamic Umma Umma: community Creates a much larger market Europe Trading is not very efficient They don’t try to convert people Commonalities Caliphates and kingdoms Caliphates are a part of the umma Kingdoms have the Christendom Have a major religious leader Starts to lose control of the states around 4001200 CE As these kings are doing more things in Europe They seek permission to do things and start war from the Pope Viewed as an umpire Internal colonization As they compete they are fairly evenly matched Limited in the expansion they can do Start building resources based off of what they already have Go to the forests mountains etc and try to reuse them Misionary acticity and monoasticism Asceticism > monoasticism Ascetism: tons of fasting, no sex, stay up all night reading scriptures Stay in a community together to hold each other accountable How did Monoasticism promote Christianity in islam Try to distinguish themselves Focused on servicing the people Monks want to serve outside of community Eventaually shift to help people of the church Cistercian onastery is in the wastelands of Spain Making them productive But uhoh peasants are following Creates alliances between kings and religious orders In sum As people start to trasnstion from empires to state They strengthen the relationship with world religions More effective in trade Slide Definitions Covered in the exam: Dun huang video Chapters 59 Al lectures 2 weird canvas readings Primary sources are fine to read just off of tophat
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